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Moroccan Counter-terrorism Policy: Case of Moroccan Female Migrants to ISIS

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 October 2018

Bahija Jamal*
Affiliation:
Public Law Department, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco
*
*Corresponding Author: Bahija Jamal, Public Law Department, Hassan II University, Aïn Chock, Casablanca, Morocco. E-mail: jbahija@gmail.com
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Abstract

In this paper, Moroccan female migration to the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is explored within the overall framework of Moroccan counter-terrorism policy. According to available data, Moroccans are considered as one of the main suppliers of fighters to ISIS. However, as it will be highlighted in this research, there is a scarcity of data related to Moroccan female migration to ISIS, to their sociodemographic profile, methods of their recruitment and programs of their reintegration once they come back home. This article focuses on Moroccan counter-terrorism policy and analyzes the extent to which it provides an exemplary precedent in effectively fighting terrorism. This policy includes, as will be examined, repressive and “soft” counter-radicalization and de-mobilization measures.

Abstracto

En este documento, se explora la migración femenina marroquí hacia el Estado Islámico en Irak y Siria (ISIS) dentro del marco general de la política marroquí contra el terrorismo. Según los datos disponibles, los marroquíes se consideran como uno de los principales proveedores de combatientes del ISIS. Sin embargo, como se destacará en esta investigación, hay una escasez en los datos relacionados con la migración de mujeres marroquíes al ISIS, su perfil sociodemográfico, los métodos de su reclutamiento y los programas de su reintegración una vez que vuelven a casa. Este artículo se centra en la política marroquí contra el terrorismo. y analiza hasta qué punto proporciona un precedente ejemplar en la lucha efectiva contra el terrorismo. Esta política incluye, como se examinará, medidas represivas y "blandas" de contra-radicalización y desmovilización.

Abstrait

Dans cet article, la migration des femmes marocaines vers l'État islamique en Irak et en Syrie (ISIS) est explorée dans le cadre général de la politique antiterroriste marocaine. Selon les données disponibles, les Marocains sont considérés comme l'un des principaux fournisseurs de combattants à ISIS. Cependant, comme cela sera mis en évidence dans cette recherche, il y a une pénurie de données relatives à la migration des femmes marocaines vers ISIS, à leur profil sociodémographique, leurs méthodes de recrutement et les programmes de leur réintégration à leur retour. Cet article se concentre sur la politique antiterroriste marocaine. et analyse dans quelle mesure il constitue un précédent exemplaire dans la lutte efficace contre le terrorisme. Cette politique comprend, comme on le verra, des mesures répressives et «douces» de contre-radicalisation et de démobilisation.

摘要

在本文中,在摩洛哥反恐政策的整体框架内探讨了摩洛哥女性向伊斯兰国的移民现象。根据现有数据,摩洛哥人是伊斯兰国圣战分子的主要成员之一。然而,正如本研究报告中所强调,摩洛哥女性向伊斯兰国移民的数据、其社会人口统计资料、招募方法以及他们回国后重新融入社会的计划比较缺乏。本文侧重于摩洛哥反恐政策,并分析它在多大程度上提供了有效打击恐怖主义的示范先例。这些政策包括即将考察的压制性和“软性”的反激进化和解除动员措施。

لملخّص

تعالج هذه المقالة هجرة النساء المغربيات إلى الدولة الإسلامية في العراق وسوريا (داعش) ضمن الإطار الشامل للسياسة المغربية لمكافحة الإرهاب. وفقاً للبيانات المتاحة، يُعتبر المغاربة أحد الموردين الرئيسيّين للمقاتلين لداعش. ومع ذلك، كما سيتّضح فيما يلي، هناك ندرة في البيانات المتعلقة بهجرة المغربيّات إلى داعش، ووضعهنّ الاجتماعيّ والديموغرافيّ، وأساليب توظيفهنّ، وبرامج إعادة إدماجهنّ بمجرد عودتهنّ إلى ديارهنّ. كما تركّز هذه المقالة على السياسة المغربيّة لمكافحة الإرهاب، وتحلّل مدى إمكانيّتها ان تصبح سابقة مثاليّة في مكافحة الإرهاب بفعاليّة. تشمل هذه السياسة، كما سيتم ملاحظته، تدابير قمعيّة مضادّة للتطرّف وإلغاء التعبئة.

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Article
Copyright
© 2018 International Society of Criminology 

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