Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55b6f6c457-xdj6x Total loading time: 0.184 Render date: 2021-09-23T13:17:34.376Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Mobilization of Women to Terrorism: Tools and Methods of ISIS

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 September 2018

Marina Shorer*
Affiliation:
IDmap Institute, Israel
*
*Corresponding Author: Marina Shorer, IDmap Institute, Ha-Emdot 35, Gibton, Israel, 76910. E-mail: dr.shorer@idmap.org
Get access

Abstract

As of the beginning of 2016, out of 100,000 “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” (ISIS) fighters in Iraq, Syria, Sinai and North African Countries, one-third were foreign-born fighters from European and Asian countries (AFP Tunis 2013). Although most of the men came alone, seduced by advertised sexual adventures, the official guiding rule by the ISIS Caliphate was to establish true marriage with real Muslim brides (Milton and Dodwell 2018). The Western women were then addressed to come and help in administrative, teaching and nursing tasks while also instituting families with jihadi fighters. Estimations are that at least 450–500 Western women of different ages left their countries to join ISIS mujahedin. For these mobilization efforts, social networks were utilized to serve as means of communication, coordination and conversion of women’s minds. The skilled usage of different levels of social networking tools, combined with precise audience targeting, turned the efforts into powerful recruiting instruments for mobilization of women into terrorist activities. The ISIS strategy included careful selection of different scenarios and storyboards for different target audiences, thus maximizing the impact of the exposure to the message and mobilization.

Abstracto

A principios de 2016, de los 100.000 combatientes de ISIS en Irak, Siria, el Sinaí y los países del norte de África, un tercio eran combatientes nacidos en el extranjero de países europeos y asiáticos. Aunque la mayoría de los hombres venían solos, seducidos por las aventuras sexuales anunciadas, la regla de guía oficial del califato ISIS era para ellos establecer un verdadero matrimonio con verdaderas novias musulmanas. Luego se dirigió a las mujeres occidentales para ayudar en las tareas administrativas, docentes y de enfermería, y al mismo tiempo instituir familias con combatientes yihadistas. Las estimaciones indican que al menos 450-500 mujeres occidentales de diferentes edades abandonaron sus países para unirse al ISIS muyahidín.

Para estos esfuerzos de movilización, las redes sociales se utilizaron para servir como medios de comunicación, coordinación y conversión de las mentes de las mujeres. El uso experto de diferentes niveles de herramientas de redes sociales, combinado con una focalización precisa de la audiencia, convirtió los esfuerzos en poderosos instrumentos de reclutamiento para la movilización de las mujeres en actividades terroristas. La estrategia de ISIS incluyó una cuidadosa selección de diferentes escenarios y guiones gráficos para diferentes públicos, maximizando así el impacto de la exposición al mensaje y la movilización.

Abstrait

Au début de 2016, sur 100 000 combattants de l’EI en Irak, en Syrie, au Sinaï et dans les pays d’Afrique du Nord, un tiers étaient des combattants nés à l'étranger de pays européens et asiatiques. Bien que la plupart des hommes soient venus seuls, séduits par les aventures sexuelles annoncées, la règle directrice officielle du Caliphate ISIS était d'établir un véritable mariage avec de véritables épouses musulmanes. Les femmes occidentales ont ensuite été invitées à venir aider aux tâches administratives, d’enseignement et d’infirmerie tout en instituant des familles avec des combattants djihadistes. Les estimations sont qu’au moins 450-500 femmes occidentales d'âges différents ont quitté leur pays pour rejoindre ISIS Mujaheddin.

Pour ces efforts de mobilisation, les réseaux sociaux ont été utilisés pour servir de moyens de communication, de coordination et de conversion des esprits des femmes. L’utilisation habile de différents niveaux d’outils de réseautage social, combinée à un ciblage précis de l’audience, a transformé les efforts en de puissants instruments de recrutement pour la mobilisation des femmes dans les activités terroristes. La stratégie d’ISIS comprenait une sélection rigoureuse de différents scénarios pour des différents cibles publics, maximisant ainsi l’impact de l’exposition au message et de la mobilisation.

摘要:

截至2016年初,在伊拉克、叙利亚、西奈和北非国家的10万名伊斯兰国战斗人员中,三分之一是来自欧洲和亚洲国家的外国出生的好战者。尽管大多数人是被大肆宣扬的性冒险所吸引,然后只身来到这些地方,但伊斯兰国哈里发官方的指导性规则却是与真正的穆斯林新娘建立婚姻关系。西方女性来到这里,在行政、教育和护理方面给予帮助,同时还与圣战分子组建家庭。估计至少有450到500名不同年龄的西方女性离开他们的国家加入伊斯兰国圣战者团。

为了努力动员,社交网络被用作交流、协调和转变女性思想的手段。熟练使用不同级别的社交网络工具以及精确的受众定位,成为动员妇女参与恐怖主义活动的强大招募工具。 伊斯兰国的战略包括针对不同目标受众仔细选择不同的情景和故事情节,从而最大限度地发挥公开信息和动员的影响力。

الملخّص

100 ألفًا، ثلثهم من الأجانب من بلدان أوروبية واسيوية. وعلى الرغم من أنّ معظم المقاتلين الرّجال

المقاتلين الرّجال في أوائل عام 2016، بلغ عدد مقاتليّ داعش في العراق وسوريا وسيناء ودول شمال أفريقيا جاءوا بمفردهم، بعد أن أغرّتهم المغامرات الجنسيّة الشّائعة، كان لا بدّ لهؤلاء من إقامةِ زواجٍ حقيقيٍّ مع عرائسَ مسلماتٍ حقيقيّات، وذلك وفقًا للمبادئ التّوجيهيّة الّتي وضعتها خلافة داعش. علاوة على ذلك، تمّ توجيه النّساء الغربيّات للانضمام والمساعدة في مهامٍ إداريَّةٍ وتعليميّة وتمريضيّة، وبناءِ أسرٍ مع مقاتلي الجهاد. تشير التّقديرات إلى أنّ ما لا يقل عن 450-500 امرأة غربيّة من مختلف الأعمار تركت بلدانها للانضمام إلى مجاهدي داعش.

وبطبيعة الحال، اقتضت جهود التعبئة هذه استخدام الشّبكات الاجتماعيّة كوسيلة اتصال وتنسيق وتحويل لعقول النساء. كان للمهارة في استخدام مستويات مختلفة من أدوات الشبكات الاجتماعية، بالإضافة إلى الدّقة في استهداف الجمهور، أن حوّلت هذه الجهود إلى أدوات توظيف فعّالة لتجنيد المرأة في الأنشطة الإرهابيّة. تضمنت استراتيجيّة داعش اختيارًا دقيقًا لسيناريوهات مختلفة وقصصًا مصوّرةَ لمختلف شرائح الجمهور المستهدف، ما أدّى إلى تفعيل تأثير التعرض للرسالة والتعبئة.

Type
Article
Copyright
© 2018 International Society of Criminology 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

AFP, Tunis. 2013. “Tunisia Women Ministry to Fight ‘Sex Jihad’ Trips to Syria.” Al Arabiya English, September 21, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://english.alarabiya.net/en/variety/2013/09/21/Tunisia-women-ministry-to-fight-sex-jihad-trips-to-Syria.html).Google Scholar
Abdul-Alim, Jamaal. 2015. “ISIS ‘Manifesto’ Spells Out Role for Women.” The Atlantic, March 8, 2015. Retrieved August 15, 2018 (https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/03/isis-manifesto-spells-out-role-for-women/387049/).Google Scholar
Ap, Tiffany. 2015. “What ISIS Wants From Women.” CNN, November 20, 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (https://edition.cnn.com/2015/11/20/europe/isis-role-of-women/index.html).Google Scholar
Bloom, Mia. 2011. Bombshell: The Many Faces of Women Terrorists. London: C. Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Channel 4. 2015. “Channel 4 Investigation Uncovers the British Women Supporting ISIS.” Channel 4, November 22, 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.channel4.com/info/press/news/channel-4-investigation-uncovers-the-british-women-supporting-isis).Google Scholar
Charlton, Cory. 2014. “Teenage Girl Jihadists Hunted by Interpol Inspire First Copycats as Two More Austrian Children Try to Run Away to Syria to Join ISIS.” MailOnline, September 10, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2750637/Teenage-girl-jihadists-inspire-copycats-try-run-away-Syria-join-ISIS.html).Google Scholar
Chastain, Mary. 2014. “The Women of ISIS.” Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.breitbart.com/national-security/2014/09/06/the-women-in-isis/).Google Scholar
Connor, Jeffrey Flynn, Carol Rollie. 2015. “Report: Lone Wolf Terrorism.” Georgetown University, June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 13, 2018 (http://georgetownsecuritystudiesreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/NCITF-Final-Paper.pdf).Google Scholar
De Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko. 2017 . “Teenage Girl Leaves for ISIS, and Others Follow.” New York Times, December 21, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/25/world/from-studious-teenager-to-isis-recruiter.html?_r=0).Google Scholar
DeVries, Kelly. 2017. “A Woman as Leader of Men: Joan of Arc’s Military Career.” Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.medievalists.net/2017/12/woman-leader-men-joan-arcs-military-career/).Google Scholar
Fagge, Nick. 2015. “EXCLUSIVE: ISIS Leader al-Baghdadi Sanctioned a Woman to be Beheaded as a WEDDING PRESENT for Sadistic Female Sharia Judge.” MailOnline, July 27, 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3173264/ISIS-leader-al-Baghdadi-sanctioned-woman-beheaded-WEDDING-PRESENT-sadistic-female-Sharia-judge-Defector-reveals-horrors-corruption-inside-ISIS-feared-police.html).Google Scholar
Foreign Affairs Committee. 2018. “Subcommittee Hearing: Women’s Role in Countering Terrorism.” Retrieved June 9, 2018 (https://foreignaffairs.house.gov/hearing/subcommittee-hearing-womens-role-countering-terrorism/).Google Scholar
Hall, John. 2014. Revealed: How up to 60 Women Rule ISIS’s Capital by Fear. Merciless Jihadettes Order Executions, Punishment Lashings, and Manage Sex Slave Brothels. MailOnline, December 4, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2858819/Up-60-British-Jihadette-women-rule-ISIS-s-capital-fear.html).Google Scholar
Mazurana, Dyan, Van Leuven, Dallin Gordon, Rachel. 2015. “Gender Under A Black Flag: ISIL Recruitment.” Retrieved June 9, 2018 (https://sites.tufts.edu/reinventingpeace/2015/08/19/gender-under-a-black-flag-isil-recruitment/).Google Scholar
Merton, Robert K. 1950. “Patterns of Influence: A Study of Interpersonal Influence and Communications Behavior in a Local Community.” Pp. 180–219 in Communications Research, 1948–49, edited by Paul F. Lazarsfeld and Frank Stanton. New York: Harper & Brothers.Google Scholar
Milton, Daniel Dodwell, Brian. 2018. “Jihadi Brides? Examining a Female Guesthouse Registry from the Islamic State’s Caliphate – Combating Terrorism Center at West Point.” CTC Sentinel 11(5):16–22. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (https://ctc.usma.edu/jihadi-brides-examining-female-guesthouse-registry-islamic-states-caliphate/).Google Scholar
Pikulicka-Wilczewska, Agnieszka Davé, Bhavna. 2017. “The Complex Reality of Radicalisation in Central Asia.” New Eastern Europe, October 31, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://neweasterneurope.eu/2017/10/31/complex-reality-radicalisation-central-asia/).Google Scholar
Saltman, Erin M Smith, Melanie. 2015. “2.3 Female-Specific ISIS Propaganda: Warped Feminism.” Pp. 17–18 in ‘Till Martyrdom Do Us Part’: Gender and the ISIS Phenomenon, 2nd ed. Institute for Strategic Dialogue. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.isdglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Till_Martyrdom_Do_Us_Part_Gender_and_the_ISIS_Phenomenon.pdf).Google Scholar
Webb, Sam Rahman, Khaleda. 2014. “The Price of a Slave... as Determined by the Official ISIS Price List: Islamist Group Sets Prices for Yazidi and Christian Women – With Girls Under Nine Fetching the Highest Price.” MailOnline, November 4, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2018 (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2820603/The-price-slave-determined-official-ISIS-price-list-Islamist-group-sets-prices-Yazidi-Christian-women-girls-nine-fetching-highest-price.html).Google Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Mobilization of Women to Terrorism: Tools and Methods of ISIS
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Mobilization of Women to Terrorism: Tools and Methods of ISIS
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Mobilization of Women to Terrorism: Tools and Methods of ISIS
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *