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Facial Action Coding System Applied to Criminal Investigations: The Analysis of a Homicide Case in Southern Italy

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 April 2021

Igor Vaslav Vitale*
Affiliation:
Salvo d’Acquisto Road 31, 71122 Foggia, Italy
*Corresponding
*Corresponding Author: Igor Vaslav Vitale, Salvo d’Acquisto Road 31, 71122 Foggia, Italy. E-mail: dr.igorvitale@gmail.com
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Abstract

Recent criminal psychology research has raised critical questions about applying non-verbal communication methods for lie detection purposes in forensic settings. Research has shown low correlations between non-verbal communication and deception. However, non-verbal communication methods are still widely applied and suggested by police manuals. Results obtained by experimental and field research are biased by the following factors: (i) attention is given only to quantitative aspects of non-verbal behavior; (ii) there is a lack of research of qualitative aspects related to non-verbal behavior analysis; (iii) lack of connections between non-verbal indicators and verbal content; (iv) lack of attention on timing of non-verbal behavior; (v) most research is performed on psychology students in experimental contexts. This article proposes a new methodology for applying the Facial Action Coding System as investigative support and not as a lie detection method. The Facial Action Coding System will be introduced to integrate with verbal content analysis and a new framework to interpret non-verbal signs discussed. The aid of standardized non-verbal methods will be discussed through an in-depth psychological analysis of a case of homicide perpetrated in 2010 in Southern Italy by discussing a video analysis of the suspects’ statements.

Abstracto

Abstracto

Investigaciones recientes en psicología criminal plantearon preguntas críticas sobre la aplicación de métodos de comunicación no verbal con fines de detección de mentiras en entornos forenses. La investigación mostró bajas correlaciones entre la comunicación no verbal y el engaño. Sin embargo, los métodos de comunicación no verbal todavía se aplican y son sugeridos ampliamente en los manuales policiales. Los resultados obtenidos mediante investigaciones experimentales y de campo están sesgados por los siguientes factores: (i) se presta atención solo a los aspectos cuantitativos de la conducta no verbal; (ii) falta investigación de aspectos cualitativos relacionados con el análisis de la conducta no verbal; (iii) faltan conexiones entre los indicadores no verbales y el contenido verbal; (iv) falta atención al momento de la conducta no verbal; (v) la mayor parte de la investigación se realiza con estudiantes de psicología en contextos experimentales. Este artículo propone una nueva metodología para aplicar el Sistema de Codificación de Acción Facial como soporte investigativo y no como método de detección de mentiras. Se introducirá el Sistema de Codificación de Acción Facial para integrarlo con el análisis de contenido verbal y un nuevo marco para interpretar los signos no verbales discutidos. La ayuda de métodos no verbales estandarizados se discutirá a través de un análisis psicológico en profundidad de un caso de homicidio perpetrado en 2010 en el sur de Italia, discutiendo un análisis de video de las declaraciones de los sospechosos.

Abstrait

Abstrait

Des recherches récentes en psychologie criminelle ont soulevé des questions critiques sur l’application des méthodes de communication non verbale à des fins de détection de mensonges dans les milieux médico-légaux. La recherche a montré de faibles corrélations entre la communication non verbale et la tromperie. Cependant, les méthodes de communication non verbale sont encore largement appliquées et sont suggérées par les manuels de la police. Les résultats obtenus par des recherches expérimentales et sur le terrain sont biaisés par les facteurs suivants: (i) l’attention n’est accordée qu’aux aspects quantitatifs du comportement non verbal; (ii) il y a un manque de recherche sur les aspects qualitatifs liés à l’analyse non verbale du comportement; (iii) il y a un manque de liens entre les indicateurs non verbaux et le contenu verbal; (iv) il y a un manque d’attention sur le moment choisi pour le comportement non verbal; (v) la plupart des recherches sont effectuées sur des étudiants en psychologie dans des contextes expérimentaux. Cet article propose une nouvelle méthodologie pour appliquer le système de codage de l’action faciale comme support d’enquête et non comme méthode de détection du mensonge. Le système de codage de l’action faciale sera introduit pour intégrer l’analyse du contenu verbal et un nouveau cadre pour interpréter les signes non verbaux discutés. L’aide de méthodes non verbales standardisées sera discutée à travers une analyse psychologique approfondie d’un cas d’homicide perpétré en 2010 dans le sud de l’Italie en discutant d’une analyse vidéo des déclarations des suspects.

抽象的

抽象的

近期的犯罪心理学研究提出了有关非言语交流方法在法医环境中测谎的应用方面的重要问题。研究表明,非语言交流与欺骗之间的联系较弱。但是,非语言交流方法仍被警察手册广泛采用和建议。

通过实证和现场研究得出的结果受到以下因素的影响:(1)仅注意非语言行为的定量方面; (2)在与非语言行为分析有关的定性方面缺乏研究; (3)非语言指示和言语内容之间没有联系; (4)缺乏对非言语行为时机的关注; (5)大多数实验环境下的研究都是针对心理学专业的学生。

本文提出了一种新颖的方法,用于将面部程序编码系统用作调查支持而不是测谎方法。将引入面部动作编码系统,以与言语内容分析和用于解释所讨论的非言语提示的新框架相集成。通过对意大利南部2010年犯下的一起谋杀案进行深入的心理分析,并通过对嫌疑人陈述的视频分析进行讨论,将讨论标准非语言方法的帮助。

خلاصة

خلاصة

أثارت أبحاث علم النفس الإجرامي الحديثة أسئلة مهمة حول تطبيق أساليب الاتصال غير اللفظي لأغراض كشف الكذب في إعدادات الطب الشرعي. أظهرت الأبحاث ارتباطًا ضعيفًا بين التواصل غير اللفظي والخداع. ومع ذلك ، لا تزال طرق الاتصال غير اللفظية مطبقة على نطاق واسع وتقترحها كتيبات الشرطة.

النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها عن طريق البحث التجريبي والميداني متحيزة بالعوامل التالية: (1) يتم إيلاء الاهتمام فقط للجوانب الكمية للسلوك غير اللفظي. (2) هناك نقص في البحث في الجوانب النوعية المتعلقة بتحليل السلوك غير اللفظي ؛ (3) عدم وجود روابط بين الإشارات غير اللفظية والمحتوى اللفظي ؛ (4) عدم الاهتمام بتوقيت السلوك غير اللفظي ؛ (5) أجريت معظم الأبحاث في السياقات التجريبية على طلاب علم النفس.

تقترح هذه المقالة منهجية جديدة لتطبيق نظام ترميز إجراءات الوجه كدعم استقصائي وليس كوسيلة للكشف عن الكذب. سيتم تقديم نظام ترميز عمل الوجه للتكامل مع تحليل المحتوى اللفظي وإطار عمل جديد لتفسير الإشارات غير اللفظية التي تمت مناقشتها. ستتم مناقشة مساعدة الأساليب غير اللفظية القياسية من خلال تحليل نفسي متعمق لقضية القتل التي ارتكبت في عام 2010 في جنوب إيطاليا من خلال مناقشة تحليل الفيديو لأقوال المشتبه بهم.

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Copyright
© International Society of Criminology 2021

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