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Temporal trends of inpatient C. difficile infections within the Veterans Health Administration hospitals: An analysis of the effect of molecular testing, time to testing, and mandatory reporting

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 November 2019

Zarchi E. Sumon
Affiliation:
Division of Infectious Diseases, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York
Alan J. Lesse
Affiliation:
Division of Infectious Diseases, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York
John A. Sellick
Affiliation:
Division of Infectious Diseases, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, New York Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York
Sheldon Tetewsky
Affiliation:
Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York
Kari A. Mergenhagen
Affiliation:
Veterans Affairs Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, New York
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background:

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a reportable hospital metric associated with significant healthcare expenditures. The epidemiology of CDI is pivotal to the implementation of preventative measures.

Objective:

To portray temporal CDI trends in Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals.

Design:

A retrospective analysis of veterans who had stool testing for C. difficile.

Setting:

VA acute-care hospitals within the continental United States.

Methods:

Data were mined from the VA’s Corporate Data Warehouse. CDI is reported per 10,000 patient days.

Results:

From 2006 to 2016, 472,346 patients had C. difficile testing. Overall, decreases in incidence of total CDI (16.81 to 13.66) and hospital-onset healthcare facility-associated (HO-HCFA) CDI (10.87 to 6.41) were observed. Temporal increases in the incidence of total and HO-HCFA CDI were associated with the increased use of molecular testing (P < .0001). Decreased use of fluoroquinolones (P < .0001), clindamycin (P = .0006), and third-generation cephalosporins (P = .0002) correlated with decreased rates of CDI, but VA mandatory reporting did not influence CDI rates (P = .24). The overall crude 30-day mortality of patients with CDI decreased from 2.17 deaths per 10,000 patient days in 2006 to 1.41 in 2016. The frequency of International Classification of Disease, Ninth/Tenth Revision (ICD-9/10) discharge diagnosis for CDI was 73.3%.

Conclusion:

Molecular testing was associated with increased incidence of CDI. Controlling CDI is likely multifactorial. Although the VA initiative to report cases of hospital-acquired CDI was not significant in our model, the advent of stewardship programs throughout the VA and reductions in the use of third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and clindamycin were significantly associated with reduced rates of CDI.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© 2019 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.

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Footnotes

PREVIOUS PRESENTATION: This study was presented in part as a poster at #474, IDWeek 2018 on October 4th 2018, in San Francisco, California.

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