Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5d6d958fb5-xnv6z Total loading time: 0.205 Render date: 2022-11-28T23:17:41.505Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infections in Four University Hospitals in Switzerland

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2015

Didier Pittet*
Affiliation:
University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Stephan Harbarth
Affiliation:
University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Christian Ruef
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Patrick Francioli
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Philippe Sudre
Affiliation:
University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
Christiane Pétignat
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Andrej Trampuz
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Andreas Widmer
Affiliation:
University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
*
Infection Control Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Cantonal Universitaire, 24, rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland

Abstract

Objective:

To determine the prevalence and risk factors for nosocomial infections (NIs) in four Swiss university hospitals.

Design and Setting:

A 1-week period-prevalence survey conducted in May 1996 in medical, surgical, and intensive-care wards of four Swiss university hospitals (900-1,500 beds). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions were used, except that asymptomatic bacteriuria was not categorized as NI. Study variables included patient demographics, primary diagnosis, comorbidities, exposure to medical and surgical risk factors, and use of antimicrobials. Risk factors for NIs were determined using logistic regression with adjustment for length of hospital stay, study center, device use, and patients' comorbidities.

Results:

176 NI were recorded in 156 of 1,349 screened patients (11.6%; interhospital range, 9.8%-13.5%). The most frequent NI was surgical-site infection (53; 30%), followed by urinary tract infection (39; 22%), lower respiratory tract infection (27; 15%), and bloodstream infection (23; 13%). Prevalence of NI was higher in critical-care units (25%) than in medical (9%) and surgical wards (12%). Overall, 65% of NIs were culture-proven; the leading pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae (44; 28%), Staphylococcus aureus (20; 13%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17; 11%), and Candida species (16; 10%). Independent risk factors for NI were central venous catheter (CVC) use (odds ratio [OR], 3.35; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 2.91-3.80), admission to intensive care (OR, 1.75; CI95, 1.30-2.21), emergency admission (OR, 1.57; CI95, 1.15-2.00), impaired functional status (Karnofsky index 1-4: OR, 2.56; CI95, 1.95-3.17), and McCabe classification of ultimately fatal (OR, 2.50; CI95, 2.04-2.96) or rapidly fatal (OR 2.25; CI95,1.52-2.98) underlying condition.

Conclusions:

According to the results of this survey, NIs are frequent in Swiss university hospitals. This investigation confirms the importance of CVCs as a major risk factor for NI. Patient comorbidities must be taken into account to adjust for case mix in any study comparing interhospital or intrahospital infection rates.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America 1999

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. Haley, RW, Culver, DH, White, JW, Morgan, WM, Emori, TG, Munn, VP, et al. The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in US hospitals. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:182205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Haley, RW. The scientific basis for using surveillance and risk factor data to reduce nosocomial infection rates. J Hosp Infect 1995;30(suppl):314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Vincent, JL, Biliari, DJ, Suter, PM, Bruining, HA, White, J, Nicolas-Chanoin, MH, et al. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study. JAMA 1995;274:639644.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. EPINE Working Group. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Spain. J Hosp Infect 1992;20:113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. French, GL, Cheng, AF, Wong, SL, Donnan, S. Repeated prevalence surveys for monitoring effectiveness of hospital infection control. Lancet 1989;2:10211023.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Pittet, D, Francioli, P, von Overbeck, J, Raeber, PA, Ruef, C, Widmer, AF. Infection control in Switzerland. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1995;16:4956.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7. Garner, JS, Jarvis, WR, Emori, TG, Horan, TC, Hughes, JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections. Am J Infect Control 1988;16:128140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification: ICD-9-CM. Publication PHS 89-1260. Washington, DC: US Public Health Service; 1989.Google Scholar
9. Pittet, D, Davis, CS, Li, N, Wenzel, RP. Identifying the hospitalized patient at risk for nosocomial bloodstream infection: a population-based study. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians 1997;109:5867.Google ScholarPubMed
10. McCabe, WR, Jackson, GG. Gram-negative bacteremia, I: etiology and ecology. Arch Intern Med 1962;110:847855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Charlson, ME, Pompei, P, Ales, KL, MacKenzie, CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. Journal of Chronic Disease (England) 1987;40:373383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12. Karnofsky, DA, Burchenal, JH. The clinical evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. In: MacLeod, CM, ed. Evaluation of Chemotherapeutic Agents. New York, NY: Columbia University Press; 1949:191205.Google Scholar
13. McLaws, ML, Gold, J, King, K, Irwig, LM, Berry, G. The prevalence of nosocomial and community-acquired infections in Australian hospitals. Med JAust 1988;149:582590.Google ScholarPubMed
14. Aavitsland, P, Stormark, M, Lystad, A. Hospital-acquired infections in Norway: a national prevalence survey in 1991. Scand J Infect Dis 1992;24:477483.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Emmerson, AM, Enstone, JE, Griffin, M, Kelsey, MC, Smyth, ET. The second national prevalence survey of infection in hospitals—overview of the results. J Hosp Infect 1996;32:175190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. Mertens, R, Kegels, G, Stroobant, A, Reybrouck, G, Lamottet, JM, Potvliege, C, et al. The national prevalence survey of nosocomial infections in Belgium, 1984. J Hosp Infect 1987;9:219229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17. Pittet, D, Harbarth, S. The intensive care unit. In: Bennett, JV, Brachman, PS, eds. Hospital Infections. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co; 1998:381402.Google Scholar
18. Broderick, A, Mori, M, Nettleman, MD, Streed, SA, Wenzel, RP. Nosocomial infections: validation of surveillance and computer modeling to identify patients at risk. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:734742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Josephson, A, Karanfil, L, Alonso, H, Watson, A, Blight, J: Risk-specific nosocomial infection rates. Am J Med 1991;91:131S137S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Widmer, AF. IV-related infections. In: Wenzel, RP, ed. Prevention and Control of Nosocomial Infections. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1997:771805.Google Scholar
21. Valles, J, Leon, C, Alvarez-Lerma, F. Nosocomial bacteremia in critically ill patients: a multicenter study evaluating epidemiology and prognosis. Spanish collaborative group for infections in intensive care units. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:387395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22. Rüden, H, Gastmeier, P, Daschner, F, Schumacher, M. Nosocomial infections in Germany. Their epidemiology in old and new Federal Länder. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1996;121:12811287.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Haley, RW, Culver, DH, Morgan, WM, White, JW, Emori, TG, Hooton, TM. Increased recognition of infectious diseases in US hospitals through increased use of diagnostic tests, 1970-1976. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:168181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24. Quenon, JL and the Comité Technique national des Infections Nosocomiales. Ministère du travail et des affaires sociales, Paris, France. Projet "Hôpital propre": Première enquête nationale de prévalence des infections nosocomiales. 1992;2847.Google Scholar
25. Valinteliene, R, Jurkuvenas, V, Jepsen, OB. Prevalence of hospital-acquired infection in a Lithuanian hospital. J Hosp Infect 1996;34:321329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
129
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infections in Four University Hospitals in Switzerland
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infections in Four University Hospitals in Switzerland
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infections in Four University Hospitals in Switzerland
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *