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Length of antibiotic therapy among adults hospitalized with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia, 2013–2020

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 February 2024

Natalie L. McCarthy*
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
James Baggs
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Hannah Wolford
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Sophia V. Kazakova
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Sarah Kabbani
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Brandon K. Attell
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Georgia Health Policy Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia
Melinda M. Neuhauser
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Lindsey Walker
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Sarah H. Yi
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Kelly M. Hatfield
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Sujan Reddy
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
Lauri A. Hicks
Affiliation:
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
*
Corresponding author: Natalie L. McCarthy; Email: nmccarthy@cdc.gov

Abstract

Objective:

The 2014 US National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (CARB) aimed to reduce inappropriate inpatient antibiotic use by 20% for monitored conditions, such as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), by 2020. We evaluated annual trends in length of therapy (LOT) in adults hospitalized with uncomplicated CAP from 2013 through 2020.

Methods:

We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adults with a primary diagnosis of bacterial or unspecified pneumonia using International Classification of Diseases Ninth and Tenth Revision codes in MarketScan and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services databases. We included patients with length of stay (LOS) of 2–10 days, discharged home with self-care, and not rehospitalized in the 3 days following discharge. We estimated inpatient LOT based on LOS from the PINC AI Healthcare Database. The total LOT was calculated by summing estimated inpatient LOT and actual postdischarge LOT. We examined trends from 2013 to 2020 in patients with total LOT >7 days, which was considered an indicator of likely excessive LOT.

Results:

There were 44,976 and 400,928 uncomplicated CAP hospitalizations among patients aged 18–64 years and ≥65 years, respectively. From 2013 to 2020, the proportion of patients with total LOT >7 days decreased by 25% (68% to 51%) among patients aged 18–64 years and by 27% (68%–50%) among patients aged ≥65 years.

Conclusions:

Although likely excessive LOT for uncomplicated CAP patients decreased since 2013, the proportion of patients treated with LOT >7 days still exceeded 50% in 2020. Antibiotic stewardship programs should continue to pursue interventions to reduce likely excessive LOT for common infections.

Type
Original Article
Creative Commons
This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection within the United States. To the extent this work is subject to copyright outside of the United States, the US Government retains a paidup, nonexclusive, irrevocable worldwide licence to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public and display publicly the Contribution, and to permit others to do so. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
Copyright
© The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, 2024

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Footnotes

PREVIOUS PRESENTATION. A portion of the findings in this manuscript were presented as abstracts from SHEA 2023 and IDWeek 2022.

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