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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 17 May 2021
Recognizing that thousands of people of color have suffered the many brutalities of racism, the editorial staff of Horizons marks the somber first anniversary of the tragic murder of George Floyd (May 25, 2020) with a pedagogical roundtable considering the possibility or impossibility of teaching antiracism in colleges and universities.
1 In this article, I am inspired by and specifically indebted to the work of Sandy Grande on pedagogy, refusal, and sustaining Indigenous education.
3 Robin D. G. Kelley, “Black Study, Black Struggle,” Boston Review, March 7, 2016, http://bostonreview.net/forum/robin-d-g-kelley-black-study-black-struggle.
4 Kelley, “Black Study, Black Struggle.”
5 Wilder, Craig Steven, Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's Universities (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013), 33Google Scholar.
6 Robert Lee and Tristan Ahtone, “Land-Grab Universities: Expropriated Indigenous Land Is the Foundation of the Land-Grant University System,” High Country News, March 30, 2020, https://www.hcn.org/issues/52.4/indigenous-affairs-education-land-grab-universities.
7 Morrill Act of July 2, 1862, Pub. L. 37–108, Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, 1789–1996.
8 For example, Edmund T. Gordon created the Racial Geography Tour of the University of Texas at Austin, which highlights the ways in which the land and buildings of the university are implicated in a history of race. See https://racialgeographytour.org.
9 On the entanglement between the plantation of the past and the contemporary university, see Bianca C. Williams, Dian D. Squire, and Frank A. Tuitt, eds., Plantation Politics and Campus Rebellions: Power, Diversity, and the Emancipatory Struggle in Higher Education (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2021).
10 Sandy Grande, “Life Beyond Evidence: Hospicing the University” (keynote address, Conference of Ford Fellows, remote, October 9, 2020).
12 National Center for Education Statistics, 2003–2004 Beginning Postsecondary Students, Longitudinal Study, Second Follow Up (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education, 2009). See Andrew Howard Nicholas and Marshall Anthony Jr., “Graduation Rates Don't Tell the Full Story: Racial Gaps in College Success Are Larger Than We Think,” The Educational Trust (March 5, 2020), edtrust.org/resource/graduation-rates-dont-tell-the-full-story-racial-gaps-in-college-success-are-larger-than-we-think/.
13 National Center for Education Statistics, 2003–2004 Beginning Postsecondary Students, Longitudinal Study, Second Follow Up.
14 Mark Huelsman, The Debt Divide: The Racial and Class Bias Behind the “New Normal” of Student Borrowing (New York and Washington, DC: Demos, 2015), https://www.demos.org/sites/default/files/publications/Mark-Debt%20divide%20Final%20%28SF%29.pdf.
15 Judith Scott-Clayton and Jing Li, “Black-White Disparity in Student Loan Debt More Than Triples After Graduation” (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2016), https://www.brookings.edu/research/black-white-disparity-in-student-loan-debt-more-than-triples-after-graduation/.
16 Grinstein-Weiss, Michal, Perantie, Dana C., Taylor, Samuel H., Guo, Shenyang, and Raghavan, Ramesh, “Racial Disparities in Education Debt Burden among Low- and Moderate-Income Households,” Children and Youth Services Review 65 (2016): 166–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.04.010.
17 Andrew Howard Nicholas and Marshall Anthony Jr., “Graduation Rates Don't Tell the Full Story: Racial Gaps in College Success Are Larger Than We Think,” The Educational Trust, March 5, 2020, https://edtrust.org/resource/graduation-rates-dont-tell-the-full-story-racial-gaps-in-college-success-are-larger-than-we-think/.
18 Tim Henderson, “Black Professionals Miss Out on Recent Job Gains,” Pew, June 22, 2020, https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2020/06/22/black-professionals-miss-out-on-recent-job-gains.
19 Martin J. Finkelstein, Valerie Martin Conley, and Jack H. Schuster, Taking the Measure of Faculty Diversity (New York: TIAA Institute, 2016), 8, https://www.tiaainstitute.org/sites/default/files/presentations/2017-02/taking_the_measure_of_faculty_diversity.pdf.
20 Kelley, “Black Study, Black Struggle.”
21 Settler colonialism has not ended. Its structures remain clearly recognizable within our political, economic, and educational institutions. For the Apaches, this dispossession has been continual. Today, the San Carlos Apache people are fighting to prevent the transfer of land at Chi'chil Bildagoteel (Oak Flat in Arizona) to the Rio Tinto corporation. The land, guaranteed to the Apaches by an 1852 treaty, is a sacred site, the home to Apache spirits, Indigenous burial sites, and the site of many ceremonies. The US government has cleared the way for Rio Tinto to excavate copper, an element critical for the renewable energy economy. The block caving method of excavation will inevitably cause subsidence: the surface land will collapse into a hole two miles wide and one thousand feet deep.
22 Kelley, “Black Study, Black Struggle.”
23 Harney, Stefano and Moten, Fred, The Undercommons: Fugitive Planning and Black Study (Wivenhoe and New York and Port Watson: Minor Compositions, 2013), 32Google Scholar.
24 Libro Tres de Cabildos de Esta Civudad de los Reyes, parte III (1548–1553), Biblioteca y Archivo Histórico Municipal de Lima, http://www.biblioteca.munlima.gob.pe/index.php/biblioteca-virtual/libros-de-cabildo.
25 S. L. Millard Rosenberg, La Universidad de San Marcos de Lima Durante la Colonización Española (Datos para su Historia) (Madrid: Imprenta Juan Bravo, 1933) in The Hispanic American Historical Review 14, no. 3 (August 1934): 344.
26 Gérard Bissainthe, “Catholicise et indigénisme religieux,” in Des Pretres noirs s'interrogent, Albert Abble, ed. (Paris: Cerf, 1956), 120.
28 Jennings, “Where Violence Lives,” 377–79.
29 Nelson Maldonado-Torres, “The Humanities and the Liberal Arts in the Face of Black Lives Matter: Thinking Beyond Diversity and Inclusion,” Statement from the Chair, Program of Comparative Literature, Rutgers University, New Brunswick (2020).
30 The Village, directed, produced, and edited by Matthew Joseph Broussard (Pennsylvania State University, 2001). See Matthew Joseph Broussard, “Understanding the Village: A Personal and Theoretical Analysis of the Documentary Film Production Process,” (master's thesis, Pennsylvania State University, 2003).
32 Melissa Phruksachart, “The Literature of White Liberalism,” Boston Review (August 21, 2020), https://bostonreview.net/race/melissa-phruksachart-literature-white-liberalism.
33 Sandy Grande, “Life Beyond Evidence.”
34 Grande, Sandy, “Refusing the University,” in Dissident Knowledge in Education, eds. Spooner, Marc and McNinch, James (Saskatchewan: University of Regina Press, 2018), 107Google Scholar.
35 Grande, “Refusing the University.”
37 Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, 26
38 Jack Halberstam, “The Wild Beyond: With and for the Undercommons,” in Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, 6.
39 Halberstam, “The Wild Beyond: With and for the Undercommons,” in Harney and Moten, The Undercommons, 42.
40 Hayes, Diana L., Hagar's Daughters: Womanist Ways of Being in the World (New York: Paulist Press, 1995), 41Google Scholar.
41 Copeland, M. Shawn, Enfleshing Freedom: Body, Race, and Being (Minneapolis: Fortress, 2010), 51Google Scholar.
42 Hayes, Hagar's Daughters, 15.
43 Hayes, Hagar's Daughters, 20.
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