No CrossRef data available.
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 20 April 2021
From its origins in the Chesapeake and the Caribbean to its transformation into smoke in a Jacobean chamber, tobacco entered drastically new contexts of use as it travelled from Indigenous America to the social spaces of early seventeenth-century London. This article draws on comparative anthropology and archaeology to explore how early colonization, particularly in Jamestown, influenced the development of smoking among the English political elite. This offers a case study into the ways in which Indigenous commodities and knowledge were integrated into English ritual practices of their own; it also reveals the deliberate choices made by the English to set themselves apart from those they sought to colonize. Placing the material practices and wit poetry of gentlemen within the geopolitics of colonialism raises attention to the acts of erasure or dispossession that accompanied the incorporation of tobacco into urban sociability. Here, the practices of Indigenous peoples were modified and altered, and the pleasures of plantation were expressed as an intoxication as potent as the plant itself.
1 By the King. A proclamation to restraine the planting of tobacco in England and Wales (London, 1619; STC 8622); Mancall, Peter, ‘Tales tobacco told in sixteenth-century Europe’, Environmental History, 9 (2004), pp. 648–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Goodman, Jordan, Tobacco in history: the cultures of dependence (London, 1993)Google Scholar; Bell, Sandra, ‘The subject of smoke: tobacco and early modern England’, in Ostovich, Helen, Silcox, Mary V., and Roebuck, Graham, eds., The mysterious and the foreign in early modern England (Newark, DE, 2008), pp. 153–69Google Scholar.
2 ‘Master Stockhams relation’, in John Smith, The generall historie of Virginia (London, 1624; STC 22790), p. 139.
3 By the King. A proclamation concerning tobacco (London, 1624; STC 8738); MacMillan, Ken, The Atlantic imperial constitution: centre and periphery in the English Atlantic world (Basingstoke, 2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
4 Mancall, ‘Tales tobacco told’; Cotta, John, A short discoverie (London, 1612; STC 5833)Google Scholar; Duncon, Eleazar, The copy of a letter written by E.D Doctour of Physicke (London, 1606; STC 6164)Google Scholar.
5 Norton, Marcy, Sacred gifts, profane pleasures: a history of tobacco and chocolate in the Atlantic world (Ithaca, NY, 2008)Google Scholar; Lemire, Beverly, Global trade and the transformation of consumer cultures: the material world remade, 1500–1820 (Cambridge, 2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Games, Alison, The web of empire: English cosmopolitans in the age of expansion, 1560–1660 (Oxford, 2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
6 Phil Withington, ‘Introduction: cultures of intoxication’, Past & Present, Suppl. 9 (2014), pp. 3–33, at pp. 10, 14; Withington, Phil, ‘Intoxicants and society in early modern England’, Historical Journal, 54 (2011), pp. 631–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Jennifer Richards, ‘Health, intoxication, and civil conversation in Renaissance England’, Past & Present, Suppl. 9 (2014), pp. 168–86, at p. 168.
7 Norton, Marcy, ‘Tasting empire: chocolate and the European internalization of Mesoamerican aesthetics’, American Historical Review, 111 (2006), pp. 660–91, at p. 661CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
9 O'Callaghan, Michelle, The English wits: literature and sociability in early modern England (Cambridge, 2007), pp. 1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
10 Orser, Charles E., An archaeology of the British Atlantic world, 1600–1700 (Cambridge, 2018), p. 376Google Scholar.
11 Slack, Paul, The invention of improvement: information and material progress in seventeenth-century England (Oxford, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
12 C.T., An advice how to plant tobacco in England (London, 1615; STC 23612), sig. Cr.
13 Veit, Richard and Bello, Charles A., ‘“Neat and artificial pipes”: base metal trade pipes of the northeastern Indians’, in Rafferty, Sean Michael and Mann, Rob, eds., Smoking and culture: the archaeology of tobacco pipes in eastern North America (Knoxville, TN, 2004), pp. 185–206, at p. 197Google Scholar.
14 Ligman, Michael, ‘The potential of portable X-ray fluorescence for understanding trade and exchange dynamics in the seventeenth century Chesapeake: a case study for using Native American tobacco pipes from the James Fort site, Virginia’, in Bollwerk, Elizabeth A. and Tushingham, Shannon, eds., Perspectives on the archaeology of pipes, tobacco, and other smoke plants in the ancient Americas (Cham, 2016), pp. 75–92, at p. 77Google Scholar.
16 Bobbio, Noberto, Thomas Hobbes and the natural law tradition (Chicago, IL, 1993), p. 2Google Scholar; Thomas, Keith, Man and the natural world: changing attitudes in England, 1500–1800 (London, 1983), p. 25Google Scholar.
17 Slack, Invention of improvement, p. 5.
18 Abbot, Robert, The second part of the defence of the reformed Catholicke (London, 1607; STC 49), p. 865Google Scholar.
19 Ferdinando Gorges to the earl of Salisbury, 1 Dec. 1607, Hatfield House, Cecil papers 123/77.
20 Ferdinando Gorges to the earl of Salisbury, 7 Feb. 1608, Hatfield House, Cecil papers 120/66.
21 C.T., Advice how to grow tobacco in England, sig. Cr.
22 Hariot, Thomas, A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia (Frankfurt, 1590; STC 12786), sig. B4vGoogle Scholar. For Native American uses of tobacco, see Irwin, Lee, Coming down from above: prophecy, resistance, and renewal in Native American religion (Norman, OK, 2008)Google Scholar.
23 Camden, William, Annales of the true and royall history of the famous empresse Elizabeth (London, 1625; STC 4497), sig. P2rGoogle Scholar. For the parallels drawn between paganism and biblical sacrifice, see Bauer, Ralph, ‘Baroque new worlds: ethnography and demonology in the Reformation and Counter-Reformation’, in Kirk, Stephanie and Rivett, Sarah, eds., Religious transformations in the early modern Americas (Pittsburgh, PA, 2004), pp. 46–79Google Scholar; Kuhn, John, ‘Sejanus, the King's Men altar scenes, and the theatrical production of paganism’, Early Theatre: A Journal Associated with the Records of Early English Drama, 20 (2017), pp. 77–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
24 On the mechanisms used by the crown and investors to gain profits from colonial trades, see MacMillan, Atlantic imperial constitution, pp. 89–95.
25 Bennett, Edward, A treatise devided into three parts (London, 1620; STC 1883), pp. 26–7Google Scholar.
26 Brenner, Robert, Merchants and revolution: commercial change, political conflict, and London's overseas traders, 1550–1653 (London, 2003)Google Scholar.
27 James I, A counterblaste to tobacco (London, 1604; STC 14363); By the King. A proclamation concerning tobacco; By the King, a proclamation to restraine the planting of tobacco.
28 Arjun Appadurai, ‘Introduction: commodities and the politics of value’, in Arjun Appadurai, ed., The social life of things: commodities in cultural perspective (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 3–63, at pp. 3, 15. See also Anne Gerritsen and Giorgio Riello, ‘The global lives of things: material culture in the first global age’, in Anne Gerritsen and Giorgio Riello, eds., The global lives of things: the material culture of connections in the early modern world (Abingdon, 2016), pp. 1–28.
29 Petition of Archibald Hay and others, manufacturers of tobacco in London, to the king, 8 Mar. 1639, The National Archives (TNA), SP 16/403, fo. 42; John Taylor, ‘Plutoes proclamation’, in All the workes of Iohn Taylor the water-poet (London, 1630; STC 23725), sig. Ccc3r; Thomas Dekker, The guls horne-booke (London, 1609; STC 6500), sig. B3r.
30 Anthony Chute, [Tabacco] (London 1595; STC 5262.5), sig. B8r–v.
32 Norton, Sacred gifts, p. 127. On enslaved Africans in the Atlantic world, see Guasco, Michael, Slaves and Englishmen: human bondage in the early modern Atlantic world (Philadelphia, PA, 2011)Google Scholar.
33 Gernet, Alexander von, ‘North American Indigenous Nicotiana use and tobacco shamanism: the early documentary record, 1520–1660’, in Winter, Joseph C., ed., Tobacco use by Native North Americans: sacred smoke and silent killer (Norman, OK, 2000), pp. 59–83, at p. 73Google Scholar.
34 Norton, Sacred gifts, p. 127.
35 Butts, Dyets dry dinner, sig. P5v.
36 On an Indigenous account of how John Rolfe learned cultivation techniques from the Algonquians, see Linwood ‘Little Bear’ Custalow and Daniel, Angela ‘Silver Star’, The true story of Pocahontas: the other side of history (Golden, CO, 2007), pp. 71, 73Google Scholar.
37 Petition of merchants and seamen to the king, [1635?], TNA, SP 16/307, fo. 155r.
38 C.T., Advice how to plant tobacco, sig. A4v.
39 Hariot, Briefe and true report, sig. C3r. See also Chaplin, Joyce E., Subject matter: technology, the body, and science on the Anglo-American frontier (Cambridge, MA, 2001)Google Scholar.
40 Edward Waterhouse, A declaration of the state of the colony and affaires in Virginia (London, 1622; STC 25104), sig. C4v.
41 The story, recorded in the nineteenth century by a Wampanoag elder, is cited in Veit and Bello, ‘“Neat and artificial pipes”’, p. 195.
42 Hariot, Briefe and true report, sig. B3v.
43 Taylor, Alex, ‘Tobacco retail licences and state formation in early modern England and Wales’, Economic History Review, 72 (2019), pp. 433–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Shammas, Carole, The pre-industrial consumer in England and America (Oxford, 1990)Google Scholar. For the role of smoking in the imperial interests evident at the Inns of Court, see Working, Lauren, ‘Locating colonization at the Jacobean Inns of Court’, Historical Journal, 61 (2018), pp. 29–51, at pp. 17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
44 Diane Dallal, ‘The Tudor rose and the fleurs-de-lis: women and iconography in seventeenth-century Dutch clay pipes found in New York City’, in Rafferty and Mann, eds., Smoking and culture, pp. 207–41, at p. 208; Bollwerk and Tushingham, eds., Perspectives on the archaeology of pipes.
45 Hodder, Ian, Entangled: an archaeology of the relationships between humans and things (Malden, MA, 2012), p. 33CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
46 Klooster, Wim, ‘The tobacco nation: English tobacco dealers and pipe-makers in Rotterdam, 1620–1650’, in Cruz, Laura and Mokyr, Joel, eds., The birth of modern Europe: culture and economy, 1400–1800: essays in honor of Jan de Vries (Leiden, 2010), pp. 17–34, at p. 28Google Scholar.
47 Iain C. Walker, ‘The manufacture of Dutch clay tobacco-pipes’, Northeast Historical Archaeology, 1, no. 2 (1971), pp. 4–17, at p. 4; Dallal, ‘Tudor rose’, pp. 212–13; Klooster, ‘Tobacco nation’.
48 Dallal, ‘Tudor rose’, p. 213.
49 Pecoraro, Luke J. and Givens, David M., ‘“Like to perish from want of succour or reliefe”: the provisioning of seventeenth-century Virginia during times of change’, Post-Medieval Archaeology, 40 (2006), pp. 1–18, at p. 7CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
50 Orser, Archaeology of the British Atlantic world, p. 381.
52 Horning, Audrey, Ireland in the Virginian sea: colonialism in the British Atlantic (Chapel Hill, NC, 2013), pp. 328–9Google Scholar.
53 ‘Instructions to the Governors for the tyme beinge & Counsell of state in Virginia’, 1621, Magdalene College, Cambridge, Ferrar papers, FP 285.
54 The author is indebted to conversations with archaeologists and curators at Historic Jamestowne for insight into these pipes, particularly Jim Horn, Dave Givens, Merry Outlaw, and William Kelso; see also Kelso, William, Jamestown: a buried truth (Charlottesville, VA, 2008)Google Scholar.
55 Hariot, Briefe and true report, sig. C4r.
56 Robert Wood, ‘Copy of memorandum concerning coinage’, 1 Dec. 1658, University of Sheffield, Hartlib papers, 18/14/1A–2B, https://www.dhi.ac.uk/hartlib/view?docset=main&docname=18C_14_01.
57 Thomas Platter, Thomas Platter's travels in England 1599: rendered into English from the German, trans. Clare Williams (London, 1937), pp. 170–1.
58 Chute, [Tabacco], sig. Av.
61 Dekker, Guls horne-booke, sig. Cr.
64 Camden, Annales of the true and royall history, sig. P2v.
65 The version quoted here is Raphael Thorius, Hymnus tabaci, trans. Peter Hausted (London, 1651; Wing T1040), sig. A7r.
69 Tobacco features in George Chapman's Monsieur d'Olive (1606), Thomas Middleton's The roaring girle (1611), Ben Jonson's The alchemist (1612), and Francis Beaumont's Knight of the burning pestle (1613), among many others.
70 B.H., ‘To the white reader’, in John Beaumont, The metamorphosis of tabacco (London, 1602; STC 1695), sig. A4r.
71 Hariot, Briefe and true report, sig. C2v; Smith, Generall historie of Virginia, pp. 42–3. On visual iconographies of early Virginia and their role in creating a fiction of control, see Stephanie Pratt, ‘Capturing captivity: visual imaginings of the English and Powhatan encounter accompanying the Virginia narratives of John Smith and Ralph Hamor, 1612–1634’, in Max Carocci and Stephanie Pratt, eds., Native American adoption, captivity, and slavery in changing contexts (Basingstoke, 2012), pp. 97–115.
72 Prefatory poem by George Chapman in Lawrence Kemys, A relation of the second voyage to Guiana (London, 1596; STC 14947), sigs. A2r, E2r.
73 Gerritsen and Riello, eds., Global lives of things, p. 5. See also Lemire, Beverly and Riello, Giorgio, ‘East & West: textiles and fashion in early modern Europe’, Journal of Social History, 41 (2008), pp. 887–916, at p. 893CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
74 For example, Endymion Porter to his wife, Olive, 7 Apr. 1623, TNA, SP 14/142, fo. 92v.
75 Gallobelgicus, Wine, beere, ale, and tobacco. Contending for superiority (London, 1630; STC 11542); Withington, ‘Intoxicants and society’, pp. 631–3, 653–4. For plays in which tobacco is personified as a Native American, see Tomkins, Thomas, Lingua: or, the combat of the tongue (London, 1607; STC 24104)Google Scholar; Holyday, Barten, Technogamia: or the marriages of the arts (London, 1618; STC 13617)Google Scholar.
76 Gallobelgicus, Wine, beere, ale, and tobacco, sig. C4v.
79 Bryson, Anna, From courtesy to civility: changing codes of conduct in early modern England (Cambridge, 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Thomas, Keith, In pursuit of civility: manners and civilization in early modern England (Waltham, MA, 2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Gallagher, John, ‘The Italian London of John North: cultural contact and linguistic encounter in early modern England’, Renaissance Quarterly, 70 (2017), pp. 88–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
80 On the separation of imperial motifs from the geopolitics of colonialism, see Molineux, Catherine, ‘Pleasures of the smoke: “Black Virginians” in Georgian London's tobacco shops’, William and Mary Quarterly, 64 (2007), pp. 327–76Google Scholar.
81 Hodder, Entangled, p. 41.
83 Thorius, Hymnus tabaci, sig. B2r.
84 Custalow and Daniel, True story of Pocahontas, pp. 71, 73.
85 Thorius, Hymnus tabaci, sig. C6r.
No CrossRef data available.