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Theodore of Mopsuestia on the Exorcism of the Cilicium

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 August 2011

Johannes Quasten
Affiliation:
Catholic University of America

Extract

The mystagogical catecheses of Theodore of Mopsuestia which were published for the first time in the year 1933 by Mingana have enriched our knowledge of the Eastern Liturgy in an unexpected way. Investigations have been made concerning the Eucharistic service which he describes. The rite of Baptism which he presents is of no less importance, as we find the more we study its details.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © President and Fellows of Harvard College 1942

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References

1 Mingana, A., Commentary of Theodore of Mopsuestia on the Lord's Prayer and on the Sacraments of Baptism and the Eucharist (Woodbrooke Studies, vol. VI) Cambridge, 1933Google Scholar.

2 Cf. Lietzmann, H., ‘Die Liturgie des Theodor von Mopsuestia,’ Sitzungsberichte der Preuss. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Phil.-Hist. Klasse, 1933, 915936Google Scholar. Devreesse, R., ‘Les instructions catechetiques de Theodore de Mopsueste,’ Recherches de Science Religieuse 13, 1933, 425436CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Quasten, J., ‘Der älteste Zeuge für die trinitarische Fassung der liturgischen εἷς ἄγιος Akklamation,’ Zeitschrift f. kath. Theologie 26, 1934, 253254Google Scholar. Abramowski, R., ‘Neue Schriften Theodore von Mopsuestia,’ Zeitschrift f. Neutest. Wiss. 33, 1934, 6684Google Scholar. Reine, F., The Eucharistic doctrine and liturgy of the mystagogical Catecheses of Theodore of Mopsuestia (Studies in Christian Antiquity, vol. II), Washington, D. C., 1942Google Scholar.

3 See Rücker, A., Ritus Baptismi et Missae quem descripsit Theodorus ep. Mops. in sermonibus catecheticis e versione syriaca ab A. Mingana nuper reperta in linguam latinam translatus (Opuscula et Textus, Series Liturgica, vol. II), Münster, 1933Google Scholar.

4 Cf. Dölger, F. J., ‘Der Taufbürge nach Theodor von Mopsuestia,’ Antike und Christentum 4, 1933, 231232Google Scholar.

5 A. Mingana, op. cit., p 16.

6 Ibid., p. 32.

7 Ibid., pp. 35–36.

8 Regarding these exorcisms which took place during the catechumenate, see Constitutiones Ecclesiae Aegyptiacae 15, 2 (108, 22–24, ed. Funk): Inde ex eo tempore, quo separentur, cotidie manus eis imponatur, dum exorcizantur. Peregrinatio Aetheriae 46 (CSEL 39, 97 Geyer): Consuetudo est enim hic talis, ut qui accedunt ad baptismum per ipsos dies quadraginta, quibus ieiunatur, primum mature a clericis exorcizentur. Testamentum Dom. Nostri Jesu Christi II, 6 (121, ed. Rahmani): Exorcizentur inde a die, quo eliguntur. The same custom was known in the West. Cf. Siricius, Epistola ad Himerium 2, 2 (PL 13, 1135). Augustine, Sermo 227 (PL 38, 1100), Sermo 229 (PL 38, 1103), Sermo 216, 6 (PL 38, 1080), De fide et operibus 6, 8 (CSEL 41, 43 ed. Zycha).

9 Sermo 216, 10 (PL 38, 1082).

10 Cf. Franses, D., Die Werke des hl. Quodvultdeus, Bischofs von Carthago (Veröffentlichungen aus dem kirchenhistor. Seminar München. vol. I), Munich, 1920, p. 61Google Scholar.

11 Quodvultdeus, De symbolo ad catech. II, 1 (PL 40, 637).

12 Quodvultdeus, De symbolo ad catech. sermo alius (alias IV) I, 1 (PL 40, 660 f.).

13 Ildefonsus of Toledo, De cognitione baptismi 109 (PL 96, 157).

14 Narsai, Homily XXII (B) On Baptism. Cf. Connolly, R. H., The Liturgical Homilies of Narsai translated into English (Texts and Studies, vol. VIII), Cambridge, 1909, p. 39Google Scholar.

15 See Baumstark, A., ‘Orientalisches in altspanischer Liturgie,’ Oriens Christianus 32, 1935, 337Google Scholar.

16 Le Brun, P., Dissertations historiques et dogmatiques sur les liturgies de toutes églises du monde chrétien, Paris, 1726Google Scholar.

17 J. Mabillon, De liturgia Gallicana, pp. 188 ff.

18 A. Baumstark, op. cit., p. 33.

19 Bishop, W. C., The Mozarabic and Amrosian Rites. Four essays in comparative liturgiology (Alcuin Club Tracts XV), London, 1924Google Scholar.

20 Badcock, F. J., ‘Le credo primitif d'Afrique,’ Revue Bénédictine 45, 1933, 39CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

21 Cabrol, F., ‘Mozarabe (La Liturgie),’ Dictionnaire d'Archéologie Chrétienne et de Liturgie XII, 1, p. 463Google Scholar.

22 So did Anrich, G., Das antike Mysterienwesen in seinem Einfluss auf das Christentum, Göttingen, 1894, pp. 204fGoogle Scholar. Kroll, W., Alte Taufgebräuche, Archiv für Religionswissenschaft, vol. VIII, Beiheft 1905, p. 39Google Scholar. Pley, J., De lanae in antiquorum ritibus usu (Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten XI, 2), Giessen, 1911, p. 78Google Scholar. Oppenheim, P., Symbolik und religiöse Wertung des Mönchskleides im christlichen Altertum (Theologie des Ostens, vol. II), Münster, 1932, p. 195Google Scholar. “In gewissen heidnischen Mysterienkulten war das Stehen oder Knieen auf einem Tierfell als Sühneritus bekannt. Es ist wohl etwas Aehnliches, wie auf einem Cilicium zu stehen oder zu knieen.”

23 Hesychius, Lexicon s. v., (vol. I, p. 519 ed. Schmidt).

24 Suidas, s.v. Διὸς κῴδιον.

25 ProfessorNock, A.D. drew my attention to P. Roussel, Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique, vol. LIV, 1930, pp. 50 f.Google Scholar, 62. Archiv für Religionswissenschaft, vol. XXXV, 1938, 165Google Scholar and Nilsson, M. P., Greek Popular Religion, New York, 1940, p. 50Google Scholar.

26 Lovatelli, E. G., ‘Di un vaso cinerario con rappresentanze relative ai misteri di Eleusi,’ Bulletino della commissione archeologica communale di Roma, 1879, pp. 518Google Scholar. Plate I.

27 Cf. Deubner, L., Attische Feste, Leipzig, 1932, pp. 49Google Scholar, 77 f., 157 f. A. B. Cook, Zeus, III, p. 1081. J. D. Beazley, Greek Vases from Poland, pp. 40 f. I owe these references to the kindness of Professor A. D. Nock.

28 Dölger, F. J., Der Exorzismus im altchristlichen Taufritual (Studien zur Geschichte u. Kultur des Altertums, III, 12Google Scholar), Paderborn, 1909, p. 218.

29 Sermo 216, 10–11 (PL 38, 1082).

30 De civitate Dei, XV 20, 4 (CSEL 40, II, 104). Cf. De consensu evang. II, 4–13 (CSEL 43, 94): quis autem dubitet ad peccati significationem cilicium pertinere.

31 Isidore, In Exod. 54, 1 (PL 83, 314).

32 According to recent investigations the beginnings of the Roman Lectionary go back to the fifth century. Cf. Frere, W. H., Studies in early Roman Liturgy II. The Roman Lectionary (Alcuin Club Collections 30), Oxford-London, 1934, pp. IV f.Google Scholar, and 9 f.; Klauser, Th., Das römische Capitulare evangeliorum. Texte und Untersuchungen zu seiner ältesten Geschichte. I Typen (Liturgiegeschichtl. Quellen u. Forsch. 28), Münster i. W., 1935, pp. XIGoogle Scholar ff.

33 Cf. Grisar, H., Das Missale im Lichte römischer Stadtgeschichte, Freiburg, 1925, pp. 226Google Scholar f. Jungmann, J. A., Die lateinischen Bussriten in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung (Forschungen zur Geschichte des innerkirchlichen Lebens, vols. 3–4), Innsbruck, 1932, p. 49Google Scholar.

34 Ambrose, De Isaac, 6, 52 (CSEL 34, 1, 676, 16–20).

35 Cf. Ovid, Fasti, I, 629 f. C.I.L., I2, 1, p. 231. Varro, De Lingua Latina, VII, 84 (LCL I, p. 338 Kent). Richter, F., Lateinische Sacralinschriften (Kleine Texte, LXVIII, Bonn, 1911), p. 4Google Scholar, No. 3 — C.I.L., IX, 3513. Cf. Wächter, T., Reinheitsvorschriften im griechischen Kult (Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche u. Vorarbeiten, IX, 1) Giessen, 1910, pp. 98Google Scholar f.

36 Jerome, Ep. 64, 19 (CSEL 54, p. 610 Hilberg). Cf. Quasten, J., A Pythagorean idea in Jerome: American Journal of Philology LXIII, 1941, pp. 207215Google Scholar.

37 Cf. Philo, Quaestiones in Genes., I, 53, 36A; IV, 1, 240A: Leg. Alleg., II, 56 ff.; Deus Immut., 56; Quod Det. Pot., 159; Post. Caini, 137; Gigant., 53; Migrat. Abrah., 192, 668M.

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