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Rebel Without a Cause? Martti Koskenniemi and the Critical Legal Project

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 March 2019

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Few books have attained the influence and impact of Martti Koskenniemi's From Apology to Utopia (FATU); fewer still could have made anything like such an impact with a publication run and consequent distribution as small as FATU's. Thus, as has undoubtedly been said before, and will undoubtedly be repeated subsequently, Cambridge University Press must be congratulated on their decision to publish a new edition, with a far larger print run, and wider distribution.

Type
Articles: Special Issue
Copyright
Copyright © 2006 by German Law Journal GbR 

References

1 Koskenniemi, Martti, From Apology to Utopia 563 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

2 See, for example, Behind Relative Normativity: Rules and Process as Prerequisites of Law, 12 European Journal of International Law [EJIL] 627 (2001) and Countering Uncertainty and Ending Up/Down Arguments: Prolegomena to a Response to NAIL, 16 EJIL 213 (2005). The third attempt was The End of Customary International Law? Jun, 30, 2006 (Unpublished Ph.D dissertation, University of Glasgow) especially chapter 5.Google Scholar

3 For consideration of such misunderstandings, see Koskenniemi supra, note 1 at 590 footnote 78.Google Scholar

4 Blake W. “The Proverbs of Hell,” in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Jacob Bronowski (ed.) Blake Poems and Letters 98 (1958).Google Scholar

5 Koskenniemi, Martti, International Law in Europe: Between Tradition and Renewal, 16 EJIL 113, 122 (2005).Google Scholar

6 See Foucault, Michel, Truth and Power, in Power: Essential Works Of Foucault, 1954–1984, Vol. 3, 111 (2001); and Terry Eagleton, Ideology (1991).Google Scholar

7 See also Koskenniemi, Martti, The Gentle Civiliser of Nations 499–500 (2004).Google Scholar

8 See Koskenniemi, Martti, 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, 65 Modern Law Review 159, 165, 170 (2002); Koskenniemi, Martti, What is International Law For?, in International Law 57, 59 (Malcolm Evans, ed., 2d 2006), especially footnote 4.Google Scholar

9 On this Hegelian idea, see Fukayama, Francis, The End of History and the Last Man (1993). For a critique, see Susan Marks, The End of History? Reflections on Some International Legal Theses, 8 EJIL 449 (1997).Google Scholar

10 Koskenniemi, Martti, International Law as Therapy: Reading The Health of Nations 16 EJIL 329, 332 (2005), emphasis added.Google Scholar

11 Koskenniemi, , supra note 5, at 122.Google Scholar

12 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 597, emphasis added.Google Scholar

13 Id., 598.Google Scholar

14 Harris-Short, Sonia, Listening To “The Other”? The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2 Melbourne Journal of International Law 304 (2001).Google Scholar

15 See infra notes 35–72 and accompanying text.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

16 See Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 78; Rasulov, Akbar, International Law and the Poststructuralist Challenge, 19 Leiden Journal of International Law [LJIL] 799, 812813 (2006).Google Scholar

17 Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 173.Google Scholar

18 Koskenniemi, , supra note 5, at 122; see also Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 173; Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 63; Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 606–9.Google Scholar

19 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 598.Google Scholar

20 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 504Google Scholar

21 There is a particular clear implied rejection of Habermas in Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 170: “However much political theorists might seek ‘ideal speech situations’ to account for institutional legitimacy, what is ‘ideal’ will remain open for controversy”.Google Scholar

22 Koskenniemi's rejection of Schmitt is discussed in the text accompanying notes 199–210 infra.Google Scholar

23 Koskenniemi, ,supra note 1, at 606–7. A similar point is acknowledged in Koskenniemi, supra note 5, at 115.Google Scholar

24 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 77.Google Scholar

25 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 502. 508.Google Scholar

26 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 599.Google Scholar

27 Rasch, William, Sovereignty and Its Discontents (2004); see also Beckett, Jason, Conflicting Orders: How Peace is Waged LJIL (forthcoming 2007).Google Scholar

28 Mouffe, Chantal, Deliberative Democracy or Agonistic Pluralism? 66 Social Research 745, 755 (1999); see also Beckett,supra note 27 for a critique of this approach.Google Scholar

29 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 62Google Scholar

30 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 568.Google Scholar

31 Id. at 567. Footnote omitted.Google Scholar

33 Id. at 568.Google Scholar

34 Id. at 566.Google Scholar

35 Id. at 590.Google Scholar

36 Id. at 591.Google Scholar

37 Koskenniemi, , supra note 5, at 119; see also Koskenniemi, supra note 7, at 495.Google Scholar

38 Scobbie, Iain, Towards the Elimination of International Law: Some Radical Scepticism About Sceptical Radicalism, 61 British Yearbook of International Law [BYBIL] 339, 349 (1990).Google Scholar

39 Id. at 350.Google Scholar

42 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 607. However, it is also worth noting the presence (and apparent stabilising force) of “structural bias”; Koskenniemi continues the quotation above, “the former are always taken as the starting-point while the latter have to struggle for limited realisation”. On structural bias, see infra.Google Scholar

43 Id. at 585–8.Google Scholar

44 Id. at 584–5.Google Scholar

45 Roberto Mangabeira Unger What Should Legal Analysis Become? 130–1 (1996).Google Scholar

46 MacCormick, Neil, Reconstruction After Deconstruction: A Response to CLS, 10 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies [OJLS] 539, 556 (1990).Google Scholar

47 Id.at 557.Google Scholar

48 Id. at 557–8.Google Scholar

49 Raban, Ofer, Dworkin's ‘Best Light’ Requirement and the Proper Methodology of Legal Theory, 23 OJLS 243, 244 (2003).Google Scholar

50 This is precisely the charge Dyzenhaus levels against contemporary legal positivism. David Dyzenhaus, Positivism's Stagnant research Proposal, 20 OJLS 703, 711–2 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

51 Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 173.Google Scholar

52 MacCormick, , supra note 46, at 578.Google Scholar

53 MacIntyre, Alasdair, After Virtue 14 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

54 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 608. Footnotes omitted.Google Scholar

56 Id. at 598.Google Scholar

57 A similar pathology afflicts the “descriptive thesis” of Koskenniemi's project, infra.Google Scholar

58 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 597.Google Scholar

59 Scobbie, , supra note 38, at 347.Google Scholar

60 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 597–8. Footnotes omitted.Google Scholar

61 Scobbie, , supra note 38, at 349.Google Scholar

62 See Cover, Robert, Nomos and Narrative 97 Harvard Law Review 4 (1983).Google Scholar

63 Only the meaning of the norm can be subject to dispute, the identity, or identification, of the norm must assumed (or agreed) before interpretation can commence. See, for example, Dworkin, Ronald, Law's Empire 65–6 (1988).Google Scholar

64 I have attempted to respond to the question of ontological indeterminacy in Jason Beckett, Countering Uncertainty and Ending Up/Down Arguments: Prolegomena to a Response to NAIL, 16 EJIL 213–238 (2005).Google Scholar

66 Duxbury, Neil, Patterns of American Jurisprudence 191–9 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

67 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 591.Google Scholar

69 Id. at 569.Google Scholar

71 Scobbie, , supra note 38, at 350Google Scholar

72 Beckett, , supra note 64, at 221.Google Scholar

73 Scobbie, , supra note 38, at 346.Google Scholar

75 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 591.Google Scholar

76 Bederman, David J., Book review of From Apology to Utopia, 23 New York Journal of International Law and Politics 228 (1990). See also Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 603.Google Scholar

77 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 591.Google Scholar

78 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 77.Google Scholar

79 MacIntyre, Alasdair, Epistemological Crises, Dramatic Narrative and the Philosophy of Science, 60 The Monist 453, 453–4, and 462–3 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

80 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 69–70.Google Scholar

81 This internalises – and temporarily suspends – disputes over which features are relevant to the construction of like cases, and over which standards these cases are to be subjected to.Google Scholar

82 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 596–7.Google Scholar

83 Koskenniemi, Martti, International Law as Political Theology: How to Read Nomos der Erde? 11 Constellations 492, 506 (2004).Google Scholar

84 Koskenniemi, , supra note 5, at 118–119.Google Scholar

85 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 606.Google Scholar

86 Harris-Short, supra note 14, at 346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

87 Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 162.Google Scholar

88 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 66.Google Scholar

89 See Beckett, , supra note 27; and Mercy, Particularity, the Map from the Void, in Archiv fur Rechts und Sozialphilosophie (forthcoming 2007).Google Scholar

90 Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 173.Google Scholar

91 See Koskenniemi, Martti The Politics of International Law 1 EJIL 4 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

92 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 564.Google Scholar

93 This was my second misreading, supra note 64. On the limitations of immanent critique, see Id. at 600.Google Scholar

94 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 502.Google Scholar

95 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 564.Google Scholar

96 Id. at 575.Google Scholar

97 Koskenniemi, , supra note 83, at 505.Google Scholar

98 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 600.Google Scholar

99 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 504.Google Scholar

100 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 57Google Scholar

101 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 616.Google Scholar

102 Unger, Roberto Mangabeira, The Critical Legal Studies Movement 1 (1986).Google Scholar

103 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 500.Google Scholar

104 Id. at 495–6 and on Friedman in particular, Id. at 498. The impossibility of reaching a determinate understanding of the demands of contemporary Public International Law by reference to classic Kelsenian methods is highlighted and persuasively demonstrated by the most consistent neo-Kelsenian currently writing on the subject of Public International Law, Jörg Kammerhofer, The Uncertainty in the Formal Sources of International Law: Customary International Law and Some of Its Problems, 15 EJIL 523 (2004).Google Scholar

105 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 500, 503. Again, Kammerhofer's writings may be relevant here, as they suggest that Kelsen was fully aware of the necessary indeterminacy of normative orders; that, in fact, Kelsen has been consistently, and radically, misunderstood by a legal academy which precisely fails to recognise his radicality. See, especially, his Uncertainty in International law. What does it look like, what causes it? (Aug 31 2006) (unpublished Ph.D, University of Vienna 2006) (Available at the University of Vienna Library and the Austrian National Library in Vienna).Google Scholar

106 In a similar vein, when understood in light of its own project, the eighth chapter of FATU does not contradict the first seven; see Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 602–4.Google Scholar

107 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 616.Google Scholar

108 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 503.Google Scholar

109 Id. at 504.Google Scholar

110 Id. at 506, emphasis added.Google Scholar

111 Koskenniemi, , supra note 5.Google Scholar

112 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 78; Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law supra note 8, at 165.Google Scholar

113 . Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 174.Google Scholar

114 Supra note 35, and accompanying text, supra.Google Scholar

115 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 501.Google Scholar

116 Actually, this claim may be a little too strong. If instrumentalism is excluded as a competent approach to international law then the words of a text would have some constraining force on interpretation; see notes 196–201 and accompanying text, infra.Google Scholar

117 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 500. Perhaps it is closer still to Nietzsche's “endless return”, or at least Deleuze's interpretation thereof, see Ronald Bogue, Deleuze and Guattari 31 (1989).Google Scholar

118 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 606, footnote 122 (citing Charlesworth).Google Scholar

119 Koskenniemi, , supra note 5, at 120.Google Scholar

120 MacCormick, Neil, Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory 97 (1978).Google Scholar

121 Theory of Moral Sentiments, Bk. III, ch. i., para. ii, at p. 110 (1976 Raphael and Macfie eds.).Google Scholar

122 Id., Bk. III, ch. I, para. v, at p. 112 “there is not in the world such a smoother of wrinkles as is every man's imagination, with regard to the blemishes of his own character”; see also Bk. III, ch. iii, at p. 134–56.Google Scholar

123 Id., Bk. III, ch. i, para. ii, at p. 105.Google Scholar

124 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 63. Emphasis added. [there is no emphasis here!]Google Scholar

125 Smith, , supra note 122, Bk. III, ch. iii, para. iv, at p. 136.Google Scholar

126 The phrases and the contrast between them are analysed by Shklar, Judith, The Faces of Injustice (1990).Google Scholar

127 On the inaccuracy of this understanding, see Pogge, Thomas, World Poverty and Human Rights 11–20 (2002).Google Scholar

128 Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 172.Google Scholar

129 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 562.Google Scholar

130 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

131 Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 175.Google Scholar

132 See, for example, Zedalis, Rex, Preliminary Thoughts on Some Unresolved Questions Involving the Law of Anticipatory Self-Defense, 19 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 129 (1987).Google Scholar

133 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 609.Google Scholar

134 Id. at 616.Google Scholar

135 Koskenniemi, , supra note 83, at 506.Google Scholar

136 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 500.Google Scholar

137 Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at 172.Google Scholar

138 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 609.Google Scholar

139 Smith, , supra note 121, Bk. III, ch. I, para. vi, at p. 106–7.Google Scholar

140 See Beckett, , supra note 64.Google Scholar

142 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 602.Google Scholar

143 See, for example, Dupuy, Pierre-Marie, Some Reflections on Contemporary International Law and the Appeal to Universal Values: A Response to Martti Koskenniemi, 16 EJIL 131 (2005).Google Scholar

144 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 509.Google Scholar

145 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 73.Google Scholar

146 Id. at 566.Google Scholar

147 Indeed we can go further, it assumes that law is a set of tasks to be accomplished, rather than a means of accomplishing certain tasks; but formalism must surely contain the claim that law is not a task, but a technique.Google Scholar

148 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 566.Google Scholar

149 Beckett, , supra note 64.Google Scholar

150 Perhaps a more telling analogy would be with the claim that immigrant communities in the England must be speaking a form of English, because they reside, interact, and communicate in England.Google Scholar

151 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 605.Google Scholar

152 Id. at 568.Google Scholar

153 Id. at footnote 9.Google Scholar

154 See, for example, Legality of the Use of Force (FRY v. USA) Preliminary Objections ICJ Order of 2nd June 1999 para. 30, 1999 ILM p. 1188 at p. 1195: “there is a fundamental distinction between the question of the acceptance by a State of the Court's jurisdiction and the compatibility of particular acts with international law.”Google Scholar

155 Put differently, Koskenniemi underestimates the importance of the Kantian observation that claims of legality preclude moral responsibility for the outcomes of (lawful) actions; however, see also supra note 131 and accompanying text, supra.Google Scholar

156 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 570.Google Scholar

157 Id. at 565.Google Scholar

158 Simpson, Gerry, Great Powers and Outlaw States: Unequal Sovereigns in the International Legal Order (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

159 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 69; Koskenniemi, , 'The Lady Doth Protest Too Much’ Kosovo, and the Turn to Ethics in International Law, supra note 8, at footnote note 46.Google Scholar

161 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 505.Google Scholar

163 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 63.Google Scholar

164 Fuller, Lon L., The Morality of Law 147 (1969).Google Scholar

165 Theses on Feuerbach, thesis XI. Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume One, p. 13 – 15 (Progress Publishers, Moscow, USSR, 1969) available at: http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/theses/theses.pdf.Google Scholar

166 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 569.Google Scholar

167 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 501.Google Scholar

168 Id. at 499.Google Scholar

169 Thirlway, H. W. A., Customary Law and Codification 52 (1972).Google Scholar

170 Beckett, , supra note 64, at 175. Allott, Philip, Language, Method and the Nature of International Law, 45 BYBIL 112 (1971).Google Scholar

171 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 499.Google Scholar

172 See Beckett, , supra note 64.Google Scholar

173 MacCormick, Neil, The Ethics of Legalism, 2 Ratio Iuris 184, 191 (1989). Hans Kelsen makes a very similar point in Pure Theory of Law 2 (1934).Google Scholar

174 Beckett, , supra note 64, at 214–5.Google Scholar

175 Koskenniemi, , supra note 5, at 119.Google Scholar

176 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 599.Google Scholar

177 Allott, Philip, Eunomia xxvii (2001); “We make the human world, including human institutions, through the power of the human mind. What we have made by thinking we can make new by new thinking.”Google Scholar

178 Bos, Maarten, A Methodology of International Law 7 (1984).Google Scholar

179 Pace, Raz, Joseph, Two Views of the Nature of the Theory of Law: A Partial Comparison, in Hart's Postscript 1, 36 (Jules L. Coleman, ed., 2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

180 Beckett, , supra note 64.Google Scholar

182 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 58.Google Scholar

183 Id. at 77.Google Scholar

184 Id. at 69.Google Scholar

185 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 500.Google Scholar

186 Id. at 507.Google Scholar

187 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 590.Google Scholar

188 Eco, Umberto, Reading My Readers, 107 Modern Language Notes 819, 821 (1992).Google Scholar

189 Koskenniemi, , supra note 7, at 496.Google Scholar

190 Kelsen, , supra note 173, at 350–2.Google Scholar

191 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 69; but contra Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 572–3.Google Scholar

192 Scobbie, Iain, Wicked Heresies or Legitimate Perspectives? Theory and International Law, in International Law, supra note 8, at 83, 8990.Google Scholar

193 By understanding order as the peaceful resolution of disputes by reference to an ‘impartial’ third-party, and focussing on ways to justify this (even though it cannot work), Koskenniemi's arguments legitimate non-neutrality – and preclude legitimate resort to extra-legal violence – through a particular (and circular) understanding of legitimacy (as order).Google Scholar

194 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 59, especially footnote 4.Google Scholar

195 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, at 571, 614 footnotes 15, 151.Google Scholar

196 Koskenniemi, , supra note 83, at 495.Google Scholar

198 Rasch, , supra note 27, at 38.Google Scholar

200 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 73.Google Scholar

201 Koskenniemi, , supra note 1, 606, 615 footnotes 122, 154.Google Scholar

202 This is so on two levels, first the viciously unfair and exploitative world trade system, on which see Id. The second is the concept of “ecological debt”. Put simply, for everyone on the planet to enjoy an average British lifestyle, we would require the resources of 3.1 planet Earths. Consequently, this lifestyle can only be maintained by expropriating resources, and actively denying them to those in the developing world. See, for example http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4897252.stm and: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4696924.stm Google Scholar

203 Beckett, , supra note 27.Google Scholar

205 Scobbie, , supra note 198, at 90–1.Google Scholar

206 Koskenniemi, , What Is International Law For?, supra note 8, at 77.Google Scholar

207 Id. at 77. His 2006 “Chorley Lecture” covered similar ground; this should be published in the Modern Law Review in 2007.Google Scholar

208 Blake, , supra note 4, 98.Google Scholar

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