Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-lfgmx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-03-03T14:03:00.675Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Slab break-off origin of 105 Ma A-type porphyritic granites in the Asa area of Tibet

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 February 2020

Hang Li
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China
Ming Wang*
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources Evaluation in Northeast Asia, Ministry of Land and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China
Xiao-Wen Zeng
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China
An-Bo Luo
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China
Yun-Peng Yu
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China
Xian-Jin Zeng
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China
Author for correspondence: Ming Wang, Email:


The study of the petrogenesis of some magmatic rocks with special geochemical attributes provides effective information for us to explore the deep geodynamic background of their formation. A series of granitic porphyry dykes have been found in the mélange zone of the Asa region in southern Tibet, whose genesis may be closely related to the evolution of the Meso-Tethyan Ocean. Regional geodynamic evolution is investigated by whole-rock geochemical analysis, zircon U–Pb dating and Lu–Hf isotopic analysis of two porphyritic granites. The Asa porphyritic granites have high SiO2 (74.29–78.65 wt %) and alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 6.51–9.35 wt %) contents, and low Al2O3 (11.60–14.51 wt %), CaO (0.04–0.19 wt MgO (0.01–0.10 wt %) contents. They are enriched in Zr, Nb, Ce, Y and Hf and depleted in Ti, Ba, Sr and P, consistent with A-type granites. The samples are relatively rich in LREEs, with LREE/HREE ratios of 1.73–3.04. They display negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.24–0.28) and obvious Ce anomalies in some samples. Zircon U–Pb analyses show that the porphyritic granites formed in late Early Cretaceous time, 107.4 to 105.5 Ma. Zircon εHf(t) values are in the range of 6.9 to 12.0. These data indicate that the porphyritic granites were sourced from interaction between mantle-derived and juvenile lower crust-derived melts, with the addition of oceanic sediment-derived melts. This occurred when the subducting Bangong–Nujiang oceanic crust split to create a slab window. Rising asthenosphere triggered re-melting of lower crust basalts, resulting in the formation of the late Early Cretaceous A-type granites around Asa.

Original Article
© Cambridge University Press 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Allègre, CJ, Courtillot, V, Tapponnier, P, Hirn, A, Mattauer, M, Coulon, C, Jaeger, JJ, Achache, J, Schärer, U, Marcoux, J, Burg, JP (1984) Structure and evolution of the Himalaya–Tibet orogenic belt. Nature 307, 1722.10.1038/307017a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andersen, T (2002) Correction of common lead in U–Pb analyses that do not report 204Pb. Chemical Geology 192, 5979.10.1016/S0009-2541(02)00195-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bao, ZW and Zhao, ZH (2008) Geochemistry of mineralization with exchangeable REY in the weathering crusts of granitic rocks in South China. Ore Geology Reviews 33, 519–35.10.1016/j.oregeorev.2007.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barker, F, Wones, DR, Sharp, WN and Desborough, GA (1975) The Pikes Peak batholith, Colorado front range, and a model for the origin of the gabbro–anorthosite–syenite–potassic granite suite. Precambrian Research 2, 97160.10.1016/0301-9268(75)90001-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouvier, A, Vervoort, JD and Patchett, PJ (2008) The Lu–Hf and Sm–Nd isotopic composition of CHUR: constraints from unequilibrated chondrites and implications for the bulk composition of terrestrial planets. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 273, 4857.10.1016/j.epsl.2008.06.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boztuğ, D, Harlavan, Y, Arehart, G, Satir, M and Avci, N (2007) K–Ar age, whole-rock and isotope geochemistry of A-type granitoids in the Divriği–Sivas region, eastern-central Anatolia, Turkey. Lithos 97, 193218.10.1016/j.lithos.2006.12.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, QS, Zhu, DC, Zhao, ZD, Dong, GC, Mo, XX, Liu, YS and Hu, ZC (2011) Zircon U–Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes of the Early Cretaceous Rena-Co rhyolites from southern margin of Qiangtang, Tibet, and their implications. Acta Petrologica Sinica 27, 2034–44.Google Scholar
Chen, WW, Zhang, SH, Ding, JK, Zhang, JH, Zhao, XX, Zhu, LD, Yang, WG, Yang, T, Li, HY and Wu, HC (2017) Combined paleomagnetic and geochronological study on Cretaceous strata of the Qiangtang terrane, central Tibet. Gondwana Research 41, 373–89.10.1016/ Scholar
Chen, Y, Zhu, DC, Zhao, ZD, Meng, FY, Wang, Q, Santosh, M, Wang, LQ, Dong, GC and Mo, XX (2014) Slab breakoff triggered ca. 113 Ma magmatism around Xainza area of the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. Gondwana Research 26, 449–63.10.1016/ Scholar
Class, C and Leroex, AP (2008) Ce anomalies in Gough Island lavas — trace element characteristics of a recycled sediment component. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 265, 475–86.10.1016/j.epsl.2007.10.030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, WJ, Beams, SD, White, AJR and Chappell, BW (1982) Nature and origin of A-type granites with particular reference to southeastern Australia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 80, 189200.10.1007/BF00374895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cotten, J, Ledez, A, Bau, M, Caroff, M, Maury, RC, Dulski, P, Fourcade, S, Bohn, M and Brousse, R (1995) Origin of anomalous rare earth element and yttrium enrichments in subaerially exposed basalts: evidence from French Polynesia. Chemical Geology 119, 115–38.10.1016/0009-2541(94)00102-ECrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coulon, C, Maluski, H, Bollinger, C and Wang, S (1986) Mesozoic and Cenozoic volcanic rocks from central and southern Tibet: 39Ar-40Ar dating, petrological characteristics and geodynamical significance. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 79, 281302.10.1016/0012-821X(86)90186-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Creaser, RA, Price, RC and Wormald, RJ (1991) A-type granites revisited: assessment of a residual-source model. Geology 19, 163–6.10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0163:ATGRAO>2.3.CO;22.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dai, J, Wang, C, Zhu, D, Li, Y, Zhong, H and Ge, Y (2015) Multi-stage volcanic activities and geodynamic evolution of the Lhasa terrane during the Cretaceous: insights from the Xigaze forearc basin. Lithos 218–219, 127–40.10.1016/j.lithos.2015.01.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, JH and Von Blanckenburg, F (1995) Slab breakoff: a model of lithosphere detachment and its test in the magmatism and deformation of collisional orogens. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 129, 85102.10.1016/0012-821X(94)00237-SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Baar, HJW, Bacon, MP and Brewer, PG (1983) Rare-earth distributions with a positive Ce anomaly in the Western North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 301, 324–7.10.1038/301324a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewey, JF, Shackleton, RM, Chengfa, C and Yiyin, S (1988) The tectonic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 327, 379413.Google Scholar
Ding, L and Lai, QZ (2003) New geological evidence of crustal thickening in the Gangdese block prior to the Indo-Asian collision. Chinese Science Bulletin 15, 1604–10.10.1007/BF03183969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dooley, DF and Patiño Douce, AE (1996) Vapor absent melting of F- and Ti-rich phlogopite + quartz: effects on phlogopite stability and melt compositions. American Mineralogist 81, 202–12.10.2138/am-1996-1-225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duretz, T, Gerya, TV and May, DA (2011) Numerical modelling of spontaneous slab breakoff and subsequent topographic response. Tectonophysics 502, 244–56.10.1016/j.tecto.2010.05.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eby, GN (1990) The A-type granitoids: a review of their occurrence and chemical characteristics and speculations on their petrogenesis. Lithos 26, 115–34.10.1016/0024-4937(90)90043-ZCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eby, GN (1992) Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Geology 20, 641–4.10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0641:CSOTAT>2.3.CO;22.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fan, JJ, Li, C, Wang, M and Xie, CM (2017) Reconstructing in space and time the closure of the middle and western segments of the Bangong–Nujiang Tethyan Ocean in the Tibetan Plateau. International Journal of Earth Sciences 107, 231–49.10.1007/s00531-017-1487-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fan, JJ, Li, C, Xie, CM, Wang, M and Chen, JW (2015) Petrology and U–Pb zircon geochronology of bimodal volcanic rocks from the Maierze Group, northern Tibet: constraints on the timing of closure of the Banggong-Nujiang Ocean. Lithos 227, 148–6010.1016/j.lithos.2015.03.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferrari, L (2004) Slab detachment control on mafic volcanic pulse and mantle heterogeneity in central Mexico. Geology 32, 7780.10.1130/G19887.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foland, KA and Allen, JC (1991) Magma sources for Mesozoic anorogenic granites of the White Mountain magma series, New England, USA. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 109, 195211.10.1007/BF00306479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goolaerts, A, Mattielli, N, De Jong, J, Weis, D and Scoates, JS (2004) Hf and Lu isotopic reference values for the zircon standard 91500 by MC–ICP–MS. Chemical Geology 206, 19.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.01.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grebennikov, AV (2014) A-type granites and related rocks: petrogenesis and classification. Russian Geology and Geophysics 55, 1353–66.10.1016/j.rgg.2014.10.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, WL, Pearson, NJ, Belousova, E, Jackson, SE, Van Achterbergh, E, O’Reilly, SY and Shee, SR (2000) The Hf isotope composition of cratonic mantle: LAM-MC-ICPMS analysis of zircon megacrysts in kimberlites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 133–47.10.1016/S0016-7037(99)00343-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, WL, Wang, X, Jackson, SE, Pearson, NJ and O’Reilly, SY (2002) Zircon geochemistry and magma mixing, SE China: in-situ analysis of Hf isotopes, Tonglu and Pingtan igneous complexes. Lithos 61, 237–69.10.1016/S0024-4937(02)00082-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grimes, CB, John, BE, Kelemen, PB, Mazdab, FK, Wooden, JL, Cheadle, MJ, Hanghøj, K and Schwartz, JJ (2007) Trace element chemistry of zircons from oceanic crust: a method for distinguishing detrital zircon provenance. Geology 35, 643–6.10.1130/G23603A.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haider, VL, Dunkl, I, Von Eynatten, H, Ding, L, Frei, D and Zhang, LY (2013) Cretaceous to Cenozoic evolution of the northern Lhasa Terrane and the Early Paleogene development of peneplains at Nam Co, Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 70–71, 7998.10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.03.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hao, LL, Wang, Q, Wyman, DA, Ou, Q, Dan, W, Jiang, ZQ, Wu, FY, Yang, JH, Long, XP and Li, J (2016) Underplating of basaltic magmas and crustal growth in a continental arc: evidence from Late Mesozoic intermediate–felsic intrusive rocks in southern Qiangtang, central Tibet. Lithos 245, 223–42.10.1016/j.lithos.2015.09.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hao, Y, Ren, Y, Zhao, H, Lai, K, Zhao, X and Ma, Y (2018) Metallogenic mechanism and tectonic setting of tungsten mineralization in the Yangbishan deposit in northeastern China. Acta Geologica Sinica – English Edition 92, 241–67.10.1111/1755-6724.13504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hole, M, Saunders, A, Marriner, G and Tarney, J (1984) Subduction of pelagic sediments: implications for the origin of Ce-anomalous basalts from the Mariana Islands. Journal of the Geological Society, London 141, 453–72.10.1144/gsjgs.141.3.0453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoskin, PWO and Black, LP (2000) Metamorphic zircon formation by solid-state recrystallization of protolith igneous zircon. Journal of Metamorphic Geology 18, 423–39.10.1046/j.1525-1314.2000.00266.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hou, ZQ, Gao, YF, Qu, XM, Rui, ZY and Mo, XX (2004) Origin of adakitic intrusives generated during mid-Miocene east-west extension in southern Tibet. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 220, 139–55.10.1016/S0012-821X(04)00007-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huppert, HE and Sparks, RSJ (1988) The generation of granitic magmas by intrusion of basalt into continental crust. Journal of Petrology 29, 599624.10.1093/petrology/29.3.599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kang, ZQ, Xu, JF, Dong, YH and Wang, BQ (2008) Cretaceous volcanic rocks of Zenong Group in north-middle Lhasa block: products of southward subducting of the Slainajap ocean? Acta Petrologica Sinca 24, 303–14 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Kapp, P, Decelles, PG, Gehrels, GE, Heizler, M and Ding, L (2007) Geological records of the Lhasa-Qiangtang and Indo-Asian collisions in the Nima area of central Tibet. Geological Society of America Bulletin 119, 917–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kapp, P, Yin, A, Harrison, TM and Ding, L (2005) Cretaceous–Tertiary shortening, basin development, and volcanism in central Tibet. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117, 865–78.10.1130/B25595.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerr, A and Fryer, BJ (1993) Nd isotope evidence for crust-mantle interaction in the generation of A-type granitoid suites in Labrador, Canada. Chemical Geology 104, 3960.10.1016/0009-2541(93)90141-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, PL, Chappell, BW, Allen, CM and White, AJR (2001) Are A-type granites the high-temperature felsic granites? Evidence from fractionated granites of the Wangrah Suite. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 48, 501–14.10.1046/j.1440-0952.2001.00881.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, PL, White, AJR, Chappell, BW and Allen, CM (1997) Characterization and origin of aluminous A-type granites from the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. Journal of Petrology 38, 371–91.10.1093/petroj/38.3.371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leier, AL, Kapp, P, Gehrels, GE, DeCelles, PG (2007) Detrital zircon geochronology of Carboniferous–Cretaceous strata in the Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet. Basin Research 19, 361–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, XK, Chen, J, Wang, RC and Li, C (2018) Temporal and spatial variations of Late Mesozoic granitoids in the SW Qiangtang, Tibet: implications for crustal architecture, Meso-Tethyan evolution and regional mineralization. Earth-Science Reviews 185, 374–96.10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.04.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, S, Guilmette, C, Yin, C, Ding, L, Zhang, J, Wang, H and Baral, U (2019) Timing and mechanism of Bangong-Nujiang ophiolite emplacement in the Gerze area of central Tibet. Gondwana Research 71, 179–93.10.1016/ Scholar
Li, Y, He, H, Wang, C, Wei, Y, Chen, X, He, J, Ning, Z and Zhou, A (2016) Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma) magmatism in the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet: product of slab break-off? International Journal of Earth Science 106, 1289–310.10.1007/s00531-016-1391-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, JX, Qin, KZ, Li, GM, Richards, JP, Zhao, JX and Cao, MJ (2014) Geochronology, geochemistry, and zircon Hf isotopic compositions of Mesozoic intermediate–felsic intrusions in central Tibet: petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Lithos 198–199, 7791.10.1016/j.lithos.2014.03.025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, XY, Xie, GG, Yuan, JY, Xiao, YB and Huang, CG (2002) Early Permian Raka Formation in the Ombu-Monco Bunnyi area Tibet – with a discussion of the formation environment and origin of petromictic conglomerate. Geological Bulletin of China 21, 723–7 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Li, SM, Zhu, DC, Wang, Q, Zhao, ZD, Sui, QL, Liu, SA, Liu, D and Mo, XX (2014) Northward subduction of Bangong–Nujiang Tethys: insight from Late Jurassic intrusive rocks from Bangong Tso in western Tibet. Lithos 205, 284–97.10.1016/j.lithos.2014.07.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, S, Hu, RZ, Gao, S, Feng, CX, Coulson, IM, Feng, GY, Qi, YQ, Yang, YH, Yang, CG and Tang, L (2012) U–Pb zircon age, geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic data as constraints on the petrogenesis and emplacement time of andesites from Gerze, southern Qiangtang Block, northern Tibet. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 45, 150–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, DL, Huang, QS, Fan, SY, Zhang, LY, Shi, RD and Ding, L (2014) Subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean: constraints from granites in the Bangong Co area, Tibet. Geological Journal 49, 188206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, WL, Huang, QT, Gu, M, Zhong, Y, Zhou, R, Gu, XD, Zheng, H, Liu, JN, Lu, XX and Xia, B (2018) Origin and tectonic implications of the Shiquanhe high-Mg andesite, western Bangong suture, Tibet. Gondwana Research 60, 114.10.1016/ Scholar
Liu, D, Shi, R, Ding, L, Huang, Q, Zhang, X, Yue, Y and Zhang, L (2017) Zircon U–Pb age and Hf isotopic compositions of Mesozoic granitoids in southern Qiangtang, Tibet: implications for the subduction of the Bangong–Nujiang Tethyan Ocean. Gondwana Research 41, 157–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, YM, Wang, M, Li, C, Li, S, Xie, CM, Zeng, XW, Dong, YC and Liu, JH (2018) Late Cretaceous tectono-magmatic activity in the Nize region, central Tibet: evidence for lithospheric delamination beneath the Qiangtang–Lhasa collision zone. International Geology Review 61, 562–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loiselle, MC and Wones, DR (1979) Characteristics and origin of anorogenic granites. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs 92, 468.Google Scholar
Ludwig, KR (2003) User’s Manual for Isoplot 3.00: A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center, Special Publication no. 4.Google Scholar
Luo, AB, Wang, M, Li, C, Xie, CM, Fan, JJ, Zhang, TY, Liu, JH and Wang, W (2019) Petrogenesis of early Late Cretaceous Asa-intrusive rocks in central Tibet, western China: post-collisional partial melting of thickened lower crust. International Journal of Earth Sciences 108, 1979–99.10.1007/s00531-019-01744-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ma, JL, Wei, GJ, Xu, YG, Long, WG and Sun, WD (2007) Mobilization and redistribution of major and trace elements during extreme weathering of basalt in Hainan Island, South China. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 3223–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mai, YJ, Yang, WG, Zhu, LD, Tao, G and Lu, ZY (2018) Zircon U–Pb age and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from the Queshenla formation in the Chagelong area of southern margin of Qiangtang, Tibet—restriction on the evolution time limit of the Ban Gong Lake Nu River Ocean basin. Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 38, 70–9 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Maniar, PD and Piccoli, PM (1989) Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. Geological Society of America Bulletin 101, 635–43.10.1130/0016-7606(1989)101<0635:TDOG>2.3.CO;22.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, H (1999) Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids. Lithos 46, 411–29.10.1016/S0024-4937(98)00076-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matte, P (1996) Tectonics of Western Tibet, between the Tarim and the Indus. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 142, 311–30.10.1016/0012-821X(96)00086-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Metcalfe, I (2013) Gondwana dispersion and Asian accretion: tectonic and palaeogeographic evolution of eastern Tethys. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 66, 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Middlemost, EAK (1986) Magmas and Magmatic Rocks: An Introduction to Igneous Petrology. London: Longman, 226, pp.Google Scholar
Middlemost, EAK (1994) Naming materials in the magma/igneous rock system. Earth-Science Reviews 37, 215–24.10.1016/0012-8252(94)90029-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morales Cámera, MM, Dahlquist, JA, Basei, MAS, Galindo, C, Da Costa Campos Neto, M and Facetti, N (2017) F-rich strongly peraluminous A-type magmatism in the pre-Andean foreland Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina: geochemical, geochronological, isotopic constraints and petrogenesis. Lithos 277, 210–27.10.1016/j.lithos.2016.10.035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, MA, Yin, A, Harrison, TM, Dürr, SB, Chen, Z, Ryerson, FJ, Kidd, WSF, Wang, X and Zhou, X (1997) Did the Indo-Asian collision alone create the Tibetan plateau? Geology 25, 719–22.10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0719:DTIACA>2.3.CO;22.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neal, CR and Taylor, LA (1989) A negative Ce anomaly in a peridotite xenolith: evidence for crustal recycling into the mantle or mantle metasomatism? Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53, 1035–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patino, LC, Velbel, MA, Price, JR and Wade, JA (2003) Trace element mobility during spheroidal weathering of basalts and andesites in Hawaii and Guatemala. Chemical Geology 202, 343–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patiño Douce, AE (1997) Generation of metaluminous A-type granites by low-pressure melting of calc-alkaline granitoids. Geology 25, 743–6.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patiño Douce, AE and Beard, JS (1995) Dehydration-melting of biotite gneiss and quartz amphibolite from 3 to 15 kbar. Journal of Petrology 36, 707–38.10.1093/petrology/36.3.707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patiño Douce, AE and Beard, JS (1996) Effects of P, f(O2) and Mg/Fe ratio on dehydration melting of model metagreywackes. Journal of Petrology 37, 9991024.10.1093/petrology/37.5.999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, JA, Harris, NBW and Tindle, AG (1984) Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology 25, 956–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, JA and Houjun, M (1988) Volcanic rocks of the 1985 Tibet geotraverse: Lhasa to Golmud. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 327, 169201.Google Scholar
Peccerillo, A and Taylor, SR (1976) Geochemistry of Eocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu area, northern Turkey. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 58, 6381.10.1007/BF00384745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plank, T and Langmuir, CH (1998) The geochemical composition of subducting sediment and its consequences for the crust and mantle. Chemical Geology 145, 325–94.10.1016/S0009-2541(97)00150-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, RC, Gray, CM, Wilson, RE, Frey, FA and Taylor, SR (1991) The effects of weathering on rare-earth element, Y and BA abundances in tertiary basalts from southeastern Australia. Chemical Geology 93, 245–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Qu, XM, Wang, RJ, Xin, HB, Jiang, JH and Chen, H (2012) Age and petrogenesis of A-type granites in the middle segment of the Bangonghu–Nujiang suture, Tibetan plateau. Lithos 146–147, 264–75.10.1016/j.lithos.2012.05.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scherer, E, Münker, C and Mezger, K (2001) Calibration of the lutetium-hafnium clock. Science 293, 683–7.10.1126/science.1061372CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shao, FL, Niu, YL, Regelous, M and Zhu, DC (2015) Petrogenesis of peralkaline rhyolites in an intra-plate setting: glass House Mountains, southeast Queensland, Australia. Lithos 216–217, 196210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shellnutt, JG and Zhou, MF (2007) Permian peralkaline, peraluminous and metaluminous A-type granites in the Panxi district, SW China: their relationship to the Emeishan mantle plume. Chemical Geology 243, 286316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skjerlie, KP and Johnston, AD (1992) Vapor-absent melting at 10 kbar of a biotite- and amphibole-bearing tonalitic gneiss: implications for the generation of A-type granites. Geology 20, 263–6.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Söderlund, U, Patchett, PJ, Vervoort, JD and Isachsen, CE (2004) The 176Lu decay constant determined by Lu–Hf and U–Pb isotope systematics of Precambrian mafic intrusions. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 219, 311–24.10.1016/S0012-821X(04)00012-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sparks, RSJ and Marshall, L (1986) Thermal and mechanical constraints on mixing between mafic and silicic magmas. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 29, 99124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stow, DAV and Shanmugam, G (1980) Sequence of structures in fine-grained turbidites: comparison of recent deep-sea and ancient flysch sediments. Sedimentary Geology 25, 2342.10.1016/0037-0738(80)90052-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sui, QL, Wang, Q, Zhu, DC, Zhao, ZD, Chen, Y, Santosh, M, Hu, ZC, Yuan, LY and Mo, XX (2013) Compositional diversity of ca. 110 Ma magmatism in the northern Lhasa terrane, Tibet: implications for the magmatic origin and crustal growth in a continent–continent collision zone. Lithos 168, 144–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, SS and McDonough, WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In Magmatism in the Ocean Basins (eds Saunders, AD and Norry, MJ), pp. 313–45. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 42.Google Scholar
Turner, S, Sandiford, M and Foden, J (1992) Some geodynamic and compositional constraints on “postorogenic” magmatism. Geology 20, 931–4.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, PJ, Frank, M, Werner, S, Liu, WZ, Tian, WQ and Li, C (2003) The Cretaceous of the Eastern Bangong-Nujiang Suture Zone (Tibet): tectono-sedimentation. Global Geology 22, 105–10 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Wang, M, Li, C, Xie, CM, et al. (2019) 1:50000 Geological Survey Report of Nyima County, Tibet. Changchun: Jilin University (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Wen, DR, Chung, SL, Song, B, Iizuka, Y, Yang, HJ, Ji, J, Liu, D and Gallet, S (2008) Late Cretaceous Gangdese intrusions of adakitic geochemical characteristics, SE Tibet: petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Lithos 105, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whalen, JB, Currie, KL and Chappell, BW (1987) A-type granites: geochemical characteristics, discrimination and petrogenesis. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 95, 407–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whalen, JB, Jenner, GA, Longstaffe, FJ, Robert, F and Gariepy, C (1996) Geochemical and isotopic (O, Nd, Pb and Sr) constraints on A-type granite petrogenesis based on the Topsails igneous suite, Newfoundland Appalachians. Journal of Petrology 37, 1463–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, M (1989) Island arcs. In Igneous Petrogenesis, pp. 153–90. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, M (1993) Magmatism and the geodynamics of basin formation. Sedimentary Geology 86, 529.10.1016/0037-0738(93)90131-NCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodhead, J, Hergt, J, Shelley, M, Eggins, S and Kemp, R (2004) Zircon Hf-isotope analysis with an excimer laser, depth profiling, ablation of complex geometries, and concomitant age estimation. Chemical Geology 209, 121–35.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.04.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, H, Li, C, Hu, P and Li, X (2015a) Early Cretaceous (100–105 Ma) adakitic magmatism in the Dachagou area, Northern Lhasa Terrane, Tibet: implications for the Bangong–Nujiang Ocean subduction and slab break-off. International Geology Review 57, 1172–88.10.1080/00206814.2014.886152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, H, Li, C, Hu, PY, Zhang, HY and Li, J (2014) The discovery of Early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic rocks in the Dachagou area of Tibet and its significance. Geological Bulletin of China 33, 1804–14.Google Scholar
Wu, H, Li, C, Xu, M and Li, X (2015b) Early Cretaceous adakitic magmatism in the Dachagou area, northern Lhasa terrane, Tibet: implications for slab roll-back and subsequent slab break-off of the lithosphere of the Bangong–Nujiang Ocean. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 97, 5166.10.1016/j.jseaes.2014.10.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, H, Qiangba, Z, Li, C, Wang, Q, Gesang, W, Ciren, O and Basang, D (2018) Geochronology and geochemistry of Early Cretaceous granitic rocks in the Dongqiao Area, Central Tibet: implications for magmatic origin and geological evolution. The Journal of Geology, 126, 249–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, FY, Sun, DY, Li, H, Jahn, BM and Wilde, S (2002) A-type granites in northeastern China: age and geochemical constraints on their petrogenesis. Chemical Geology 187, 143–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, H, Sun, SL, Liu, HY, Chu, H and Ding, W (2019) An Early Cretaceous slab window beneath Central Tibet, SW China: evidence from OIB-like alkaline gabbros in the Duolong area. Terra Nova 31, 6775.Google Scholar
Wu, H, Xie, C, Li, C, Wang, M, Fan, J and Xu, W (2016) Tectonic shortening and crustal thickening in subduction zones: evidence from Middle–Late Jurassic magmatism in Southern Qiangtang, China. Gondwana Research 39, 113.10.1016/ Scholar
Xie, L, Dun, Z, Zhu, LD, Nima, CR, Yang, WG, Tao, G, Li, C, He, B and He, Y (2015) Zircon U–Pb geochronology, geochemistry and geological significance of the Zhaduding A-type granites in northern Gangdise, Tibet. Geology in China 42, 1214–27 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Xu, MJ, Li, C, Zhang, XZ and Wu, YW (2014) Nature and evolution of the Neo-Tethys in central Tibet: synthesis of ophiolitic petrology, geochemistry, and geochronology. International Geology Review 56, 1072–96.10.1080/00206814.2014.919616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yan, GC, Wang, BD, Liu, H, Wang, LQ and Zhou, F (2017) LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb ages of adakitic rocks in Dongco area, Tibet, and their tectonic implications. Geological Bulletin of China 36, 1772–82 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Yang, ZY, Wang, Q, Zhang, C, Dan, W, Zhang, XZ, Qi, Y, Xia, XP and Zhao, ZH (2018) Rare earth element tetrad effect and negative Ce anomalies of the granite porphyries in southern Qiangtang Terrane, central Tibet: new insights into the genesis of highly evolved granites. Lithos 312–313, 258–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, JH, Wu, FY, Chung, SL, Wilde, SA and Chu, MF (2006) A hybrid origin for the Qianshan A-type granite, northeast China: geochemical and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic evidence. Lithos 89, 89106.10.1016/j.lithos.2005.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yin, A and Harrison, TM (2000) Geologic evolution of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 28, 211–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yu, H (2011) Mineral geochemical characteristics and genetic mechanism of olivine rocks in Shangnan, Shanxi. M.Sc. thesis, China University of Geoscience, Beijing, China. (in Chinese with English abstract). Published thesis.Google Scholar
Yuan, HL, Gao, S, Dai, MN, Zong, CL, Günther, D, Fontaine, GH, Liu, XM and Diwu, CR (2008) Simultaneous determinations of U–Pb age, Hf isotopes and trace element compositions of zircon by excimer laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICP-MS. Chemical Geology 247, 100–18.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yuan, HL, Gao, S, Liu, XM, Li, HM, Günther, D and Wu, FY (2004) Accurate U–Pb age and trace element determinations of zircon by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research 28, 353–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeng, YC, Chen, JL, Xu, JF, Wang, BD and Huang, F (2016) Sediment melting during subduction initiation: geochronological and geochemical evidence from the Darutso high-Mg andesites within ophiolite melange, central Tibet. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 17, 4859–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeng, XW, Wang, M, Fan, JJ, Li, C, Xie, CM, Liu, YM and Zhang, TY (2018) Geochemistry and geochronology of gabbros from the Asa Ophiolite, Tibet: implications for the Early Cretaceous evolution of the Meso-Tethys Ocean. Lithos 320–321, 192206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeng, XW, Wang, M, Fan, JJ, Yu, YP, Luo, AB and Hao, YJ (2019) Geochemistry and chronological characteristics of the Early Cretaceous mafic dikes in the Asa area, North Tibet: constraints on the closure time of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean. Earth Science 44, 2408–25 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Zhang, KJ, Xia, BD, Wang, GM, Li, YT and Ye, HF (2004) Early Cretaceous stratigraphy, depositional environments, sandstone provenance, and tectonic setting of central Tibet, western China. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116, 1202–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, KJ, Zhang, YX, Tang, XC and Xia, B (2012) Late Mesozoic tectonic evolution and growth of the Tibetan plateau prior to the Indo-Asian collision. Earth-Science Reviews 114, 236–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, LL, Zhu, DC, Zhao, ZD, Liao, ZL, Wang, LQ and Mo, XX (2011) Early granitoids in Xainza, Tibet: evidence of slab break-off. Acta Petrologica Sinica 27, 1938–48.Google Scholar
Zhang, XQ, Zhu, DC, Zhao, ZD, Wang, LQ, Hang, JC and Mo, XX (2010) Petrogenesis of the Nixiong pluton in Coqen, Tibet and its potential significance for the Nixiong Fe-rich mineralization. Acta Petrologica Sinica 26, 1793–804 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Zhu, DC, Li, SM, Cawood, PA, Wang, Q, Zhao, ZD, Liu, SA and Wang, LQ (2016) Assembly of the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes in central Tibet by divergent double subduction. Lithos 245, 717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, DC, Mo, XX, Niu, Y, Zhao, ZD, Wang, LQ, Liu, YS and Wu, FY (2009) Geochemical investigation of Early Cretaceous igneous rocks along an east–west traverse throughout the central Lhasa Terrane, Tibet. Chemical Geology 268, 298312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhu, DC, Mo, XX, Wang, LQ, Zhao, ZD and Liao, ZL (2008a) Hotspot-ridge interaction for the evolution of Neo-Tethys: insights from the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous magmatism in southern Tibet. Acta Petrologica Sinica 24, 225–37 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
Zhu, DC, Pan, GT, Wang, LQ, Mo, XX, Zhao, ZD, Zhou, CY, Liao, ZL, Dong, GL and Yuan, SH (2008b) Tempo-spatial variations of Mesozoic magmatic rocks in the Gangdise belt, Tibet, China, with a discussion of geodynamic setting-related issues. Geological Bulletin of China 27, 1535–50.Google Scholar
Zhu, DC, Zhao, ZD, Niu, Y, Dilek, Y, Hou, ZQ and Mo, XX (2013) The origin and pre-Cenozoic evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. Gondwana Research 23, 1429–54.10.1016/ Scholar
Zhu, DC, Zhao, ZD, Niu, Y, Mo, XX, Chung, SL, Hou, ZQ, Wang, LQ and Wu, FY (2011) The Lhasa Terrane: record of a microcontinent and its histories of drift and growth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 301, 241–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar