Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-bv7lh Total loading time: 0.236 Render date: 2021-06-12T21:37:24.072Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Human adipose tissue stem cells: relevance in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic diseases and therapeutic applications

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 December 2012

Angelo Cignarelli
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation – Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Sebastio Perrini
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation – Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Romina Ficarella
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation – Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Alessandro Peschechera
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation – Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Pasquale Nigro
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation – Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Francesco Giorgino
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation – Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
Corresponding

Abstract

Stem cells are unique cells exhibiting self-renewing properties and the potential to differentiate into multiple specialised cell types. Totipotent or pluripotent stem cells are generally abundant in embryonic or fetal tissues, but the use of discarded embryos as sources of these cells raises challenging ethical problems. Adult stem cells can also differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. In particular, adult adipose tissue contains a pool of abundant and accessible multipotent stem cells, designated as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), that are able to replicate as undifferentiated cells, to develop as mature adipocytes and to differentiate into multiple other cell types along the mesenchymal lineage, including chondrocytes, myocytes and osteocytes, and also into cells of endodermal and neuroectodermal origin, including beta-cells and neurons, respectively. An impairment in the differentiation potential and biological functions of ASCs may contribute to the development of obesity and related comorbidities. In this review, we summarise different aspects of the ASCs with special reference to the isolation and characterisation of these cell populations, their relation to the biochemical features of the adipose tissue depot of origin and to the metabolic characteristics of the donor subject and discuss some prospective therapeutic applications.

Type
Review Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1Giorgino, F., Laviola, L. and Eriksson, J. (2005) Regional differences of insulin action in adipose tissue: insights from in vivo and in vitro studies. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 183, 13-30CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2Laviola, L. et al. (2006) Insulin signalling in human adipose tissue. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 112, 82-88CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3Tchkonia, T. et al. (2007) Identification of depot-specific human fat cell progenitors through distinct expression profiles and developmental gene patterns. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 292, E298-E307CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4Katz, A.J. et al. (2005) Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells. Stem Cells 23, 412-423CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5Perrini, S. et al. (2008) Fat depot-related differences in gene expression, adiponectin secretion, and insulin action and signalling in human adipocytes differentiated in vitro from precursor stromal cells. Diabetologia 51, 155-164CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6Miyazaki, T. et al. (2005) Isolation of two human fibroblastic cell populations with multiple but distinct potential of mesenchymal differentiation by ceiling culture of mature fat cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue. Differentiation 73, 69-78CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7Matsumoto, T. et al. (2008) Fracture induced mobilization and incorporation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells for bone healing. Journal of Cellular Physiology 215, 234-242CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8Perrini, S. et al. (2009) Human adipose tissue precursor cells: a new factor linking regulation of fat mass to obesity and type 2 diabetes? Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 115, 218-226CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9Gimble, J.M. and Guilak, F. (2003) Differentiation potential of adipose derived adult stem (ADAS) cells. Current Topics in Developmental Biology 58, 137-160CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10Zuk, P.A. et al. (2002) Human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Molecular Biology of the Cell 13, 4279-4295CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11Zuk, P. et al. (2001) Multilineage cells from human adipose tissue: implications for cell-based therapies. Tissue Engineering 7, 211-228CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12Rodriguez, A. et al. (2005) The human adipose tissue is a source of multipotent stem cells. Biochimie 87, 125-128CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13Gimble, J.M. and Guilak, F. (2003) Adipose-derived adult stem cells: isolation, characterization, and differentiation potential. Cytotherapy 5, 362-369CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14Lee, J.A. et al. (2003) Biological alchemy: engineering bone and fat from fat-derived stem cells. Annals of Plastic Surgery 50, 610-617CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15Gronthos, S. et al. (2001) Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology 189, 54-63CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16International Fat Applied Technology Society (IFATS) (2004). International Fat Applied Technology Society Determines That Stem Cells From Fat Offer Promising Clinical Opportunities for Future Research. The Free Library. Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/InternationalFatAppliedTechnologySocietyDeterminesThatStem...-a0122826380Google Scholar
17Sugihara, H. et al. (1986) Primary cultures of unilocular fat cells: characteristics of growth in vitro and changes in differentiation properties. Differentiation 31, 42-49CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18Tang, W. et al. (2008) White fat progenitor cells reside in the adipose vasculature. Science 322, 583-586CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19Gupta, R.K. et al. (2012) Zfp423 expression identifies committed preadipocytes and localizes to adipose endothelial and perivascular cells. Cell Metabolism 15, 230-239CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20Zimmerlin, L. et al. (2010) Stromal vascular progenitors in adult human adipose tissue. Cytometry. Part A 77, 22-30Google ScholarPubMed
21Cai, X. et al. (2011) Adipose stem cells originate from perivascular cells. Biology of the Cell 103, 435-447CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22Mareschi, K. et al. (2006) Neural differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: evidence for expression of neural markers and eag K+ channel types. Experimental Hematology 34, 1563-1572CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23Ashjian, P.H. et al. (2003) In vitro differentiation of human processed lipoaspirate cells into early neural progenitors. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 111, 1922-1931CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24Chandra, V. et al. (2011) Islet-like cell aggregates generated from human adipose tissue derived stem cells ameliorate experimental diabetes in mice. PLoS ONE 6, e20615CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25Choi, B. et al. (2010) Cell behavior on extracellular matrix mimic materials based on mussel adhesive protein fused with functional peptides. Biomaterials 31, 8980-8988CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26Choi, Y.S. et al. (2010) Differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into beating cardiomyocytes. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 14, 878-889CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27Auxenfans, C. et al. (2011) Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) as a source of endothelial cells in the reconstruction of endothelialized skin equivalents. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 6, 512-518CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28Zhai, Y. et al. (2011) [In vitro effect of N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide on differentiation from human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to endothelial cells]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 33, 306-312Google Scholar
29Kuri-Harcuch, W. and Green, H. (1978) Adipose conversion of 3T3 cells depends on a serum factor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 75, 6107-6109CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30Ailhaud, G., Grimaldi, P. and Négrel, R. (1992) Cellular and molecular aspects of adipose tissue development. Annual Review of Nutrition 12, 207-233CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31Bernlohr, D. et al. (1985) Tissue specific expression of p422 protein, a putative lipid carrier, in mouse adipocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 132, 850-855CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32Kim, K. et al. (2007) Pref-1 (preadipocyte factor 1) activates the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Molecular and Cellular Biology 27, 2294-2308CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33Jing, K. et al. (2009) Expression regulation and function of Pref-1 during adipogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1791, 816-826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34Boquest, A.C. et al. (2006) Epigenetic programming of mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue. Stem Cell Reviews 2, 319-329CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
35Nedergaard, J. et al. (2007) Unexpected evidence for active brown adipose tissue in adult humans. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 293, E444-E452CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36Seale, P. et al. (2008) PRDM16 controls a brown fat/skeletal muscle switch. Nature 454, 961-967CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37Timmons, J.A. et al. (2007) Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 4401-4406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38Murano, I. et al. (2005) The adipose organ of Sv129 mice contains a prevalence of brown adipocytes and shows plasticity after cold exposure. Adipocytes 1, 121-130Google Scholar
39Himms-Hagen, J. et al. (2000) Multilocular fat cells in WAT of CL-316243-treated rats derive directly from white adipocytes. American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology 279, 670-681Google ScholarPubMed
40Granneman, J.G. et al. (2005) Metabolic and cellular plasticity in white adipose tissue I: effects of beta3-adrenergic receptor activation. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 289, 608-616CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41Cinti, S. (2009) Transdifferentiation properties of adipocytes in the adipose organ. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 297, 977-986CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42Petrovic, N. et al. (2010) Chronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation of epididymally derived white adipocyte cultures reveals a population of thermogenically competent, UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285, 7153-7164CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43Halvorsen, Y. et al. (2001) Extracellular matrix mineralization and osteoblast gene expression by human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Tissue Engineering 7, 729-741CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44Dragoo, J. et al. (2003) Tissue-engineered cartilage and bone using stem cells from human infrapatellar fat pads. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery – British Volume 85, 740-747Google ScholarPubMed
45Gastaldi, G. et al. (2010) Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) proliferate and differentiate in osteoblast-like cells on trabecular titanium scaffolds. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A 94, 790-799Google ScholarPubMed
46Nöth, U. et al. (2007) Chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in collagen type I hydrogels. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A 83, 626-635CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
47Yoon, I. et al. (2011) Proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in porous hyaluronic acid scaffold. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 112, 402-408CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
48Winter, A. et al. (2003) Cartilage-like gene expression in differentiated human stem cell spheroids: a comparison of bone marrow-derived and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Arthritis and Rheumatism 48, 418-429CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
49Erickson, G.R. et al. (2002) Chondrogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 290, 763-769CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
50Mizuno, H. et al. (2002) Myogenic differentiation by human processed lipoaspirate cells. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 109, 199-209CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51Bacou, F. et al. (2004) Transplantation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells increases mass and functional capacity of damaged skeletal muscle. Cell Transplantation 13, 103-111CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52Vieira, N.M. et al. (2008) Human multipotent adipose-derived stem cells restore dystrophin expression of Duchenne skeletal-muscle cells in vitro. Biology of the Cell 100, 231-241CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
53da Justa Pinheiro, C.H. et al. (2011) Local Injections of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells modulate inflammation and increase angiogenesis ameliorating the dystrophic phenotype in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle. Stem Cell Reviews and Reports 8, 363-374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
54Miranville, A. et al. (2004) Improvement of postnatal neovascularization by human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Circulation 110, 349-355CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55Rehman, J. et al. (2004) Secretion of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors by human adipose stromal cells. Circulation 109, 1292-1298CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56Liqing, Y. et al. (2011) Directed differentiation of motor neuron cell-like cells from human adipose-derived stem cells in vitro. Neuroreport 22, 370-373CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
57Cardozo, A.J., Gómez, D.E. and Argibay, P.F. (2011) Transcriptional characterization of Wnt and notch signaling pathways in neuronal differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 44, 186-194CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
58Woodbury, D. et al. (2000) Adult rat and human bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Research 61, 364-3703.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
59Arboleda, D. et al. (2011) Transplantation of predifferentiated adipose-derived stromal cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 31, 1113-1122CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
60Scholz, T. et al. (2011) Neuronal differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells for peripheral nerve regeneration in vivo. Archives of Surgery 146, 666-674CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
61Jang, S. et al. (2010) Functional neural differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells using bFGF and forskolin. BMC Cell Biology 11, 25-25CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62Marchand, M. et al. (2009) Mouse ES cells over-expressing the transcription factor NeuroD1 show increased differentiation towards endocrine lineages and insulin-expressing cells. International Journal of Developmental Biology 53, 569-578CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63Nakanishi, M. et al. (2007) Pancreatic tissue formation from murine embryonic stem cells in vitro. Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity 75, 1-11CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
64D'Amour, K.A. et al. (2006) Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells. Nature Biotechnology 24, 1392-1401CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
65Blyszczuk, P. et al. (2004) Embryonic stem cells differentiate into insulin-producing cells without selection of nestin-expressing cells. International Journal of Developmental Biology 48, 1095-1104CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
66Soria, B. (2001) In-vitro differentiation of pancreatic beta-cells. Differentiation 68, 205-219CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
67Lumelsky, N. et al. (2001) Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to insulin-secreting structures similar to pancreatic islets. Science 292, 1389-1394CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
68Metzele, R. et al. (2011) Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells exhibit proliferation potential and spontaneous rhythmic contraction after fusion with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. FASEB Journal 25, 830-839CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
69Vohl, M. et al. (2004) A survey of genes differentially expressed in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in men. Obesity Research 12, 1217-1222CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
70Linder, K. et al. (2004) Differentially expressed genes in visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese men and women. Journal of Lipid Research 45, 148-154CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
71Atzmon, G. et al. (2002) Differential gene expression between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots. Hormone and Metabolic Research 34, 622-628CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
72Tchkonia, T. et al. (2006) Fat depot-specific characteristics are retained in strains derived from single human preadipocytes. Diabetes 55, 2571-2578CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
73Van Harmelen, V. et al. (2004) Comparison of proliferation and differentiation capacity of human adipocyte precursor cells from the omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue depot of obese subjects. Metabolism 53, 632-637CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74Baglioni, S. et al. (2012) Functional differences in visceral and subcutaneous fat pads originate from differences in the adipose stem cell. PLoS ONE 7, e36569CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
75Gesta, S. et al. (2006) Evidence for a role of developmental genes in the origin of obesity and body fat distribution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 6676-6681CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
76Sepe, A. et al. (2011) Aging and regional differences in fat cell progenitors – a mini-review. Gerontology 57, 66-75CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
77Schipper, B.M. et al. (2008) Regional anatomic and age effects on cell function of human adipose-derived stem cells. Annals of Plastic Surgery 60, 538-544CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
78Shahparaki, A., Grunder, L. and Sorisky, A. (2002) Comparison of human abdominal subcutaneous versus omental preadipocyte differentiation in primary culture. Metabolism 51, 1211-1215CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
79Montague, C. et al. (1998) Depot-related gene expression in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes. Diabetes 47, 1384-1391CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
80Adams, M. et al. (1997) Activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma have depot-specific effects on human preadipocyte differentiation. Journal of Clinical Investigation 100, 3149-3153CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
81Tchoukalova, Y.D. et al. (2010) Sex- and depot-dependent differences in adipogenesis in normal-weight humans. Obesity 18, 1875-1880CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
82Niesler, C., Siddel, K. and Prins, J. (1998) Human preadipocytes display a depot-specific susceptibility to apoptosis. Diabetes 47, 1365-1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
83Kern, P.A. et al. (2001) Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 280, E745-E751Google ScholarPubMed
84Hotta, K. et al. (2001) Circulating concentrations of the adipocyte protein adiponectin are decreased in parallel with reduced insulin sensitivity during the progression to type 2 diabetes in rhesus monkeys. Diabetes 50, 1126-1133CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
85Friedman, J.M. et al. (1998) Leptin and the regulation of body weight in mammals. Nature 395, 763-770CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
86Iyengar, P. et al. (2003) Adipocyte-secreted factors synergistically promote mammary tumorigenesis through induction of anti-apoptotic transcriptional programs and proto-oncogene stabilization. Oncogene 22, 6408-6423CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
87D'Esposito, V. et al. (2012) Adipocyte-released insulin-like growth factor-1 is regulated by glucose and fatty acids and controls breast cancer cell growth in vitro. Diabetologia 55, 2811-2822CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
88Baker, M. et al. (2005) Association between common polymorphisms of the proopiomelanocortin gene and body fat distribution: a family study. Diabetes 54, 2492-2496CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
89Nelson, T. et al. (2000) Genetic and environmental influences on body fat distribution, fasting insulin levels and CVD: are the influences shared? Twin Research 3, 43-50CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
90Spalding, K.L. et al. (2008) Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. Nature 453, 783-787CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91Arner, P. et al. (2011) Dynamics of human adipose lipid turnover in health and metabolic disease. Nature 478, 110-113CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
92Permana, P.A. et al. (2004) Subcutaneous abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in vitro inversely correlates with central obesity. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 286, E958-E962CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
93Tchoukalova, Y., Koutsari, C. and Jensen, M. (2007) Committed subcutaneous preadipocytes are reduced in human obesity. Diabetologia 50, 151-157CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
94Isakson, P. et al. (2009) Impaired preadipocyte differentiation in human abdominal obesity: role of Wnt, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and inflammation. Diabetes 58, 1550-1557CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95Sakurai, T. et al. (2010) Effects of exercise training on adipogenesis of stromal-vascular fraction cells in rat epididymal white adipose tissue. Acta Physiologica 200, 325-338CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
96Xu, X. et al. (2012) Altered adipocyte progenitor population and adipose-related gene profile in adipose tissue by long-term high-fat diet in mice. Life Sciences 90, 1001-1009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
97Clinicaltrials.gov – U.S. National Institutes of Health (2012) Retrieved October 4, 2011 from http://clinicaltrials.govGoogle Scholar
98Kim, M. et al. (2006) Muscle regeneration by adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells attached to injectable PLGA spheres. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 348, 386-392CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
99Tseng, Y.H., Cypess, A.M. and Kahn, C.R. (2010) Cellular bioenergetics as a target for obesity therapy. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 9, 465-482CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
100Kuhbier, J.W. et al. (2010) Isolation, characterization, differentiation, and application of adipose-derived stem cells. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 123, 55-105Google ScholarPubMed
101Gavrilova, O. et al. (2000) Surgical implantation of adipose tissue reverses diabetes in lipoatrophic mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 105, 271-278CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
102Liu, Y. et al. (2007) Flk-1+ adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into skeletal muscle satellite cells and ameliorate muscular dystrophy in mdx mice. Stem Cells and Development 16, 695-706CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
103Thesleff, T. et al. (2011) Cranioplasty with adipose-derived stem cells and biomaterial: a novel method for cranial reconstruction. Neurosurgery 68, 1535-1540CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
104Nathan, S. et al. (2003) Cell-based therapy in the repair of osteochondral defects: a novel use for adipose tissue. Tissue Engineering 9, 733-744CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
105Cao, Y. et al. (2005) Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro and improve postnatal neovascularization in vivo. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 332, 370-379CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
106Cousin, B. et al. (2003) Reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice by cells isolated from adipose tissue. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 301, 1016-1022CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
107Shi, D. et al. (2011) Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells facilitate the immunosuppressive effect of cyclosporin A on T lymphocytes through Jagged-1-mediated inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Experimental Hematology 39, 214-224.e1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
108Tse, W.T. et al. (2003) Suppression of allogeneic T-cell proliferation by human marrow stromal cells: implications in transplantation. Transplantation 75, 389-397CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
109Puissant, B. et al. (2005) Immunomodulatory effect of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells: comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. British Journal of Haematology 129, 118-129CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
110Madonna, R., Geng, Y. and De Caterina, R. (2009) Adipose tissue-derived stem cells: characterization and potential for cardiovascular repair. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 29, 1723-1729CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
111Hwangbo, S. et al. (2010) Therapeutic potential of human adipose stem cells in a rat myocardial infarction model. Yonsei Medical Journal 51, 69-76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
112Bai, X. et al. (2010) Both cultured and freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived stem cells enhance cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal 31, 489-501CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
113Sanz-Ruiz, R. et al. (2009) Early translation of adipose-derived cell therapy for cardiovascular disease. Cell Transplantation 18, 245-254CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
114Bel, A. et al. (2010) Composite cell sheets: a further step toward safe and effective myocardial regeneration by cardiac progenitors derived from embryonic stem cells. Circulation 122, S118-23CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
115Danoviz, M.E. et al. (2010) Rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells transplantation attenuates cardiac dysfunction post infarction and biopolymers enhance cell retention. PLoS ONE 5, e12077CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
116Giorgino, F. (2009) Adipose tissue function and dysfunction: organ cross talk and metabolic risk. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 297, E975-E976CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Human adipose tissue stem cells: relevance in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic diseases and therapeutic applications
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Human adipose tissue stem cells: relevance in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic diseases and therapeutic applications
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Human adipose tissue stem cells: relevance in the pathophysiology of obesity and metabolic diseases and therapeutic applications
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *