Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-65dc7cd545-srjzm Total loading time: 0.171 Render date: 2021-07-25T11:06:02.480Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents with first episode psychosis: A two-year follow-up study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 April 2020

M. Mayoral
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
A. Zabala
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
O. Robles
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
I. Bombín
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
P. Andrés
Affiliation:
Section of Psychiatry and Psychology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesus, Avda/ Menéndez Pelayo 65, 28009Madrid, Spain
M. Parellada
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
D. Moreno
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
M. Graell
Affiliation:
Section of Psychiatry and Psychology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesus, Avda/ Menéndez Pelayo 65, 28009Madrid, Spain
O. Medina
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
C. Arango
Affiliation:
Adolescent Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, C/ Ibiza 43, 28009Madrid, Spain Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychotic disorders. Both in adult and adolescent populations, studies have shown that patients with psychosis have poorer cognitive functioning than controls. The cognitive domains that seem to be affected are mainly attention, working memory, learning and memory, and executive function. However, with regard to the trajectory of cognitive function throughout the illness, there is still a dearth of prospective data in patients who develop psychosis during adolescence. In this article, neuropsychological functioning was assessed in a sample of 24 first episodes of early onset psychosis (EOP) and 29 healthy adolescents at baseline and after a two-year follow-up. Patients with EOP showed lower scores than controls in overall cognitive functioning and in all specific domains assessed (attention, working memory, executive function, and learning and memory) both at baseline and the two-year follow-up. When changes in cognitive functioning over two years were assessed, patients and controls showed significant improvement in almost all cognitive domains. However, this improvement disappeared in the patient group after controlling for improvement in symptomatology. Our findings support a neurodevelopmental pathological process in this sample of adolescents with psychosis.

Type
Original article
Copyright
Copyright © Elsevier Masson SAS 2008

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

1

Tel.: +34 91 503 925. Fax: +34 91 574 4669.

References

Abrahamson, D.Schizophrenic deterioration. 4 Br J Psychiatry 143 1983 Jul 8283.Google Scholar
Addington, J.Addington, D.Cognitive functioning in first-episode schizophrenia J Psychiatry Neurosci 27 3 2002 May 188192.Google Scholar
Asarnow, J.R.Tompson, M.C.Goldstein, M.J.Childhood-onset schizophrenia: a followup study Schizophr Bull 20 4 1994 599617.Google Scholar
Aylward, E.Walker, E.Bettes, B.Intelligence in schizophrenia: meta-analysis of the research Schizophr Bull 10 3 1984 430459.Google Scholar
Bachevalier, J.Loveland, K.A.The orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit and self-regulation of social-emotional behavior in autism Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30 1 2006 97117.Google Scholar
Basso, M.Nasrallah, H.Olson, S.Bornstein, R.Cognitive deficits distinguish patients with adolescent- and adult- onset schizophrenia Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 10 2 1997 107112.Google Scholar
Beratis, S.Gabriel, J.Hoidas, S.Age at onset in subtypes of schizophrenic disorders Schizophr Bull 20 2 1994 287296.Google Scholar
Bilder, R.M.Goldman, R.S.Robinson, D.Reiter, G.Bell, L.Bates, J.A. et al Neuropsychology of first-episode schizophrenia: initial characterization and clinical correlates Am J Psychiatry 157 4 2000 Apr 549559.Google Scholar
Bilder, R.M.Lipschutz-Broch, L.Reiter, G.Geisler, S.H.Mayerhoff, D.I.Lieberman, J.A.Intellectual deficits in first-episode schizophrenia: evidence for progressive deterioration Schizophr Bull 18 3 1992 437448.Google Scholar
Brickman, A.M.Buchsbaum, M.S.Bloom, R.Bokhoven, P.Paul-Odouard, R.Haznedar, M.M. et al Neuropsychological functioning in first-break, never-medicated adolescents with psychosis J Nerv Ment Dis 192 9 2004 Sep 615622.Google Scholar
Bryden, K.E.Carrey, N.J.Kutcher, S.P.Update and recommendations for the use of antipsychotics in early-onset psychoses J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 11 2 2001 Summer 113130.Google Scholar
Censits, D.M.Ragland, J.D.Gur, R.C.Gur, R.E.Neuropsychological evidence supporting a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: a longitudinal study Schizophr Res 24 3 1997 Apr 11 289298.Google Scholar
Cornblatt, B.Obuchowski, M.Roberts, S.Pollack, S.Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.Cognitive and behavioral precursors of schizophrenia Dev Psychopathol 11 3 1999 Summer 487508.Google Scholar
DeLisi, L.E.Tew, W.Xie, S.Hoff, A.L.Sakuma, M.Kushner, M. et al A prospective follow-up study of brain morphology and cognition in first-episode schizophrenic patients: preliminary findings Biol Psychiatry 38 6 1995 Sep 15 349360.Google Scholar
Faraone, S.V.Seidman, L.J.Kremen, W.S.Toomey, R.Pepple, J.R.Tsuang, M.T.Neuropsychologic functioning among the nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients: the effect of genetic loading Biol Psychiatry 48 2 2000 Jul 15 120126.Google Scholar
Feinberg, I.Schizophrenia: caused by a fault in programmed synaptic elimination during adolescence? J Psychiatr Res 17 4 1982 319334.Google Scholar
Fitzgerald, D.Lucas, S.Redoblado, M.A.Winter, V.Brennan, J.Anderson, J. et al Cognitive functioning in young people with first episode psychosis: relationship to diagnosis and clinical characteristics Aust N Z J Psychiatry 38 7 2004 Jul 501510.Google Scholar
Giedd, J.N.Jeffries, N.O.Blumenthal, J.Castellanos, F.X.Vaituzis, A.C.Fernandez, T. et al Childhood-onset schizophrenia: progressive brain changes during adolescence Biol Psychiatry 46 7 1999 Oct 1 892898.Google Scholar
Gillberg, I.C.Hellgren, L.Gillberg, C.Psychotic disorders diagnosed in adolescence. Outcome at age 30 years J Child Psychol Psychiatry 34 7 1993 Oct 11731185.Google Scholar
Gittelman, M.BH, Childhood schizophrenia: intellect, neurologic status, perinatal risk, prognosis and family pathology Arch Gen Psychiatry 17 1967 1625.Google Scholar
Gold, S.Arndt, S.Nopoulos, P.O'Leary, D.S.Andreasen, N.C.Longitudinal study of cognitive function in first-episode and recent-onset schizophrenia Am J Psychiatry 156 9 1999 Sep 13421348.Google Scholar
Heaton, R.Paulsen, J.S.McAdams, L.A.Kuck, J.Zisook, S.Braff, D. et al Neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenics. Relationship to age, chronicity, and dementia Arch Gen Psychiatry 51 6 1994 Jun 469476.Google Scholar
Heinrichs, R.W.Zakzanis, K.K.Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence Neuropsychology 12 3 1998 Jul 426445.Google Scholar
Hoff, A.L.Harris, D.Faustman, W.O.Beal, M.DeVilliers, D.Mone, R.D. et al A neuropsychological study of early onset schizophrenia Schizophr Res 20 1–2 1996 May 2128.Google Scholar
Hoff, A.L.Sakuma, M.Wieneke, M.Horon, R.Kushner, M.DeLisi, L.E.Longitudinal neuropsychological follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia Am J Psychiatry 156 9 1999 Sep 13361341.Google Scholar
Hollingshead, A.Redlich, F.Social class and mental illness: a community study 1958 New York: John Wiley and Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hollis, C.Adult outcomes of child- and adolescent-onset schizophrenia: diagnostic stability and predictive validity Am J Psychiatry 157 10 2000 Oct 16521659.Google Scholar
Joyce, E.M.Roiser, J.P.Cognitive heterogeneity in schizophrenia Curr Opin Psychiatry 20 3 2007 May 268272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karp, B.I.Garvey, M.Jacobsen, L.K.Frazier, J.A.Hamburger, S.D.Bedwell, J.S. et al Abnormal neurologic maturation in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia Am J Psychiatry 158 1 2001 Jan 118122.Google Scholar
Kenny, J.T.Friedman, L.Findling, R.L.Swales, T.P.Strauss, M.E.Jesberger, J.A. et al Cognitive impairment in adolescents with schizophrenia Am J Psychiatry 154 11 1997 Nov 16131615.Google Scholar
Kravariti, E.Morris, R.G.Rabe-Hesketh, S.Murray, R.M.Frangou, S.The Maudsley Early-Onset Schizophrenia Study: cognitive function in adolescent-onset schizophrenia Schizophr Res 65 2–3 2003 Dec 15 95103.Google Scholar
Kumra, S.Wiggs, E.Bedwell, J.Smith, A.K.Arling, E.Albus, K. et al Neuropsychological deficits in pediatric patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified Schizophr Res 42 2 2000 Apr 7 135144.Google Scholar
Lieberman, J.A.Perkins, D.Belger, A.Chakos, M.Jarskog, F.Boteva, K. et al The early stages of schizophrenia: speculations on pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approaches Biol Psychiatry 50 11 2001 Dec 1 884897.Google Scholar
McClellan, J.Breiger, D.McCurry, C.Hlastala, S.A.Premorbid functioning in early-onset psychotic disorders J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42 6 2003 Jun 666672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClellan, J.Prezbindowski, A.Breiger, D.McCurry, C.Neuropsychological functioning in early onset psychotic disorders Schizophr Res 68 1 2004 May 1 2126.Google Scholar
Morice, R.D.Igram, J.C.Language complexity and age of onset of schizophrenia Psychiatry Res 9 3 1983 Jul 233242.Google Scholar
Nopoulos, P.Flashman, L.Flaum, M.Arndt, S.Andreasen, N.Stability of cognitive functioning early in the course of schizophrenia Schizophr Res 14 1 1994 Dec 2937.Google Scholar
Oie, M.Rund, B.R.Neuropsychological deficits in adolescent-onset schizophrenia compared with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Am J Psychiatry 156 8 1999 Aug 12161222.Google Scholar
Osuji, I.J.Cullum, C.M.Cognition in bipolar disorder Psychiatr Clin North Am 28 2 2005 Jun 427441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peralta, V.Cuesta, M.Validación de la escala de los síndromes positivo y negativo (PANSS) en una muestra de esquizofrénicos españoles Actas Luso- Esp Neurol Psiquiatr 22 4 1994 171177.Google Scholar
Rapoport, J.L.Giedd, J.N.Blumenthal, J.Hamburger, S.Jeffries, N.Fernandez, T. et al Progressive cortical change during adolescence in childhood-onset schizophrenia. A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study Arch Gen Psychiatry 56 7 1999 Jul 649654.Google Scholar
Remschmidt, H.E.Schulz, E.Martin, M.Warnke, A.Trott, G.E.Childhood-onset schizophrenia: history of the concept and recent studies Schizophr Bull 20 4 1994 727745.Google Scholar
Sachs, G.Schaffer, M.Winklbaur, B.Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder Neuropsychiatry 21 2 2007 93101.Google Scholar
Shallice, T.Marzocchi, G.M.Coser, S.Del Savio, M.Meuter, R.F.Rumiati, R.I.Executive function profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Dev Neuropsychol 21 1 2002 4371.Google Scholar
Vyas, N.S.Hadjulis, M.Vourdas, A.Byrne, P.Frangou, S.The Maudsley early onset schizophrenia study: predictors of psychosocial outcome at 4-year follow-up Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007 Sep 24.Google Scholar
Waber, D.P.De Moor, C.Forbes, P.W.Almli, C.R.Botteron, K.N.Leonard, G. et al The NIH MRI study of normal brain development: performance of a population based sample of healthy children aged 6 to 18 years on a neuropsychological battery J Int Neuropsychol Soc 13 2007 729746.Google Scholar
Weinberger, D.R.Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia Arch Gen Psychiatry 44 7 1987 Jul 660669.Google Scholar
Wozniak, J.R.Neurocognitive functioning over the first year of illness in adolescent patients with psychotic disorders Schizophr Res 60 Suppl. 1 2003 162.Google Scholar
Zabala, A.Robles, O.Parellada, M.Moreno, D.M.Ruiz-Sancho, A.Burdalo, M. et al Neurological soft signs in adolescents with first episode psychosis 21 5 2006 283287.Google ScholarPubMed
Zammit, S.Allebeck, P.David, A.S.Dalman, C.Hemmingsson, T.Lundberg, I. et al A longitudinal study of premorbid IQ Score and risk of developing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, severe depression, and other nonaffective psychoses Arch Gen Psychiatry 61 4 2004 Apr 354360.Google Scholar
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.
35
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents with first episode psychosis: A two-year follow-up study
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents with first episode psychosis: A two-year follow-up study
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Neuropsychological functioning in adolescents with first episode psychosis: A two-year follow-up study
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *