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Predicción de la presencia e intensidad del trastorno por estrés postraumático en víctimas de un ataque con bomba 32 meses después

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 May 2020

Louis Jehel
Affiliation:
Unidad de Psiquiatría y Psicotraumatismo, CHU Tenon (AP-HP), 4, rué de la Chine, 75970París cedex 20, Francia
Sabrina Paterniti
Affiliation:
Unidad Inserm 360 (Dr. A. Alpérovitch), Hospital de la Salpêtrière, 47, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013París, Francia
Alain Brunet
Affiliation:
Departamento de Psiquiatría y Centro de Investigación del Hospital Douglas, Universidad McGill, Canadá
Clara Duchet
Affiliation:
Unidad de Psiquiatría y Psicotraumatismo, CHU Tenon (AP-HP), 4, rué de la Chine, 75970París cedex 20, Francia
Julien Daniel Guelfi
Affiliation:
Universidad París V (UFR Cochin Port-Royal), Clínica de las Enfermedades Mentales y del Encéfalo, 100, rué de la Santé, 75674París cedex 14, Francia
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Resumen

Introducción

Nuestro objetivo era identificar los factores que predicen la presencia y la gravedad del trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT) después de un ataque terrorista.

Población

Evaluamos a 32 víctimas de un ataque con bomba en el metro de París en diciembre de 1996 a los 6 y a los 32 meses.

Métodos

Se utilizaron las características sociodemográficas, los datos clínicos y las lesiones físicas para predecir la presencia y la gravedad del TEPT en 32 víctimas. Se usó la Entrevista del Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático (PTSD-I) de Watson y la Escala del Impacto del Acontecimiento (IES) de Horowitz para evaluar la presencia y la gravedad del TEPT, respectivamente.

Resultados

El 39% de los participates cumplía los criterios de TEPT a los 6 meses y el 25% lo tenía todavía a los 32 meses. Las mujeres tenían TEPT 32 meses después del ataque con bomba con más frecuencia que los hombres. El empleo predecía la gravedad del trastorno a los 32 meses. Las puntuaciones del TEPT evaluado por el PTSD-I a los 6 meses se asociaban significativa y positivamente con las puntuaciones de la IES en el seguimiento a los 32 meses (r = 0,55, P = 0,004). El uso de medicamentos psicotropos antes del ataque con bomba predecía significativamente la presencia y la gravedad del TEPT a los 6 y a los 32 meses. En un modelo de regresión lineal, las lesiones físicas, la situación laboral y el uso de medicamentos psicotropos antes del ataque con bomba fueron predictores independientes de la gravedad del TEPT a los 32 meses.

Conclusiones

La exposición al ataque con bomba se tradujo en TEPT persistente en una proporción significativa de víctimas; las lesiones físicas, el uso de medicamentos psicotropos antes del ataque terrorista y la puntuación del TEPT unos meses después del ataque con bomba predecían la gravedad a los 32 meses.

Type
Original
Copyright
Copyright © European Psychiatric Association 2003

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