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Quotidian Routines: The Cooperative Practices of a Business Elite

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 June 2019

CLAIRE WRIGHT
Affiliation:
claire wright is a Research Fellow at Macquarie University. She is interested in the ways that interpersonal connections effect knowledge, markets, and business strategy. Her research has examined corporate networks, interlocking directorates, the global wool trade, multinational enterprise, and the development of interdisciplinary knowledge in economic history. Contact: Department of Management, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia. E-mail: claire.e.wright@mq.edu.au.
SIMON VILLE
Affiliation:
simon ville is a Senior Professor at the University of Wollongong and a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia. He has published widely on Australian and international economic and business history, including big business, natural resources, and the Vietnam War. He was lead editor of The Cambridge Economic History of Australia (2015). Contact: University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW, Australia. E-mail: sville@uow.edu.au.
DAVID MERRETT
Affiliation:
david merrett is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Melbourne. He has written extensively on Australian business history. Contact: University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. E-mail: dtm@unimelb.edu.au.

Abstract

Cooperative corporate behavior has often been explained through the social anatomy of business leaders and structural ties among firms. Our alternative approach investigates how quotidian interactions built trust and routines among a group of major firms in the Australian wool trade—a sector that required regular interaction to be effective. Deploying extensive archives of their meetings, we use social network analysis to examine interactions among the key group of firms and individuals. Through content analysis we infer the behavior and atmosphere of meetings. Finally, an evaluation of meeting agendas and outcomes demonstrates cooperation and a shared commitment to improving the operation of the wool trade in the 1920s.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author 2019. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Business History Conference. All rights reserved. 

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References

Bibliography of Works Cited

Altheide, David L., and Schneider, Christopher J.. Qualitative Media Analysis. Los Angeles: Sage, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnard, Alan. The Australian Wool Market, 1840–1900. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
Boyce, Gordon H. Cooperative Structures in Global Business: Communicating, Transferring Knowledge, and Learning Across the Corporate Frontier. London: Routledge, 2001.Google Scholar
Buskens, Vincent. Social Networks and Trust. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.Google Scholar
Butlin, Sydney J. Australia and New Zealand Bank: The Bank of Australasia and the Union Bank of Australia Limitied, 1828–1951. London: Longmans, 1961.Google Scholar
Cassis, Youssef. Business Elites. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1994.Google Scholar
Chandler, Alfred D. Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School, 1990.Google Scholar
Cochran, Thomas. Railroad Leaders, 1845–1890: The Business Mind in Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.Google Scholar
De Serville, Paul. Pounds and Pedigrees: The Upper Class in Victoria, 1850–80. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
De Serville, Paul. The Australian Club: Melbourne 1878–1998. Melbourne: Australia Club, 1998.Google Scholar
Du Plessis, A. Foster. The Marketing of Wool. London: Sir I. Pitman & Sons Ltd., 1931.Google Scholar
Fleming, Grant A., Merrett, David, and Ville, Simon. The Big End of Town: Big Business and Corporate Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggerty, Sheryllynne. Merely for Money? Business Culture in the British Atlantic, 1750–1815. Oxford: Liverpool University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanneman, Robert and Riddle, Mark. Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside: University of California Press, 2005.Google Scholar
International Press Service Association. Who’s Who in Australia. Sydney: International Press Service Association, 1929.Google Scholar
Mizruchi, Mark S. The American Corporate Network, 1904–1974. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, Inc., 1982.Google Scholar
Neundorf, Kimberly A. The Content Analysis Guidebook, 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Sage, 2017.Google Scholar
Rawling, John N. Who Owns Australia? 4th ed. Sydney: Modern Publishers, 1939.Google Scholar
Round, Kerrie, and Shanahan, Martin P.. From Protection to Competition: The Politics of Trade Practices Reform in Australia. Sydney: Federation Press, 2015.Google Scholar
Rose, Mary B. Firms, Networks and Business Values: The British and American Cotton Industries since 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubinstein, William D. Elites and the Wealthy in Modern British History: Essays in Social and Economic History. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1987.Google Scholar
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Trengove, Alan. What’s Good for Australia: The Story of BHP. Stanmore, NSW: Cassell, 1975.Google Scholar
Ville, Simon. The Rural Entrepreneurs: A History of the Stock and Station Agent Industry in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Windett, Nancy. Australia as Producer and Trader, 1920–1932. London: Oxford University Press, 1933.Google Scholar
Yule, Peter. William Lawrence Baillieu: Founder of Australia’s Greatest Business Empire. Melbourne: Hardie Grant, 2012.Google Scholar
Aldous, Michael. “Rehabilitating the Intermediary: Brokers and Auctioneers in the Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Indian Trade.” Business History 59, no. 4 (2017): 525553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blau, Gerda. “Wool in the World Economy.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 109 (1946): 179235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brayshay, Mark, Cleary, Mark, and Selwood, John. “Interlocking Directorships and Trans-National Linkages within the British Empire, 1900–1930.” Area 37, no. 2 (2005): 209–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buchnea, Emily. “Networks and Clusters in Business History.” In The Routledge Companion to Business History, edited by Wilson, J. F., Toms, S., De Jong, A., and Buchnea, Emily, 259–273. London: Routledge, 2017.Google Scholar
Buchnea, Emily. “Transatlantic Transformations: Visualizing Change Over Time in the Liverpool–New York Trade Network, 1763–1833.” Enterprise & Society 15, no. 4 (2014): 687721.Google Scholar
Burn, Peter. “Opportunism and Long-Term Contracting: Transactions in Broken Hill Zinc Concentrates in the 1930s.” Business History 42, no. 3 (2000): 7188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonacich, Philip. “Power and Centrality: A Family of Measures.” American Journal of Sociology 92, no. 5 (1987): 11701182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornish, Selwyn. “History and the Development of Central Banking in Australia 1920–1970.” ANU Global Dynamic Systems Centre 3 (2003).Google Scholar
Crumplin, Tim E. “Opaque Networks: Business and Community in the Isle of Man, 1840–1900.” Business History 49, no. 6 (2007): 780801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldman, Martha S., and Pentland, Brian T.. “Reconceptualizing Organizational Routines as a Source of Flexibility and Change.” Administrative Science Quarterly 48, no. 1 (2003): 94118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleming, Grant. “Collusion and Price Wars in the Australian Coal Industry during the Late Nineteenth Century.” Business History 42, no. 3 (2006): 4770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedman, Walter, and Tedlow, Richard. “Statistical Portraits of American Business Elites: A Review Essay.” Business History 45, no. 4 (2003): 89113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glaisyer, Natasha. “Networking: Trade and Exchange in the Eighteenth-Century British Empire.” Historical Journal 47, no. 2 (2004): 451476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, B. D. “Graziers in Politics, 1917–29.” In The Simple Fleece, edited by Barnard, Alan, 577601. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
Granovetter, Mark S.The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6 (1973): 13601380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, Helga M. “Higgins, Sir John Michael (1862–1937).” Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/higgins-sir-john-michael-6663/text11487.Google Scholar
Haggerty, John, and Haggerty, Sheryllynne. “Networking with a Network: The Liverpool African Committee 1750–1810.” Enterprise & Society 18, no. 3 (2017): 566590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggerty, John, and Haggerty, Sheryllynne. “The Life Cycle of a Metropolitan Business Network: Liverpool 1750–1810.” Explorations in Economic History 48, no. 2 (2011): 189206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Chris. “Interlocking Directorates in Australia: The Significance for Competition Policy.” Australian Quarterly 55, no. 1 (1983): 4253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Nigel. “The Governance of the Liverpool Raw Cotton Market, c. 1840–1914.” Northern History 53, no. 1 (2016): 98115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeremy, David J. “Anatomy of the British Business Elite, 1860–1980.” Business History 26, no. 1 (1984): 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Chris, Menezes, Flavio, and Vella, Francis. “Auction Price Anomalies: Evidence from Wool Auctions in Australia.” Economic Record 80, no. 250 (2004): 271288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiel, Geoffrey C., and Nicholson, Gavin J.. “Board Composition and Corporate Performance: How the Australian Experience Informs Contrasting Theories of Corporate Governance.” Corporate Governance: An International Review 11, no. 3 (2003): 189205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krischel, Matthis, and Fangerau, Heiner. “Historical Network Analysis Can Be Used to Construct a Social Network of 19th-Century Evolutionists.” In Classification and Evolution in Biology, Linguistics and the History of Science, edited by Fangerau, H., Geisler, H., Halling, T., and Martin, W., 4565. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2013.Google Scholar
Levin, Daniel Z., and Cross., RobThe Strength of Weak Ties You Can Trust: The Mediating Role of Trust in Effective Knowledge Transfer.” Management Science 50, no. 11 (2004): 14771490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, A. W.Pastoralists in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales, 1870-1890.” In The Simple Fleece, edited by Barnard, Alan, 577591. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
McFadyen, M. Ann, Matthew Semadeni, and Albert A. Cannella. “Value of Strong Ties to Disconnected Others: Examining Knowledge Creation in Biomedicine.” Organization Science 20, no. 1 (2009): 552564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McWatters, Cheryl S., and Lemarchand., YannickMerchant Networks and Accounting Discourse: The Role of Accounting Transactions in Network Relations.” Accounting History Review 23, no. 1 (2013): 4983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merrett, David, and Ville, Simon. “Institution Building and Variation in the Formation of the Australian Wool Market.” Australian Economic History Review 53, no. 2 (2013): 146166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Musacchio, Aldo, and Read, Ian. “Bankers, Industrialists, and Their Cliques: Elite Networks in Mexico and Brazil During Early Industrialization.” Enterprise & Society 8, no. 4 (2007): 842880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pemberton, P. A. “Carson, Sir Norman John (1877–1964).” Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/carson-sir-norman-john-9699/text17121.Google Scholar
Popp, Andrew. “Governance at Points of Corporate Transition: Networks and the Formation of the United Alkali Company, 1890–1895.” Enterprise & Society 7, no. 2 (2006): 315352.Google Scholar
Richardson, Peter.The Origins and Development of the Collins House Group, 1915–1951.” Australian Economic History Review 27, no. 1 (1987): 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenthal, Naomi, Fingrutd, Meryl, Ethier, Michele, Karant, Roberta, and McDonald, David. “Social Movements and Network Analysis: A Case Study of Nineteenth-Century Women’s Reform in New York State.” American Journal of Sociology 90, no. 5 (1985): 10221054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salvaj, Erica, and Couyoumdjian, Juan Pablo. “‘Interlocked’ Business Groups and the State in Chile (1970–2010).” Business History 58, no. 1 (2016): 129148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaw, Gareth, and Alexander, Andrew. “Interlocking Directorates and the Knowledge Transfer of Supermarket Retail Techniques from North America to Britain.” International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 16, no. 3 (2006): 375394.Google Scholar
Sleeswijk, Anne. “Hearing, Seeing, Tasting and Bidding: Information at the Dutch Auction of Commodities in the 18th Century.” In Information Flows, New Approaches in the Historical Study of Business Information, edited by Muller, L. and Ojala, J., 169192. Helsinki: SKS Finnish Literature Society, 2007.Google Scholar
Stening, Bruce W., and Wai, Wan Tai. “Interlocking Directorates among Australia’s Largest 250 Corporations 1959–1979.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 20, no. 1 (1984): 4755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Driel, , Hugo. “The Role of Middlemen in the International Coffee Trade Since 1870: The Dutch Case.” Business History 45, no. 2 (2003): 77101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ville, Simon. “The Relocation of the International Market for Australian Wool.” Australian Economic History Review 45, no. 1 (2005): 7395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ville, Simon, and Merrett, David. “Investing in Inter-Organisational Communication: The Melbourne Wool Brokers Association.” In How Organizations Connect: Investing in Communication, edited by Boyce, Gordon, Macintyre, Stuart, and Ville, Simon, 171197. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press and Academy of Social Sciences, 2006.Google Scholar
Ville, Simon, and Merrett, David. “Big Business in Australia.” ANU Source Papers in Economic History 21 (2016).Google Scholar
Ville, Simon, and Wright, Claire. ‘‘Buzz and Pipelines: Knowledge and Decision-Making in a Global Business Services Precinct.” Journal of Urban History 45, no. 2 (2019): 191210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wetherell, Charles. “Historical Social Network Analysis.” International Review of Social History 43, no. S6 (1998): 125144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Register, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
Riverina RecorderGoogle Scholar
University of Melbourne Archives, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
Altheide, David L., and Schneider, Christopher J.. Qualitative Media Analysis. Los Angeles: Sage, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnard, Alan. The Australian Wool Market, 1840–1900. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
Boyce, Gordon H. Cooperative Structures in Global Business: Communicating, Transferring Knowledge, and Learning Across the Corporate Frontier. London: Routledge, 2001.Google Scholar
Buskens, Vincent. Social Networks and Trust. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.Google Scholar
Butlin, Sydney J. Australia and New Zealand Bank: The Bank of Australasia and the Union Bank of Australia Limitied, 1828–1951. London: Longmans, 1961.Google Scholar
Cassis, Youssef. Business Elites. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1994.Google Scholar
Chandler, Alfred D. Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School, 1990.Google Scholar
Cochran, Thomas. Railroad Leaders, 1845–1890: The Business Mind in Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.Google Scholar
De Serville, Paul. Pounds and Pedigrees: The Upper Class in Victoria, 1850–80. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.Google Scholar
De Serville, Paul. The Australian Club: Melbourne 1878–1998. Melbourne: Australia Club, 1998.Google Scholar
Du Plessis, A. Foster. The Marketing of Wool. London: Sir I. Pitman & Sons Ltd., 1931.Google Scholar
Fleming, Grant A., Merrett, David, and Ville, Simon. The Big End of Town: Big Business and Corporate Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggerty, Sheryllynne. Merely for Money? Business Culture in the British Atlantic, 1750–1815. Oxford: Liverpool University Press, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanneman, Robert and Riddle, Mark. Introduction to Social Network Methods. Riverside: University of California Press, 2005.Google Scholar
International Press Service Association. Who’s Who in Australia. Sydney: International Press Service Association, 1929.Google Scholar
Mizruchi, Mark S. The American Corporate Network, 1904–1974. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, Inc., 1982.Google Scholar
Neundorf, Kimberly A. The Content Analysis Guidebook, 2nd ed. Los Angeles: Sage, 2017.Google Scholar
Rawling, John N. Who Owns Australia? 4th ed. Sydney: Modern Publishers, 1939.Google Scholar
Round, Kerrie, and Shanahan, Martin P.. From Protection to Competition: The Politics of Trade Practices Reform in Australia. Sydney: Federation Press, 2015.Google Scholar
Rose, Mary B. Firms, Networks and Business Values: The British and American Cotton Industries since 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rubinstein, William D. Elites and the Wealthy in Modern British History: Essays in Social and Economic History. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1987.Google Scholar
Schedvin, C. Boris. Australia and the Great Depression: A Study of Economic Development and Policy in the 1920s and 1930s . Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1970.Google Scholar
Trengove, Alan. What’s Good for Australia: The Story of BHP. Stanmore, NSW: Cassell, 1975.Google Scholar
Ville, Simon. The Rural Entrepreneurs: A History of the Stock and Station Agent Industry in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
Windett, Nancy. Australia as Producer and Trader, 1920–1932. London: Oxford University Press, 1933.Google Scholar
Yule, Peter. William Lawrence Baillieu: Founder of Australia’s Greatest Business Empire. Melbourne: Hardie Grant, 2012.Google Scholar
Aldous, Michael. “Rehabilitating the Intermediary: Brokers and Auctioneers in the Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Indian Trade.” Business History 59, no. 4 (2017): 525553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blau, Gerda. “Wool in the World Economy.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 109 (1946): 179235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brayshay, Mark, Cleary, Mark, and Selwood, John. “Interlocking Directorships and Trans-National Linkages within the British Empire, 1900–1930.” Area 37, no. 2 (2005): 209–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buchnea, Emily. “Networks and Clusters in Business History.” In The Routledge Companion to Business History, edited by Wilson, J. F., Toms, S., De Jong, A., and Buchnea, Emily, 259–273. London: Routledge, 2017.Google Scholar
Buchnea, Emily. “Transatlantic Transformations: Visualizing Change Over Time in the Liverpool–New York Trade Network, 1763–1833.” Enterprise & Society 15, no. 4 (2014): 687721.Google Scholar
Burn, Peter. “Opportunism and Long-Term Contracting: Transactions in Broken Hill Zinc Concentrates in the 1930s.” Business History 42, no. 3 (2000): 7188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bonacich, Philip. “Power and Centrality: A Family of Measures.” American Journal of Sociology 92, no. 5 (1987): 11701182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cornish, Selwyn. “History and the Development of Central Banking in Australia 1920–1970.” ANU Global Dynamic Systems Centre 3 (2003).Google Scholar
Crumplin, Tim E. “Opaque Networks: Business and Community in the Isle of Man, 1840–1900.” Business History 49, no. 6 (2007): 780801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feldman, Martha S., and Pentland, Brian T.. “Reconceptualizing Organizational Routines as a Source of Flexibility and Change.” Administrative Science Quarterly 48, no. 1 (2003): 94118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleming, Grant. “Collusion and Price Wars in the Australian Coal Industry during the Late Nineteenth Century.” Business History 42, no. 3 (2006): 4770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friedman, Walter, and Tedlow, Richard. “Statistical Portraits of American Business Elites: A Review Essay.” Business History 45, no. 4 (2003): 89113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glaisyer, Natasha. “Networking: Trade and Exchange in the Eighteenth-Century British Empire.” Historical Journal 47, no. 2 (2004): 451476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, B. D. “Graziers in Politics, 1917–29.” In The Simple Fleece, edited by Barnard, Alan, 577601. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
Granovetter, Mark S.The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6 (1973): 13601380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, Helga M. “Higgins, Sir John Michael (1862–1937).” Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/higgins-sir-john-michael-6663/text11487.Google Scholar
Haggerty, John, and Haggerty, Sheryllynne. “Networking with a Network: The Liverpool African Committee 1750–1810.” Enterprise & Society 18, no. 3 (2017): 566590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haggerty, John, and Haggerty, Sheryllynne. “The Life Cycle of a Metropolitan Business Network: Liverpool 1750–1810.” Explorations in Economic History 48, no. 2 (2011): 189206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Chris. “Interlocking Directorates in Australia: The Significance for Competition Policy.” Australian Quarterly 55, no. 1 (1983): 4253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, Nigel. “The Governance of the Liverpool Raw Cotton Market, c. 1840–1914.” Northern History 53, no. 1 (2016): 98115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeremy, David J. “Anatomy of the British Business Elite, 1860–1980.” Business History 26, no. 1 (1984): 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, Chris, Menezes, Flavio, and Vella, Francis. “Auction Price Anomalies: Evidence from Wool Auctions in Australia.” Economic Record 80, no. 250 (2004): 271288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kiel, Geoffrey C., and Nicholson, Gavin J.. “Board Composition and Corporate Performance: How the Australian Experience Informs Contrasting Theories of Corporate Governance.” Corporate Governance: An International Review 11, no. 3 (2003): 189205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krischel, Matthis, and Fangerau, Heiner. “Historical Network Analysis Can Be Used to Construct a Social Network of 19th-Century Evolutionists.” In Classification and Evolution in Biology, Linguistics and the History of Science, edited by Fangerau, H., Geisler, H., Halling, T., and Martin, W., 4565. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2013.Google Scholar
Levin, Daniel Z., and Cross., RobThe Strength of Weak Ties You Can Trust: The Mediating Role of Trust in Effective Knowledge Transfer.” Management Science 50, no. 11 (2004): 14771490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, A. W.Pastoralists in the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales, 1870-1890.” In The Simple Fleece, edited by Barnard, Alan, 577591. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1962.Google Scholar
McFadyen, M. Ann, Matthew Semadeni, and Albert A. Cannella. “Value of Strong Ties to Disconnected Others: Examining Knowledge Creation in Biomedicine.” Organization Science 20, no. 1 (2009): 552564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McWatters, Cheryl S., and Lemarchand., YannickMerchant Networks and Accounting Discourse: The Role of Accounting Transactions in Network Relations.” Accounting History Review 23, no. 1 (2013): 4983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merrett, David, and Ville, Simon. “Institution Building and Variation in the Formation of the Australian Wool Market.” Australian Economic History Review 53, no. 2 (2013): 146166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Musacchio, Aldo, and Read, Ian. “Bankers, Industrialists, and Their Cliques: Elite Networks in Mexico and Brazil During Early Industrialization.” Enterprise & Society 8, no. 4 (2007): 842880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pemberton, P. A. “Carson, Sir Norman John (1877–1964).” Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/carson-sir-norman-john-9699/text17121.Google Scholar
Popp, Andrew. “Governance at Points of Corporate Transition: Networks and the Formation of the United Alkali Company, 1890–1895.” Enterprise & Society 7, no. 2 (2006): 315352.Google Scholar
Richardson, Peter.The Origins and Development of the Collins House Group, 1915–1951.” Australian Economic History Review 27, no. 1 (1987): 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenthal, Naomi, Fingrutd, Meryl, Ethier, Michele, Karant, Roberta, and McDonald, David. “Social Movements and Network Analysis: A Case Study of Nineteenth-Century Women’s Reform in New York State.” American Journal of Sociology 90, no. 5 (1985): 10221054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salvaj, Erica, and Couyoumdjian, Juan Pablo. “‘Interlocked’ Business Groups and the State in Chile (1970–2010).” Business History 58, no. 1 (2016): 129148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shaw, Gareth, and Alexander, Andrew. “Interlocking Directorates and the Knowledge Transfer of Supermarket Retail Techniques from North America to Britain.” International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research 16, no. 3 (2006): 375394.Google Scholar
Sleeswijk, Anne. “Hearing, Seeing, Tasting and Bidding: Information at the Dutch Auction of Commodities in the 18th Century.” In Information Flows, New Approaches in the Historical Study of Business Information, edited by Muller, L. and Ojala, J., 169192. Helsinki: SKS Finnish Literature Society, 2007.Google Scholar
Stening, Bruce W., and Wai, Wan Tai. “Interlocking Directorates among Australia’s Largest 250 Corporations 1959–1979.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology 20, no. 1 (1984): 4755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Driel, , Hugo. “The Role of Middlemen in the International Coffee Trade Since 1870: The Dutch Case.” Business History 45, no. 2 (2003): 77101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ville, Simon. “The Relocation of the International Market for Australian Wool.” Australian Economic History Review 45, no. 1 (2005): 7395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ville, Simon, and Merrett, David. “Investing in Inter-Organisational Communication: The Melbourne Wool Brokers Association.” In How Organizations Connect: Investing in Communication, edited by Boyce, Gordon, Macintyre, Stuart, and Ville, Simon, 171197. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press and Academy of Social Sciences, 2006.Google Scholar
Ville, Simon, and Merrett, David. “Big Business in Australia.” ANU Source Papers in Economic History 21 (2016).Google Scholar
Ville, Simon, and Wright, Claire. ‘‘Buzz and Pipelines: Knowledge and Decision-Making in a Global Business Services Precinct.” Journal of Urban History 45, no. 2 (2019): 191210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wetherell, Charles. “Historical Social Network Analysis.” International Review of Social History 43, no. S6 (1998): 125144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Register, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
Riverina RecorderGoogle Scholar
University of Melbourne Archives, Melbourne, Australia.Google Scholar
4
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