To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A local limit theorem is proved for sample covariances of nonstationary time series and integrable functions of such time series that involve a bandwidth sequence. The resulting theory enables an asymptotic development of nonparametric regression with integrated or fractionally integrated processes that includes the important practical case of spurious regressions. Some local regression diagnostics are suggested for forensic analysis of such regresssions, including a local R2 and a local Durbin–Watson (DW) ratio, and their asymptotic behavior is investigated. The most immediate findings extend the earlier work on linear spurious regression (Phillips, 1986, Journal of Econometrics 33, 311–340) showing that the key behavioral characteristics of statistical significance, low DW ratios and moderate to high R2 continue to apply locally in nonparametric spurious regression. Some further applications of the limit theory to models of nonlinear functional relations and cointegrating regressions are given. The methods are also shown to be applicable in partial linear semiparametric nonstationary regression.
This paper investigates selection and averaging of linear regressions with a possible structural break. Our main contribution is the construction of a Mallows criterion for the structural break model. We show that the correct penalty term is nonstandard and depends on unknown parameters, but it can be approximated by an average of limiting cases to yield a feasible penalty with good performance. Following Hansen (2007, Econometrica 75, 1175–1189) we recommend averaging the structural break estimates with the no-break estimates where the weight is selected to minimize the Mallows criterion. This estimator is simple to compute, as the weights are a simple function of the ratio of the penalty to the Andrews SupF test statistic.
To assess performance we focus on asymptotic mean-squared error (AMSE) in a local asymptotic framework. We show that the AMSE of the estimators depends exclusively on the parameter variation function. Numerical comparisons show that the unrestricted least-squares and pretest estimators have very large AMSE for certain regions of the parameter space, whereas our averaging estimator has AMSE close to the infeasible optimum.
This paper presents a family of simple nonparametric unit root tests indexed by one parameter, d, and containing the Breitung (2002, Journal of Econometrics 108, 342–363) test as the special case d = 1. It is shown that (a) each member of the family with d > 0 is consistent, (b) the asymptotic distribution depends on d and thus reflects the parameter chosen to implement the test, and (c) because the asymptotic distribution depends on d and the test remains consistent for all d > 0, it is possible to analyze the power of the test for different values of d. The usual Phillips–Perron and Dickey–Fuller type tests are indexed by bandwidth, lag length, etc., but have none of these three properties.
It is shown that members of the family with d < 1 have higher asymptotic local power than the Breitung (2002) test, and when d is small the asymptotic local power of the proposed nonparametric test is relatively close to the parametric power envelope, particularly in the case with a linear time trend. Furthermore, generalized least squares (GLS) detrending is shown to improve power when d is small, which is not the case for the Breitung (2002) test. Simulations demonstrate that when applying a sieve bootstrap procedure, the proposed variance ratio test has very good size properties, with finite-sample power that is higher than that of the Breitung (2002) test and even rivals the (nearly) optimal parametric GLS detrended augmented Dickey–Fuller test with lag length chosen by an information criterion.
We consider the issue of testing a time series for a unit root in the possible presence of a break in a linear deterministic trend at an unknown point in the series. We propose a new break fraction estimator which, where a break in trend occurs, is consistent for the true break fraction at rate Op(T−1). Unlike other available estimators, however, when there is no trend break, our estimator converges to zero at rate Op(T−1/2). Used in conjunction with a quasi difference (QD) detrended unit root test that incorporates a trend break regressor, we show that these rates of convergence ensure that known break fraction null critical values are asymptotically valid. Unlike available procedures in the literature, this holds even if there is no break in trend (the break fraction is zero). Here the trend break regressor is dropped from the deterministic component, and standard QD detrended unit root test critical values then apply. We also propose a second procedure that makes use of a formal pretest for a trend break in the series, including a trend break regressor only where the pretest rejects the null of no break. Both procedures ensure that the correctly sized (near-) efficient unit root test that allows (does not allow) for a break in trend is applied in the limit when a trend break does (does not) occur.
This paper considers the asymptotic distribution of the sample covariance of a nonstationary fractionally integrated process with the stationary increments of another such process—possibly itself. Questions of interest include the relationship between the harmonic representation of these random variables, which we have analyzed in a previous paper (Davidson and Hashimzade, 2008), and the construction derived from moving average representations in the time domain. Depending on the values of the long memory parameters and choice of normalization, the limiting integral is shown to be expressible as the sum of a constant and two Itô-type integrals with respect to distinct Brownian motions. In certain cases the latter terms are of small order relative to the former. The mean is shown to match that of the harmonic representation, where the latter is defined, and satisfies the required integration by parts rule. The advantages of our approach over the harmonic analysis include the facts that our formulas are valid for the full range of the long memory parameters and that they extend to non-Gaussian processes.
We consider robust methods for estimation and unit root (UR) testing in autoregressions with infrequent outliers whose number, size, and location can be random and unknown. We show that in this setting standard inference based on ordinary least squares estimation of an augumented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) regression may not be reliable, because (a) clusters of outliers may lead to inconsistent estimation of the autoregressive parameters and (b) large outliers induce a jump component in the asymptotic distribution of UR test statistics. In the benchmark case of known outlier location, we discuss why the augmentation of the ADF regression with appropriate dummy variables not only ensures consistent parameter estimation but also gives rise to UR tests with significant power gains, growing with the number and the size of the outliers. In the case of unknown outlier location, the dummy-based approach is compared with a robust, mixed Gaussian, quasi maximum likelihood (QML) approach, novel in this context. It is proved that, when the ordinary innovations are Gaussian, the QML and the dummy-based approach are asymptotically equivalent, yielding UR tests with the same asymptotic size and power. Moreover, as a by-product of QML the outlier dates can be consistently estimated. When the innovations display tails fatter than Gaussian, the QML approach ensures further power gains over the dummy-based method. Simulations show that the QML ADF-type t-test, in conjunction with standard Dickey–Fuller critical values, yields the best combination of finite-sample size and power.
The fundamental contributions made by Paul Newbold have highlighted how crucial it is to detect when economic time series have unit roots. This paper explores the effects that model specification has on our ability to do that. Asymptotic power, a natural choice to quantify these effects, does not accurately predict finite-sample power. Instead, here the Kullback–Leibler divergence between the unit root null and any alternative is used and its numeric and analytic properties detailed. Numerically it behaves in a similar way to finite-sample power. However, because it is analytically available we are able to prove that it is a minimizable function of the degree of trending in any included deterministic component and of the correlation of the underlying innovations. It is explicitly confirmed, therefore, that it is approximately linear trends and negative unit root moving average innovations that minimize the efficacy of unit root inferential tools. Applied to the Nelson and Plosser macroeconomic series the effect that different types of trends included in the model have on unit root inference is clearly revealed.
It is well known that unit root limit distributions are sensitive to initial conditions in the distant past. If the distant past initialization is extended to the infinite past, the initial condition dominates the limit theory, producing a faster rate of convergence, a limiting Cauchy distribution for the least squares coefficient, and a limit normal distribution for the t-ratio. This amounts to the tail of the unit root process wagging the dog of the unit root limit theory. These simple results apply in the case of a univariate autoregression with no intercept. The limit theory for vector unit root regression and cointegrating regression is affected but is no longer dominated by infinite past initializations. The latter contribute to the limiting distribution of the least squares estimator and produce a singularity in the limit theory, but do not change the principal rate of convergence. Usual cointegrating regression theory and inference continue to hold in spite of the degeneracy in the limit theory and are therefore robust to initial conditions that extend to the infinite past.
The central limit theorem for nonparametric kernel estimates of a smooth trend, with linearly generated errors, indicates asymptotic independence and homoskedasticity across fixed points, irrespective of whether disturbances have short memory, long memory, or antipersistence. However, the asymptotic variance depends on the kernel function in a way that varies across these three circumstances, and in the latter two it involves a double integral that cannot necessarily be evaluated in closed form. For a particular class of kernels, we obtain analytic formulas. We discuss extensions to more general settings, including ones involving possible cross-sectional or spatial dependence.
This paper shows how fractional unit root tests originally derived under stationarity can be made robust to heteroskedasticity. This is done by using existing tests nested in a regression framework and then implementing these tests using White’s heteroskedasticity consistent standard errors (White, 1980). We show this approach is effective both asymptotically and in finite samples. We also provide some evidence on the asymptotic local power of different implementations of the tests, under both homoskedasticity and heteroskedasticity.
Perron (1989, Econometrica 57, 1361–1401) introduced unit root tests valid when a break at a known date in the trend function of a time series is present. In particular, they allow a break under both the null and alternative hypotheses and are invariant to the magnitude of the shift in level and/or slope. The subsequent literature devised procedures valid in the case of an unknown break date. However, in doing so most research, in particular the commonly used test of Zivot and Andrews (1992, Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 10, 251–270), assumed that if a break occurs it does so only under the alternative hypothesis of stationarity. This is undesirable for several reasons. Kim and Perron (2009, Journal of Econometrics 148, 1–13) developed a methodology that allows a break at an unknown time under both the null and alternative hypotheses. When a break is present, the limit distribution of the test is the same as in the case of a known break date, allowing increased power while maintaining the correct size. We extend their work in several directions: (1) we allow for an arbitrary number of changes in both the level and slope of the trend function; (2) we adopt the quasi–generalized least squares detrending method advocated by Elliott, Rothenberg, and Stock (1996, Econometrica 64, 813–836) that permits tests that have local asymptotic power functions close to the local asymptotic Gaussian power envelope; (3) we consider a variety of tests, in particular the class of M-tests introduced in Stock (1999, Cointegration, Causality, and Forecasting: A Festschrift for Clive W.J. Granger) and analyzed in Ng and Perron (2001, Econometrica 69, 1519–1554).
We propose a family of least-squares–based testing procedures that look to detect general forms of fractional integration at the long-run and/or the cyclical component of a time series, and that are asymptotically equivalent to Lagrange multiplier tests. Our setting extends Robinson’s (1994) results to allow for short memory in a regression framework and generalizes the procedures in Agiakloglou and Newbold (1994), Tanaka (1999), and Breitung and Hassler (2002) by allowing for single or multiple fractional unit roots at any frequency in [0, π]. Our testing procedure can be easily implemented in practical settings and is flexible enough to account for a broad family of long- and short-memory specifications, including ARMA and/or GARCH-type dynamics, among others. Furthermore, these tests have power against different types of alternative hypotheses and enable inference to be conducted under critical values drawn from a standard chi-square distribution, irrespective of the long-memory parameters.
A number of tests have been suggested for the test of the null of no cointegration. Under this null, correlations are spurious in the sense of Granger and Newbold (1974) and Phillips (1986). We examine a set of models local to the null of no cointegration and derive tests with optimality properties in order to examine the efficiency of available tests. We find that, for a sufficiently tight weighting over potential cointegrating vectors, commonly employed full system tests have power that can, in some situations, be quite far from the power bounds for the models examined.
One of the most cited studies in recent years within the field of nonstationary panel data analysis is that of Bai and Ng (2004), in which the authors propose PANIC, a new framework for analyzing the nonstationarity of panels with idiosyncratic and common components. The problem is that the asymptotic validity of PANIC as a platform for constructing pooled panel unit root tests based on averaging is not fully proven. This paper provides the required results, whose usefulness is verified through simulations.
This paper considers a nonparametric time series regression model with a nonstationary regressor. We construct a nonparametric test for whether the regression is of a known parametric form indexed by a vector of unknown parameters. We establish the asymptotic distribution of the proposed test statistic. Both the setting and the results differ from earlier work on nonparametric time series regression with stationarity. In addition, we develop a bootstrap simulation scheme for the selection of suitable bandwidth parameters involved in the kernel test as well as the choice of simulated critical values. An example of implementation is given to show that the proposed test works in practice.