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This article discusses key characteristics of a semi-adaptive finite difference method for solving singular degenerate reaction-diffusion equations. Numerical stability, monotonicity, and convergence are investigated. Numerical experiments illustrate the discussion. The study reconfirms and improves several of our earlier results.
Nonlinear eigenvalue problems for fluxons in long Josephson junctions with exponentially varying width are treated. Appropriate algorithms are created and realized numerically. The results obtained concern the stability of the fluxons, the centering both magnetic field and current for the magnetic flux quanta in the Josephson junction as well as the ascertaining of the impact of the geometric and physical parameters on these quantities. Each static solution of the nonlinear boundary-value problem is identified as stable or unstable in dependence on the eigenvalues of associated Sturm-Liouville problem. The above compound problem is linearized and solved by using of the reliable Continuous analogue of Newton method.
We compare spectral and wavelet estimators of the response amplitude operator (RAO) of a linear system, with various input signals and added noise scenarios. The comparison is based on a model of a heaving buoy wave energy device (HBWED), which oscillates vertically as a single mode of vibration linear system. HBWEDs and other single degree of freedom wave energy devices such as oscillating wave surge convertors (OWSC) are currently deployed in the ocean, making such devices important systems to both model and analyse in some detail. The results of the comparison relate to any linear system. It was found that the wavelet estimator of the RAO offers no advantage over the spectral estimators if both input and response time series data are noise free and long time series are available. If there is noise on only the response time series, only the wavelet estimator or the spectral estimator that uses the cross-spectrum of the input and response signals in the numerator should be used. For the case of noise on only the input time series, only the spectral estimator that uses the cross-spectrum in the denominator gives a sensible estimate of the RAO. If both the input and response signals are corrupted with noise, a modification to both the input and response spectrum estimates can provide a good estimator of the RAO. A combination of wavelet and spectral methods is introduced as an alternative RAO estimator. The conclusions apply for autoregressive emulators of sea surface elevation, impulse, and pseudorandom binary sequences (PRBS) inputs. However, a wavelet estimator is needed in the special case of a chirp input where the signal has a continuously varying frequency.
A minimal model for predator-prey interaction in a composite environment is presented and analysed. We first consider free migrations between two patches for both interacting populations, and then the particular cases where only one-directional migration is allowed and where only one of the two populations can migrate. Our findings indicate that in all cases the ecosystem can never disappear entirely, under the model assumptions. The predator-free equilibrium and the coexistence of all populations are found to be the only feasible stable equilibria. When there are only one-directional migrations, the abandoned patch cannot be repopulated. Other equilibria then arise, with only prey in the second patch, coexistence in the second patch, or prey in both patches but predators only in the second one. For the case of sedentary prey, with predator migration, the prey cannot thrive alone in either of the two environments. However, predators can survive in a prey-free patch due to their ability to migrate into the other patch, provided prey is present there. If only the prey can migrate, the predators may be eliminated from one patch or from both. In the first case, the patch where there are no predators acts as a refuge for the survival of the prey.
The generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) method is one of the most widely used numerical methods for solving stochastic differential equations. Recently, attempts have been made to extend the the gPC to solve hyperbolic stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE). The convergence rate of the gPC depends on the regularity of the solution. It is shown that the characteristics technique can be used to derive general conditions for regularity of linear hyperbolic PDE, in a detailed case study of a linear wave equation with a random variable coefficient and random initial and boundary data.