The present study aims to review the main communicable diseases that experienced an upsurge in the past decade in Lebanon and to highlight the reasons behind this increase. Data of reported communicable diseases from 2010 till 2019 were obtained from the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health (LMOPH) epidemiological surveillance database. Tuberculosis, measles, mumps, leishmaniasis, and hepatitis A were the main communicable diseases that showed a sharp increase in the past 10 y. Measles outbreaks occurred in 2013 and 2018, leishmaniasis outbreak in 2013, and mumps and hepatitis A outbreaks in 2014. The highest percentages of reported diseases were from Beqaa and North governorates. The massive influx of Syrian refugees to Lebanon, together with the poor water management system, poor sanitation, deprived living conditions, and limited health-care access in rural areas might have contributed to the upsurge of communicable diseases. Although the LMOPH succeeded in containing the outbreaks, further efforts are needed to improve the identified gaps to avoid future outbreaks.