Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-frvt8 Total loading time: 0.399 Render date: 2022-09-24T22:33:04.001Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Health and Community Cohesion After the 2013 Calgary Flood

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 August 2017

Erin Hetherington
Affiliation:
Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Sheila McDonald
Affiliation:
Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Muci Wu
Affiliation:
Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Suzanne Tough*
Affiliation:
Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
*
Correspondence and reprint requests to Suzanne Tough, Owerko Centre, c/o 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada (e-mail: stough@ucalgary.ca).

Abstract

Objective

To examine mental health and community cohesion in women living in Calgary after a natural disaster considering previously collected mental health data.

Methods

Data from an ongoing longitudinal cohort, the All Our Families study, were used to examine mental health and community cohesion 5 months after a major flood in Calgary, Canada. Participants who had completed a baseline questionnaire before the flood were eligible for inclusion in this study (N=923). Four multivariable logistic regression models were built to examine predictors of post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and community cohesion.

Results

Elevated anxiety before the flood was associated with 2.49 (95% CI: 1.17, 5.26) increased odds of experiencing high levels of post-traumatic stress, regardless of whether respondents lived in a flood-risk community or not. Women who experienced damage to property, or who provided help to others, were more likely to perceive an increased sense of community cohesion (adjusted ods ratio (AOR): 1.67; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.54 and AOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.52, respectively).

Conclusions

Women with underlying mental health conditions may be more vulnerable to the psychological impacts of a natural disaster regardless of their level of exposure. Natural disasters may bring communities together, especially those who were more tangibly impacted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:470–477)

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. Tremblay, MA, Blanchard, CM, Pelletier, LG, et al. A dual route in explaining health outcomes in natural disaster. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2006;36(6):1502-1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2. Fernandez, A, Black, J, Jones, M, et al. Flooding and mental health: a systematic mapping review. PloS One. 2015;10(4):e0119929.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Goldmann, E, Galea, S. Mental health consequences of disasters. Annu Rev Public Health. 2014;35:169-183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. Mason, V, Andrews, H, Upton, D. The psychological impact of exposure to floods. Psychol Health Med. 2010;15(1):61-73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. Kaniasty, K, Norris, FH. Longitudinal linkages between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms: sequential roles of social causation and social selection. J Trauma Stress. 2008;21(3):274-281.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Patterson, O, Weil, F, Patel, K. The role of community in disaster response: conceptual models. Popul Res Policy Rev. 2010;29(2):127-141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Norris, FH, Friedman, MJ, Watson, PJ. 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part II. Summary and implications of the disaster mental health research. Psychiatry. 2002;65(3):240-260.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8. Stanke, C, Murray, V, Amlôt, R, et al. The effects of flooding on mental health: outcomes and recommendations from a review of the literature. PLOS Curr Disasters. 2012. doi: 10.1371/4f9f1fa9c3cae.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Kaniasty, K. Predicting social psychological well-being following trauma: the role of postdisaster social support. Psychol Trauma. 2012;4(1):22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10. Paranjothy, S, Gallacher, J, Amlôt, R, et al. Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11. Tracy, M, Norris, FH, Galea, S. Differences in the determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression after a mass traumatic event. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28(8):666-675.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12. Alderman, K, Turner, LR, Tong, S. Assessment of the health impacts of the 2011 summer floods in Brisbane. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2013;7(4):380-386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. North, CS. Disaster mental health epidemiology: methodological review and interpretation of research findings. Psychiatry. 2016;79(2):130-146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. Moffitt, TE, Caspi, A, Taylor, A, et al. How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment. Psychol Med. 2010;40(6):899-909.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Chang, K. Community cohesion after a natural disaster: insights from a Carlisle flood. Disasters. 2010;34(2):289-302.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. Sweet, S. The effect of a natural disaster on social cohesion: a longitudinal study. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1998;16(3):321-331.Google Scholar
17. Government of Alberta. Southern Alberta 2013 Floods: The Provincial Recovery Framework. 2013. https://www.alberta.ca/assets/documents/2013-Flood-Recovery-Framework.pdf. Accessed July 14, 2017.Google Scholar
18. CBC. Alberta flood remembered a year later. 2014. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/calgary/alberta-flood-remembered-a-year-later-1.2682396. Accessed 28 September 2016.Google Scholar
19. Sahni, V, Scott, AN, Beliveau, M, et al. Public health surveillance response following the southern Alberta floods, 2013. Can J Public Health. 2016;107(2):e142-e148.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. McDonald, SW, Lyon, AW, Benzies, KM, et al. The All Our Babies pregnancy cohort: design, methods, and participant characteristics. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13(1):1.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
21. Horowitz, M, Wilner, N, Alvarez, W. Impact of Event Scale: a measure of subjective stress. Psychosom Med. 1979;41(3):209-218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22. Weiss, DS. The impact of event scale: revised. In: Wilson JP, Tang CS eds. Cross-Cultural Assessment of Psychological Trauma and PTSD. New York: Springer; 2007:219-238.Google Scholar
23. Poulin, C, Hand, D, Boudreau, B. Validity of a 12-item version of the CES-D [Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale] used in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Chronic Dis Can. 2005;26(2-3):65.Google ScholarPubMed
24. Kozyrskyj, A, Letourneau, N, Kang, L, et al. Associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma diminish with child age. Clin Exp Allergy. 2016;47:324-330.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25. Marteau, TM, Bekker, H. The development of a six‐item short‐form of the state scale of the Spielberger State—Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Br J Clin Psychol. 1992;31(3):301-306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26. Radloff, LS. The CES-D scale a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977;1(3):385-401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27. Speilberger, C, Gorsuch, R, Lushene, R, et al. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1983.Google Scholar
28. Knight, RG, Waal‐Manning, HJ, Spears, GF. Some norms and reliability data for the State‐Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Zung Self‐Rating Depression scale. Br J Clin Psychol. 1983;22(4):245-249.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29. Statistics_Canada. Microdata User Guide: National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Cycle 5; 2003. http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/4450_D4_T9_V5-eng.pdf. Accessed 28 September 2016.Google Scholar
30. McDonald, SW, Kehler, HL, Tough, SC. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort. BMJ Open. 2016;6(11):e012096.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31. Calgary, C.o. Before, During and After Flooding in Calgary: Your Guide to Protecting Family an Property. City of Calgary: Water Services; 2012.Google Scholar
32. Kleinbaum, D, Nizam, M. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. 4th edition. Belmont, California: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing; 2008.Google Scholar
33. StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software: Release 13, College Station, TX; 2013.Google Scholar
34. ESRI. ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute; 2011.Google Scholar
35. Fergusson, DM, Boden, JM. The psychological impacts of major disasters. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2014;48(7):597-599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36. Bonanno, GA, Brewin, CR, Kaniasty, K, et al. Weighing the costs of disaster consequences, risks, and resilience in individuals, families, and communities. Psychol Sci Public Interest. 2010;11(1):1-49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37. Fergusson, DM, Boden, JM, Horwood, LJ, et al. Perceptions of distress and positive consequences following exposure to a major disaster amongst a well-studied cohort. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2014;49(4):351-359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
38. Norris, FH, Stevens, SP, Pfefferbaum, B, et al. Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. Am J Community Psychol. 2008;41(1-2):127-150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Health and Community Cohesion After the 2013 Calgary Flood
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Health and Community Cohesion After the 2013 Calgary Flood
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Health and Community Cohesion After the 2013 Calgary Flood
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *