Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-8kt4b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-23T23:39:01.878Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Intention to Comply With Mandatory Hurricane Evacuation Orders Among Persons Living Along a Coastal Area

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 April 2013

Abstract

Objectives

We examined the intention to comply with mandatory hurricane evacuation orders among respondents living in coastal areas with pronounced poverty by demographic and location characteristics.

Methods

A 3-county door-to-door survey was conducted with 1 randomly selected resident per household. Households were selected using a 2-stage cluster sampling strategy and stratified by county. The final sample included 3088 households in 100 census tracts across 3 counties.

Results

Findings suggest that the majority of residents living in areas prone to hurricanes intend to comply with mandatory evacuation orders regardless of income level. Variation in intention to comply with mandatory evacuation orders is shown by age, gender, ethnicity, education, acculturation, county, and distance from shoreline.

Conclusions

The demonstrated high intention to comply with evacuation orders in impoverished areas suggests a need for improved planning to evacuate the most vulnerable residents. Demographic and location characteristics associated with decreased intention to comply may be considered for targeting messages and education before disasters to modifying intentions and plans to evacuate. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:46-54)

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2013

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Bea, K. Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes after Hurricane Katrina: A Summary of Statutory Provisions. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service; December 15, 2006.Google Scholar
2.Townsend, FF. The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned. Washington, DC: Office of the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism; February 23, 2006.Google Scholar
3.Walker, DM. Hurricane Katrina: GAO's Preliminary Observations Regarding Preparedness, Response, and Recovery: Testimony Before the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, GAO-06-442T; 2006.Google Scholar
4.Bea, K, Halchin, E, Hogue, H, etal. Federal Emergency Management Policy Changes After Hurricane Katrina: A Summary of Statutory Provisions. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service; 2007.Google Scholar
5.Petrolia, DR, Bhattacharjee, S, Hanson, TR. Heterogeneous evacuation responses to storm forecast attributes. Nat Hazards Rev. 2011;12:117-125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Redlener, I, Johnson, D, Berman, DA, Grant, R. Snapshot 2005: where the American public stands on terrorism and preparedness four years after September 11. The 2005 Annual Survey of the American Public by the National Center for Disaster Preparedness. New York, NY: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health; 2006.Google Scholar
7.Hewins-Maroney, B, Schumaker, A, Williams, E. Health seeking behaviors of African Americans: implications for health administration. J Health Hum Serv Adm. 2005;28(l):68-95.Google ScholarPubMed
8.Elder, K, Xirasagar, S, Miller, N, Bowen, S, Glover, S, Piper, C. African Americans’ decisions not to evacuate New Orleans before Hurricane Katrina: a qualitative study. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:S109-S115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9.Gray-Graves, A, Turner, KW, Swan, JH. The level of willingness to evacuate among older adults. Gerontol Geriatr Educ. 2011;32(2):107-121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10.Gray-Graves, AM, Turner, KW, Swan, JH. Sustainability of seniors: disaster risk reduction management. J Aging Emerg Econ. 2010;2(2):64-78.Google Scholar
11.Sapir, DG. Disaster Data: A Balanced Perspective: Natural Disasters in 2007. Brussels, Belgium: Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters CRUNCH; 2008.Google Scholar
12.Smith, DC. Organizing for disaster preparedness. J Community Pract. 2006;13(4):131-141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13.Nates, JL, Moyer, VA. Lessons from Hurricane Katrina, tsunamis, and other disasters. Lancet. 2005;366(9492):1144-1146.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14.Bourque, LB, Siegel, JM, Kano, M, Wood, MM. Weathering the storm: the impact of hurricanes on physical and mental health. ANNALS Am Acad Polit Soc Sci. 2006;604(1):129-151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance for illness and injury after Hurricane Katrina - three counties, Mississippi, September 5-October 11, 2005. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(9):231-234.Google Scholar
16.Gabe, T, Falk, G, McCarty, M, Mason, VW. Hurricane Katrina: social-demographic characteristics of impacted areas. J Fam Issues. 2011;32(10):1277-1284.Google Scholar
17.Loewenberg, S. Louisiana looks back on a week of disaster. Lancet. 2005;366(9489):881-882.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18.Skinner, R. Hurricane preparedness and evacuation. Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Conference, Hope, AR; 2006.Google Scholar
19.Ajzen, I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. 1991;50(2):179-211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20.Ajzen, I, Albarracin, D. Predicting and changing behavior: a reasoned action approach. In: Ajzen I, Albarracin D, Hornik R, eds. Prediction and Change of Health Behavior: Applying the Reasoned Action Approach. Hills-dale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers; 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21.Albarracln, D, Johnson, BT, Fishbein, M, Muellerleile, PA. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2001;127(1):142-161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22.Fishbein, ME. Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. New York, NY: Wiley; 1967.Google Scholar
23.Hardeman, W, Johnston, M, Johnston, D, Bonetti, D, Wareham, N, Kinmonth, AL. Application of the theory of planned behaviour in behaviour change interventions: a systematic review. Psychol Health. 2002; 17(2):123-158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24.Blendon, RJ, Benson, JM, DesRoches, CM, Lyon-Daniel, K, Mitchell, EW, Pollard, WE. The public's preparedness for hurricanes in four affected regions. Public Health Rep. 2007; 122(2):167-176.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25.Gladwin, H, Peacock, WG. Warning and evacuation: a night of hard choices. In: Peacock WG, Gladwin H, eds. Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender and the Sociology of Disasters. New York, NY: Routledge; 1997.Google Scholar
26.Bateman, JM, Edwards, B. Gender and evacuation: a closer look at why women are more likely to evacuate for hurricanes. Nat Hazards Rev. 2002;3:107-117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27.Smith, SK, McCarty, C. Fleeing the storm(s): an examination of evacuation behavior during Florida's 2004 hurricane season. Demography. 2009;46(1):127-145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28.US Census Bureau. American community survey 2005-2007. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2007.Google Scholar
29.Rosenkoetter, MM, Covan, EK, Bunting, S, Cobb, BK, Fugate-Whitlock, E. Disaster evacuation: an exploratory study of older men and women in Georgia and North Carolina. J Gerontol Nurs. 2007;33(12):46-54.Google ScholarPubMed
30.Rosenkoetter, MM, Covan, EK, Cobb, BK, Bunting, S, Weinrich, M. Perceptions of older adults regarding evacuation in the event of a natural disaster. Public Health Nurs. 2007;24(2):160-168.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31.Baker, EJ. Predicting response to hurricane warnings: a reanalysis of data from four studies. Mass Emerg. 1979;4(1):9-24.Google Scholar
32.Dash, N, Gladwin, H. Evacuation decision making and behavioral responses: individual and household. Nat Hazards Rev. 2007;8:69-77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33.Drabek, TE. Human System Responses to Disaster: An Inventory of Sociological Findings. New York, NY: Springer Verlag; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34.Zhang, Y, Prater, CS, Lindell, MK. Risk area accuracy and evacuation from Hurricane Bret. Nat Hazards Rev. 2004;5:115-120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35.Eisenman, DP, Cordasco, KM, Asch, S, Golden, JF, Glik, D. Disaster planning and risk communication with vulnerable communities: lessons from Hurricane Katrina. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(suppl 1):S109-S115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36.Jacob, B, Mawson, AR, Payton, M, Guignard, JC. Disaster mythology and fact: Hurricane Katrina and social attachment. Public Health Rep. 2008;123(5):555-566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37.Wilmot, CG, Mei, B. Comparison of alternative trip generation models for hurricane evacuation. Nat Hazards Rev. 2004;5: 170-178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38.Riad, JK, Norris, FH, Ruback, RB. Predicting evacuation in two major disasters: risk perception, social influence, and access to resources. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1999;29(5):918-934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39.Whitehead, JC, Edwards, B, Van Willigen, M, Maiolo, JR, Wilson, K, Smith, KT. Heading for higher ground: factors affecting real and hypothetical hurricane evacuation behavior. In: Global Environment Change Part B: Environmental Hazards. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier 2000;2(4):133-142.Google Scholar
40.Lindell, MK, Lu, JC, Prater, CS. Household decision making and evacuation in response to Hurricane Lili. Nat Hazards Rev. 2005;6:171-180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41.Baker, EJ. Hurricane evacuation behavior. Int J Mass Emerg Disasters. 1991;9(2):287-310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
42.Marin, G, Gamba, R. A new measurement acculturation in Hispanics: the bidirectional acculturation scale for Hispanics (BAS). Hisp J Behav Sci. 1996;8(3):297-316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
43. Stata 11.1 Survey Analytic Package [computer program]. College Station, TX: STATA Corp; 2010.Google Scholar
44. Lower Rio Grande Valley Development Council Needs Assessment Lower Rio Grande Valley Hurricane Dolly Recovery Program; November 2011. http://www.lrgvdc.org/downloads/disaster-recovery/LRGVDC_Needs_Assessment_Combined_PDF_(Complete).pdf.Google Scholar
45. The Colonia Initiatives Program Office of the Texas Secretary of State. Tracking the progress of state funded projects that benefit colonias. Senate Bill 99 82nd Texas Legislature Regular Session 2010. http://www.sos.state.tx.us/border/forms/reports-11/sb-99-progress.pdf. Accessed June 1, 2012.Google Scholar
46.Dow, K, Cutter, SL. Emerging hurricane evacuation issues: Hurricane Floyd and South Carolina. Nat Hazards Rev. 2002;3:12-19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47.Blendon, RJ, Buhr, T, Benson, JM, Weldon, KJ, Herrmann, MJ. Survey of Hurricane Preparedness Finds Those Who Experienced Katrina Most Worried About Drinking Water and Medical Care. Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public Health; 2008.Google Scholar
48.Baezconde-Garbanati, L, Unger, J, Portugal, C, Delgado, JL, Falcon, A, Gaitan, M. Maximizing participation of Hispanic community-based/nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in emergency preparedness. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2005-2006;24(4):289-317.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
49.Webb, TL, Sheeran, P. Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychol Bull. 2006;132(2):249-268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed