Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-79b67bcb76-6tv95 Total loading time: 0.186 Render date: 2021-05-12T19:22:10.810Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Injuries and Illnesses Among American Red Cross Responders—United States, 2008–2012

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 October 2014

Kimberly Brinker
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, Georgia
Catherine A. Head
Affiliation:
American Red Cross, Washington, DC.
Candice Y. Johnson
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, Georgia
Renée H. Funk
Affiliation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, Georgia
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective

Occupational injury and illness rates for volunteer responders have not been well documented. We analyzed data specific to volunteers from the American Red Cross (ARC).

Methods

Data collected by the ARC between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed to identify disaster factors associated with responder injuries and illnesses. We focused on disaster-relief operation (DRO) level (indicating operational costs, ranging from 3 [lower] to 5+ [higher]); disaster type; region; and year. We calculated injury and illness rates and estimated rate ratios (RR) with 95% CI, using negative binomial regression. Also, we analyzed a total of 113 disasters.

Results

Hurricanes had the highest rates of injuries (14/1000 responders) and illnesses (18/1000 responders). In the adjusted model for injuries, RRs were higher for DRO levels 4 (3.6 [CI, 2.0–6.7]) and 5+ (4.9 [CI, 2.2–11.0]) than for level 3. In the adjusted model for illnesses, RRs also were higher for DRO levels 4 (4.4 [CI, 2.6–7.3]) and 5+ (8.6 [CI, 4.1–17.7]) than for level 3.

Conclusions

Higher DRO levels were a significant predictor of greater rates of occupational injuries and illnesses. Careful selection of responders, including volunteers, has been warranted for deployments to such disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-7)

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. Head, CA. Development of the American Red Cross deployment process. Presented at: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Tuesday Morning Seminar; August 27, 2013; Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
2. What is national VOAD? National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster website. 2014; http://www.nvoad.org. Accessed February 27, 2014.Google Scholar
3. Disaster relief. American Red Cross website. 2013; http://www.redcross.org/what-we-do/disaster-relief. Accessed November 18, 2013.Google Scholar
4. American Red Cross. Disaster Services Human Resources (DSHR) System Handbook. Washington, DC: American Red Cross; April 2007:17.Google Scholar
5. Occupational injuries and illnesses news release. Washington, DC: Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/osh.pdf. Accessed August 21, 2013.Google Scholar
6. Reichard, AA, Jackson, LL. Occupational injuries among emergency responders. Am J Indust Med. 2010;53(1):1-11.Google ScholarPubMed
7. Leigh, JP. Economic burden of occupational injury and illness in the US. Milbank Q. 2011;89(4):728-772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. State of the sector: healthcare and social assistance—identification of research opportunities for the next decade of NORA. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; August 2009. DHHS (NIOSH) publication No.2009-138.Google Scholar
9. Jones, J. Mother nature’s disasters and their health effects: a literature review. Nurs Forum. 2006;41(2):78-87.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Worker health chartbook 2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website; 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-146/. Accessed January 24, 2014.Google Scholar
11. Ruser, J. Examining evidence on whether BLS undercounts workplace injuries and illnesses. Monthly Labor Rev; August 2008;2-38.Google Scholar
12. US National Response Team. National Response Team website. http://www.nrt.org/Production/NRT/NRTWeb.nsf/AllPagesByTitle/P-AboutNRT?Opendocument. Accessed. August 21, 2014.Google Scholar
13. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Emergency responder health monitoring and surveillance (ERHMS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website; 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/erhms/. Accessed November 18, 2013.Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Injuries and Illnesses Among American Red Cross Responders—United States, 2008–2012
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Injuries and Illnesses Among American Red Cross Responders—United States, 2008–2012
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Injuries and Illnesses Among American Red Cross Responders—United States, 2008–2012
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *