Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-r9vz2 Total loading time: 0.243 Render date: 2021-07-30T11:44:02.710Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Incidences, Types, and Influencing Factors of Snow Disaster–Associated Injuries in Ningbo, China, 2008

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 April 2013

Abstract

Objective: The incidence, types, and influencing factors of injuries due to snow-ice disasters are essential for public health preparedness. This study was designed to assess such factors of injuries during the 22-day snowstorm in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China, in 2008.

Methods: A multistage cluster probability sampling method was applied to select the study population in urban, rural, and mountainous areas. Data including sociodemographic characteristics, frequency, and types of injuries during the snowstorm between January 20 and February 10, 2008, were obtained by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire and by checking the participants' medical records. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine the factors significantly associated with the risk of injuries.

Results: A total of 3169 residents of 1416 families took part in this survey. In 581 residents, 602 injuries were identified. Incidences of frostbite, falling injury, and traffic accident–related injury were 12.78%, 5.30%, and 0.50%, respectively. Injury occurred more frequently in women than in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% CI, 1.19-1.70). Frostbite occurred more frequently in women than in men (adjusted OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.43-2.41) and more frequently in urban areas than in other areas (adjusted OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.24-2.20). Travel by bus or car, wearing a scarf, wearing gloves, wearing a raincoat, reducing outdoor activity, and performing regular physical exercise were independent protective factors of frostbite, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 0.35 (0.20-0.61), 0.45 (0.33-0.62), 0.35 (0.26-0.48), 0.45 (0.33-0.61), 0.36 (0.27-0.48), and 0.18 (0.13-0.24), respectively. Falling injury occurred more often in mountainous areas than in other areas (adjusted OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.27-2.42). Age 45 years or older, working outside more than 15 days, and wearing a raincoat were independent risk factors of falling injury, with an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 2.30 (1.60-3.32), 1.92 (1.36-2.72), and 2.21 (1.56-3.11), respectively. Falling and traffic accident–related injuries were mainly due to slippery roads.

Conclusions: Frostbite and falling injury were the major injuries caused by an unprecedented snow-ice disaster. Keeping warm and maintaining regular physical exercise appeared to reduce frostbite risk. Public health intervention also reduced the risk of falling and traffic accident–related injuries.

(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:363-369)

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Stone, R. Natural disasters. Ecologists report huge storm losses in China's forests. Science. 2008;319(5868):13181319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2.Lewis, LMLasater, LC. Frequency, distribution, and management of injuries due to an ice storm in a large metropolitan area. South Med J. 1994;87(2):174178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3.Hartling, LPickett, WBrison, RJ. The injury experience observed in two emergency departments in Kingston, Ontario during “ice storm 98.” Can J Public Health. 1999;90(2):9598.Google Scholar
4.Smith, RWNelson, DR. Fractures and other injuries from falls after an ice storm. Am J Emerg Med. 1998;16(1):5255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Broder, JMehrotra, ATintinalli, J. Injuries from the 2002 North Carolina ice storm, and strategies for prevention. Injury. 2005;36(1):2126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6.Watson, DSShields, BJSmith, GA. Snow shovel-related injuries and medical emergencies treated in US EDs, 1990 to 2006. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(1):1117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7.Zhang, HWZhang, YHLu, MJTong, WJCao, GW. Comparison of hypertension, dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia between buckwheat seed-consuming and non-consuming Mongolian-Chinese populations in Inner Mongolia, China. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34(9):838844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Turner, TGreen, SHarris, C. Supporting evidence-based health care in crises: what information do humanitarian organizations need? Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5(1):6972.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9.Goertz, OBaerreiter, SRing, A, et alDetermination of microcirculatory changes and angiogenesis in a model of frostbite injury in vivo. J Surg Res. 2011;168(1):155161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
10.Mohr, WJJenabzadeh, KAhrenholz, DH. Cold injury. Hand Clin. 2009;25(4):481496.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11.Rintamäki, H. Predisposing factors and prevention of frostbite. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2000;59(2):114121.Google ScholarPubMed
12.Harirchi, IArvin, AVash, JHZafarmand, V. Frostbite: incidence and predisposing factors in mountaineers. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(12):898901, discussion 901.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13.Mäkinen, TMJokelainen, JNäyhä, SLaatikainen, TJousilahti, PHassi, J. Occurrence of frostbite in the general population—work-related and individual factors. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2009;35(5):384393.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14.Koutsavlis, ATKosatsky, T.Environmental-temperature injury in a Canadian metropolis. J Environ Health. 2003;66(5):4045.Google Scholar
15.Hashmi, SPetraro, PRizzo, T, et alSymptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress among survivors of the 2005 Pakistani earthquake. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5(4):293299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16.Meredith, LSEisenman, DPTanielian, T, et alPrioritizing “psychological” consequences for disaster preparedness and response: a framework for addressing the emotional, behavioral, and cognitive effects of patient surge in large-scale disasters. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2011;5(1):7380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Incidences, Types, and Influencing Factors of Snow Disaster–Associated Injuries in Ningbo, China, 2008
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Incidences, Types, and Influencing Factors of Snow Disaster–Associated Injuries in Ningbo, China, 2008
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Incidences, Types, and Influencing Factors of Snow Disaster–Associated Injuries in Ningbo, China, 2008
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *