Hostname: page-component-59f8fd8595-9z55p Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-22T01:36:12.715Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Geriatric Emergency Preparedness and Response Workshops: An Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitudes, Intentions, and Self-Efficacy of Participants

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 April 2013


Objective: Older persons have levels of frailty and disability that place them at far greater risk of harm in disasters than younger adults, making it crucial for all agency planners, public health workers, and health care providers to be aware of age-appropriate considerations of preparedness and response. This research evaluated the knowledge and utilization intentions of participants of a geriatric emergency preparedness and response (GEPR) continuing education program that was designed to provide this training.

Methods: A qualitative training evaluation was conducted using course evaluation questionnaires from GEPR workshops offered in 2009 in 7 nationwide cities through a partnership of the University of Texas Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Preparedness with the Texas Consortium Geriatric Education Center at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston.

Results: Evaluations were completed by 292 participants. Respondents were able to name specific information learned, give examples of applications of the material, and devise plans for further action. Participants believed that their ability to do their jobs had increased, and they provided insightful suggestions instructive to both trainers and to leaders of health care organizations.

Conclusions: The results of the evaluation suggest that GEPR workshops are effective in increasing the knowledge of participants and their intentions to use it. There is both a need and a demand for this training. Developers and trainers should provide participants with sufficient time for absorbing the information, consider tailoring the training to the local context, and provide opportunity for practical application, particularly planning exercises.

(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:385-392)

Original Research
Copyright © Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



1.US Census Bureau. Resident population by sex and age. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2011.Google Scholar
2.Committee on the Future Health Care Workforce for Older Americans, Institute of Medicine. Retooling for an Aging America. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences; 2008.Google Scholar
3.Arnold, JL. Disaster medicine in the 21st century: future hazards, vulnerabilities, and risk. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2002;17(1):311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4.Bergman, HFerrucci, LGuralnik, J, et alFrailty: an emerging research and clinical paradigm—issues and controversies. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(7):731737.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5.Fried, LPFerrucci, LDarer, JWilliamson, JDAnderson, G. Untangling the concepts of disability, frailty, and comorbidity: implications for improved targeting and care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59(3):255263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6.Sternberg, SAWershof Schwartz, AKarunananthan, SBergman, HMark Clarfield, A. The identification of frailty: a systematic literature review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(11):21292138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7.Fernandez, LSByard, DLin, CCBenson, SBarbera, JA. Frail elderly as disaster victims: emergency management strategies. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2002;17(2):6774.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8.Aldrich, NBenson, WF. Disaster preparedness and the chronic disease needs of vulnerable older adults. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(1):A27.Google ScholarPubMed
9.Dyer, CBRegev, MBurnett, JFesta, NCloyd, B. SWiFT: a rapid triage tool for vulnerable older adults in disaster situations. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2(suppl 1):S45S50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10.Sakauye, KMStreim, JEKennedy, GJ, et alAAGP position statement: disaster preparedness for older Americans: critical issues for the preservation of mental health. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17(11):916924.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11. Old people suffer abandonment, cold in wake of tsunami: heartbreaking stories emerge in Japan as hope for more survivors fades; 2011. Accessed June 17, 2011.Google Scholar
12.Ahmed, NMandel, RFain, MJ. Frailty: an emerging geriatric syndrome. Am J Med. 2007;120(9):748753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13.Walston, JHadley, ECFerrucci, L, et alResearch agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on Frailty in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(6):9911001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14.Schuurmans, HSteverink, NLindenberg, SFrieswijk, NSlaets, JP. Old or frail: what tells us more? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004;59(9):M962M965.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15.Perweiler, ERoush, RETumosa, N. Making preparations: GECs work to advance mission on bioterrorism and emergency preparedness planning for an aging population. Aging Successfully. 2004;14(3):34. Accessed June 17, 2011.Google Scholar
16.Roush, RE. Preparing for bioterrorism and emergencies: statewide teaching in Texas. Aging Successfully. 2004;14(3):1111. Accessed June 17, 2011.Google Scholar
17.Office of Minority Health. National Standards on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) in Health Care. Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; March 2001. Accessed July 28, 2009.Google Scholar
18.Johnson, AHowe, JL McBride, MR, et alBioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness in Aging (BTEPA): HRSA-funded GEC collaboration for curricula and training. Gerontol Geriatr Educ. 2006;26(4):6386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19.Delbecq, ALVan de Ven, AH. A group process model for identification and program planning. J Appl Behav Sci. 1971;7:466492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20.Strauss, ACorbin, J. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 1990.Google Scholar
21.Creswell, JW. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2007.Google Scholar
22.Kirk, JMiller, ML. Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23.Miles, MBHuberman, AM. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1994.Google Scholar
24.Glanz, KRimer, BKLewis, FM, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2002.Google Scholar
25.Kirkpatrick, D. Great ideas revisited: techniques for evaluating training programs: revisiting Kirkpatrick's four-level model. Train Dev. 1996;50(1):5459.Google Scholar
26.Kirkpatrick, DL. Evaluating Training Programs: The Four Levels. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 1998.Google Scholar
27.Montano, DEKasprzyk, D. The theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior. In: Glanz, K, Rimer, BK, Lewis, FM, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2002:6798.Google Scholar
28.Ajzen, I. Nature and operation of attitudes. Annu Rev Psychol. 2001;52:2758.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29.Millstein, SG. Utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior for predicting physician behavior: a prospective analysis. Health Psychol. 1996;15(5):398402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30.Ajzen, ICzasch, CFlood, MG. From intentions to behavior: implementation intention, commitment, and conscientiousness. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2009;39:13561372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31.Ajzen, ICote, NG. Attitudes and the prediction of behavior. In: Crano, WD, Prislin, R, eds. Attitudes and Attitude Change. New York, NY: Psychology Press; 2008:289311.Google Scholar
32.Bandura, A. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York, NY: WH Freeman & Co; 1997.Google Scholar
33.Janz, NKChampion, VLStrecher, VJ. The health belief model. In: Glanz, K, Rimer, BK, Lewis, FM, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2002:4566.Google Scholar
34.Baronowski, TPerry, CLParcel, GS. How individuals, environments, and health behavior interact: social cognitive theory. In: Glanz, K, Rimer, BK, Lewis, FM, eds. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2002:165184.Google Scholar