Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-kw98b Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-22T15:44:47.393Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The Effect of Ambient Temperature on Infectious Diarrhea and Diarrhea-like Illness in Wuxi, China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 November 2020

Yumeng Gao
Affiliation:
Department of Disease Control, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Yujun Chen
Affiliation:
Department of Disease Control, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Ping Shi
Affiliation:
Department of Disease Control, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Qi Zhang
Affiliation:
Department of Disease Control, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Cheng Qian
Affiliation:
Department of Disease Control, Jiangyin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Yong Xiao
Affiliation:
Laboratory, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Weihong Feng
Affiliation:
Laboratory, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Yuan Shen*
Affiliation:
Department of Disease Control, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
Chao Shi*
Affiliation:
Department of Disease Control, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China
*
Correspondence to Chao Shi and Yuan Shen, 499 Jin Cheng Road, Wuxi214023, Jiangsu Province, China. (telephone: +86 0510 85727331; fax: +86 0510 85727331; e-mail: shichao.xo@163.com (CS); wxcdcshy@163.com (YS)).
Correspondence to Chao Shi and Yuan Shen, 499 Jin Cheng Road, Wuxi214023, Jiangsu Province, China. (telephone: +86 0510 85727331; fax: +86 0510 85727331; e-mail: shichao.xo@163.com (CS); wxcdcshy@163.com (YS)).

Abstract

Background:

The disease burden of infectious diarrhea cannot be underestimated. Its seasonal patterns indicate that weather patterns may play an important role and have an important effect on it. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between temperature and infectious diarrhea, and diarrhea-like illness.

Methods:

Distributed lag non-linear model, which was based on the definition of a cross-basis, was used to examine the effect.

Results:

Viral diarrhea usually had high incidence in autumn-winter and spring with a peak at -6°C; Norovirus circulated throughout the year with an insignificant peak at 8°C, while related bacteria usually tested positive in summer and peaked at 22°C. The lag-response curve of the proportion of diarrhea-like cases in outpatient and emergency cases revealed that at -6°C, with the lag days increasing, the proportion increased. Similar phenomena were observed at the beginning of the curves of virus and bacterial positive rate, showing that the risk increased as the lag days increased, peaking on days 16 and 9, respectively. The shape of lag-response curve of norovirus positive rate was different from others, presenting m-type, with 2 peaks on day 3 and day 18.

Conclusion:

Weather patterns should be taken into account when developing surveillance programs and formulating relevant public health intervention strategies.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
© 2020 Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc.

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

World Health Organization (WHO). Diarrhoel disease. WHO website. Updated May 2, 2017. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diarrhoeal-disease. Accessed March 10, 2020.Google Scholar
GBD 2017 Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet. 2018;392(10159):1736-1788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rajtar, B, Majek, M, Polański, Ł, Polz-Dacewicz, M. Enteroviruses in water environment - A potential threat to public health. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2008;15(2):199-203.Google ScholarPubMed
Lu, JY, Chen, ZQ, Liu, YH, et al. Effect of meteorological factors on scarlet fever incidence in Guangzhou City, Southern China, 2006-2017. Sci Total Environ. 2019;663:227-235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowen, AC, Mubareka, S, Steel, J, Palese, P. Influenza virus transmission is dependent on relative humidity and temperature. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3(10):1470-1476.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chao, DL, Roose, A, Roh, M, Kotloff, KL, Proctor, JL. The seasonality of diarrheal pathogens: A retrospective study of seven sites over three years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(8):e0007211.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guang, HX, Sha, D, Feng, WH, Qianqian, Q, Yong, X. Etiological surveillance results of infectious diarrhea in Wuxi, Jiangsu, 2014-2018. Disease Surveillance. 2019;34:795-799. [In Chinese]Google Scholar
Tan, WW, Zhang, WB, Xu, HY, et al. Analysis of surveillance results of viral diarrhea of Nantong City in 2017. Modern Preventive Medicine. 2018;45:3803-3806. [In Chinese]Google Scholar
Hao, Y, Liao, W, Ma, W, et al. Effects of ambient temperature on bacillary dysentery: A multi-city analysis in Anhui Province, China. Sci Total Environ. 2019;671:1206-1213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wen, LY, Zhao, KF, Cheng, J, et al. The association between diurnal temperature range and childhood bacillary dysentery. Int J Biometeorol. 2016;60:269-276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, P, Goggins, WB, Chan, EYY. A time-series study of the association of rainfall, relative humidity and ambient temperature with hospitalizations for rotavirus and norovirus infection among children in Hong Kong. Sci Total Environ. 2018;643:414-422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fang, X, Ai, J, Liu, W, et al. Epidemiology of infectious diarrhoea and the relationship with etiological and meteorological factors in Jiangsu Province, China. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):19571.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Azage, M, Kumie, A, Worku, A, Bagtzoglou, AC. Effect of climatic variability on childhood diarrhea and its high risk periods in northwestern parts of Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186933.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wikipedia. Wuxi. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wuxi. Accessed February 24, 2020.Google Scholar
Gasparrini, A, Guo, Y, Hashizume, M, et al. Mortality risk attributable to high and low ambient temperature: A multicountry observational study. Lancet. 2015;386(9991):369-375.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xu, Z, Liu, Y, Ma, Z, Sam Toloo, G, Hu, W, Tong, S. Assessment of the temperature effect on childhood diarrhea using satellite imagery. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahmed, SM, Hall, AJ, Robinson, AE, et al. Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(8):725-730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlton, EJ, Woster, AP, DeWitt, P, Goldstein, RS, Levy, K. A systematic review and meta-analysis of ambient temperature and diarrhoeal diseases. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45(1):117-130.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shamkhali Chenar, S, Deng, Z. Environmental indicators for human norovirus outbreaks. Int J Environ Health Res. 2017;27(1):40-51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Checkley, W, Epstein, LD, Gilman, RH, et al. Effect of El Niño and ambient temperature on hospital admissions for diarrhoeal diseases in Peruvian children. Lancet. 2000;355(9202):442-450.Google ScholarPubMed
Atchison, CJ, Tam, CC, Hajat, S, van Pelt, W, Cowden, JM, Lopman, BA. Temperature-dependent transmission of rotavirus in Great Britain and The Netherlands. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277(1683):933-942.Google ScholarPubMed
Bozkurt, H, D’Souza, DH, Davidson, PM. Thermal Inactivation of Foodborne Enteric Viruses and Their Viral Surrogates in Foods. J Food Prot. 2015;78(8):1597-1617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed