Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-8bljj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-20T12:49:04.308Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

COVID-19 Knowledge and Pandemic-Associated Distress Among the Hospital Pharmacist Workforce in China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 November 2021

Dongliang Yang
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China College of Pharmacy, Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China
Xueying Ma
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacy, People’s Hospital of Tacheng Prefecture, Xinjiang, China
Songnian Fu
Affiliation:
Psychological Medical Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China
Jun Zhao
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China
Aizezijiang Aierken
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China
Liang Teng*
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China
Xiaoli Gao*
Affiliation:
College of Pharmacy, Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Active components of Natural Medicine and Drug Release Technology, Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang Urumqi, China
*
Corresponding authors: Liang Teng, Email: tl750212@126.com; Xiaoli Gao, Email: xli_g@sina.com
Corresponding authors: Liang Teng, Email: tl750212@126.com; Xiaoli Gao, Email: xli_g@sina.com

Abstract

Background:

The unprecedented disruption brought about by the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had produced tremendous influence on the practice of pharmacy. Sufficient knowledge of pharmacists was needed to deal with the epidemic situation; however, outbreak also aggravated psychological distress among health-care professionals. Therefore, this study aimed to determine knowledge about the pandemic and related factors, prevalence and factors associated with psychological distress among hospital pharmacists of Xinjiang Province, China.

Methods:

An anonymous online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted by means of WeChat, a popular social media platform in China, February 23-27, 2020, during the COVID-19 outbreak. The survey questionnaire consisted of 4 parts, including informed consent section, demographic section, knowledge about COVID-19, and assessment of overall mental health through World Health Organization’s Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). A score of 8 or above on SRQ-20 was used as cutoff to classify the participant as in psychological distress. SRQ-20 score and related knowledge score were used as dependent variables, demographic characteristics (such as gender, age, monthly income, etc.) were used as independent variables, and univariate binary logistic regression was used to screen out the variables with P < 0.05. Then, the filtered variables were used as independent variables, and multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze associations with sufficient knowledge of COVID-19 and psychological distress.

Results:

A total of 365 pharmacists participated in the survey, fewer than half (35.1%; n = 128) of pharmacists attained a score of 6 or greater (out of 10) in overall disease knowledge, and most were able to select effective disinfectants and isolation or discharge criteria. In the multivariable model, age ages 31-40 (odds ratio [OR] = 3.25; P < 0.05), ages 41-50 (OR = 2.96; P < 0.05) versus >50 (referent); primary place of practice in hospitals: drug supply (OR = 4.00; P < 0.01), inpatient pharmacy (OR = 2.06, P < 0.01), clinical pharmacy (OR = 2.17, P < 0.05) versus outpatient pharmacy (referent); monthly income Renminbi (RMB, China’s legal currency) 5000-10,000 (OR = 1.77; P < 0.05) versus < 5000 (referent); contact with COVID-19 patients or suspected cases (OR = 2.27; P < 0.01); access to COVID-19 knowledge remote work+ on-site work (OR = 6.07; P < 0.05), single on-site work (OR = 6.90; P < 0.01) versus remote work (referent) were related to better knowledge of COVID-19. Research found that 18.4% of pharmacists surveyed met the SRQ-20 threshold for distress. Self-reported history of mental illness (OR = 3.56; P < 0.05) and working and living in hospital versus delay in work resumption (OR = 2.87; P < 0.01) were found to be risk factors of psychological distress.

Conclusions:

Further training of COVID-19 knowledge was required for pharmacists. As specific pharmacist groups were prone to psychological distress, it was important for individual hospitals and government to consider and identify pharmacists’ needs and take steps to meet their needs with regard to pandemic and other work-related distress.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
© Society for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, Inc. 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Amin, F, Sharif, S, Saeed, R, et al. COVID-19 pandemic- knowledge, perception, anxiety and depression among frontline doctors of Pakistan. BMC Psychiatry. 2020;20(1):459. doi: 10.1186/s12888-020-02864-x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. Accessed January 10, 2021. https://covid19.who.int/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, K, O’Reilly, CL, Cooper, G, et al. The burden of COVID-19 on pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. Published online 2021;61(2):e61-e64. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2020.10.013 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karasneh, R, Al-Azzam, S, Muflih, S, et al. Media’s effect on shaping knowledge, awareness risk perceptions and communication practices of pandemic COVID-19 among pharmacists. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2021;17(1):1897-1902. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.027 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aburas, W, Alshammari, TM. Pharmacists’ roles in emergency and disasters: COVID-19 as an example. Saudi Pharm J. 2020;28(12):1797-1816. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2020.11.006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, F, Wang, XD, Zhu, KK, et al. Investigation of the psychological status of suspected patients during the Coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(38):e22260. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000022260 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wu, T, Jia, X, Shi, H, et al. Prevalence of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2021;281:91-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.117 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Main, A, Zhou, Q, Ma, Y, et al. Relations of sars-related stressors and coping to Chinese college students’ psychological adjustment during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic. J Couns Psychol. 2011;58(3):410-423. doi: 10.1037/a0023632 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kochuvilayil, T, Fernandez, RS, Moxham LJ, et al. COVID-19: knowledge, anxiety, academic concerns and preventative behaviours among Australian and Indian undergraduate nursing students: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Nurs. Published online 2021;30(5-6):882-891. doi: 10.1111/jocn.15634 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batra, K, Singh, TP, Sharma, M, et al. Investigating the psychological impact of COVID-19 among healthcare workers: a meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(23):9096. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17239096 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, Q, Chen, J, Xu, G, et al. The psychological health status of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional survey study in Guangdong. China Front Public Health. 2020;8:562885. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.562885 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. A user’s guide to the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). Published online 1994. Accessed December 8, 2021. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/61113/WHO_MNH_PSF_94.8.pdf;jsessionid=DB939678771763699991FC19D6328EA6?sequence=1 Google Scholar
Harpham, T, Reichenheim, M, Oser, R, et al. Measuring mental health in a cost-effective manner. Health Policy Plan. 2003;18(3):344-349. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czg041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu J-bo, Huang M-li, Huang W-wu, et al. Reliability and validity of the self-reporting questionnaire for assessing mental health applied in Wenchuan earthquake. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;42(11):810-813.Google Scholar
Zeenny, RM, Ramia, E, Akiki, Y, et al. Assessing knowledge, attitude, practice, and preparedness of hospital pharmacists in Lebanon towards COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2020;13(1):54. doi: 10.1186/s40545-020-00266-8 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hua, F, Qin, D, Yan, J, et al. COVID-19 related experience, knowledge, attitude, and behaviors among 2,669 orthodontists, orthodontic residents, and nurses in China: a cross-sectional survey. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:481. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00481 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lv, G, Yuan, J, Hsieh, S, et al. Knowledge and determinants of behavioral responses to the pandemic of COVID-19. Front Med(Lausanne). 2021;8:673187. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.673187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huynh, G, Nguyen, T, Tran, V, et al. Knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19 among healthcare workers at District 2 Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2020;13(6):260-265. doi: 10.4103/1995-7645.280396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Al ahdab, S. A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards COVID-19 pandemic among the Syrian residents. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):296. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-10353-3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Serwaa, D, Lamptey, E, Appiah, AB, et al. Knowledge, risk perception and preparedness towards coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19) outbreak among Ghanaians: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;35(Suppl 2):44. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2020.35.2.22630 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fan, SL, Xiao, CN, Zhang, YK, et al. How does the two-child policy affect the sex ratio at birth in China? A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):789. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-08799-y CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dong, Y, Mo, X, Hu, Y, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 among children in China. Pediatrics. 2020;145(6):e20200702. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-0702 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, R, Kong, L, Xu, Q, et al. On-ward participation of clinical pharmacists in a Chinese intensive care unit for patients with COVID-19: a retrospective, observational study. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2021;17(1):1853-1858. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhong, B-L, Luo, W, Li, H-M, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020;16(10):1745-1752. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45221 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abdelhafiz, AS, Mohammed, Z, Ibrahim, ME, et al. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitude of Egyptians towards the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). J Community Health. 2020;45(5):881-890. doi: 10.1007/s10900-020-00827-7 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saqlain, M, Munir, MM, Rehman, SU, et al. Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers among healthcare workers regarding COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey from Pakistan. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(3):419-423. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.05.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shafiq, M, Elharake, JA, Malik, AA, et al. COVID-19 sources of information, knowledge, and preventive behaviors among the US adult population. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2021;27(3):278-284. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000001348 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, Y, Chen, H, Zhang, N, et al. Anxiety and depression symptoms of medical staff under COVID-19 epidemic in China. J Affect Disord. 2021;278:144-148. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, Z, Han, B, Jiang, R, et al. Mental health status of doctors and nurses during COVID-19 epidemic in China. SSRN Electron J. Published online 2020. Accessed December 8, 2021. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3551329 Google Scholar
Tsai, J, Elbogen, EB, Huang, M, et al. Psychological distress and alcohol use disorder during the COVID-19 era among middle- and low-income U.S. adults. J Affect Disord. 2021;288:41-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.03.085 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iasevoli, F, Fornaro, M, D’Urso, G, et al. Psychological distress in serious mental illness patients during the COVID-19 outbreak and one-month mass quarantine in Italy. Psychol Med. 2021;51(6):1054-1056. doi: 10.1017/S0033291720001841 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Saravanan, C, Mahmoud, I, Elshami, W, et al. Knowledge, anxiety, fear, and psychological distress about COVID-19 among university students in the United Arab Emirates. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:582189. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.582189 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kisely, S, Warren, N, McMahon, L, et al. Occurrence, prevention, and management of the psychological effects of emerging virus outbreaks on healthcare workers: rapid review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;369:m1642. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1642 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chou, R, Dana, T, Buckley, DI, et al. Epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infection in health care workers: a living rapid review. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(2):120-136. doi: 10.7326/M20-1632 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed