Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-ns2hh Total loading time: 0.466 Render date: 2022-09-25T22:04:04.908Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Prenatal maternal stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and infant regulatory capacity at 3 months: A longitudinal study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 July 2021

Livio Provenzi*
Affiliation:
Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy
Serena Grumi
Affiliation:
Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy
Lilia Altieri
Affiliation:
ASST Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Giulia Bensi
Affiliation:
Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Piacenza, Italy
Emanuela Bertazzoli
Affiliation:
ASST Lodi, Lodi, Italy
Giacomo Biasucci
Affiliation:
Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Piacenza, Italy
Anna Cavallini
Affiliation:
San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy
Lidia Decembrino
Affiliation:
ASST Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Rossana Falcone
Affiliation:
ASST Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Anna Freddi
Affiliation:
ASST Sacco Fatebenefratelli, Milano, Italy
Barbara Gardella
Affiliation:
Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
Roberta Giacchero
Affiliation:
ASST Lodi, Lodi, Italy
Roberto Giorda
Affiliation:
Scientific Institute IRCCS E. Medea, Bosisio Parini, Italy
Elena Grossi
Affiliation:
Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Piacenza, Italy
Paola Guerini
Affiliation:
ASST Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Maria Luisa Magnani
Affiliation:
ASST Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Paola Martelli
Affiliation:
ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy
Mario Motta
Affiliation:
ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy
Renata Nacinovich
Affiliation:
San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy School of Medicine and Surgery and Milan Center for Neuroscience, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy
Dario Pantaleo
Affiliation:
ASST Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Camilla Pisoni
Affiliation:
Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
Federico Prefumo
Affiliation:
ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
Laura Riva
Affiliation:
ASST Sacco Fatebenefratelli, Milano, Italy
Barbara Scelsa
Affiliation:
ASST Sacco Fatebenefratelli, Milano, Italy
Maria V. Spartà
Affiliation:
ASST Lodi, Lodi, Italy
Arsenio Spinillo
Affiliation:
Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Patrizia Vergani
Affiliation:
San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Fondazione MBBM, Monza, Italy
Simona Orcesi
Affiliation:
Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
Renato Borgatti
Affiliation:
Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
*
Author for Correspondence: Livio Provenzi, Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy. E-mail: livio.provenzi@mondino.it

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global traumatic experience for citizens, especially during sensitive time windows of heightened plasticity such as pregnancy and neonatal life. Pandemic-related stress experienced by mothers during pregnancy may act as an early risk factor for infants’ regulatory capacity development by altering maternal psychosocial well-being (e.g., increased anxiety, reduced social support) and caregiving environment (e.g., greater parenting stress, impaired mother–infant bonding). The aim of the present longitudinal study was to assess the consequences of pandemic-related prenatal stress on infants’ regulatory capacity. A sample of 163 mother–infant dyads was enrolled at eight maternity units in northern Italy. They provided complete data about prenatal stress, perceived social support, postnatal anxiety symptoms, parenting stress, mother–infant bonding, and infants’ regulatory capacity at 3 months of age. Women who experienced emotional stress and received partial social support during pregnancy reported higher anxious symptoms. Moreover, maternal postnatal anxiety was indirectly linked to the infants’ regulatory capacity at 3 months, mediated by parenting stress and mother–infant bonding. Dedicated preventive interventions should be delivered to mothers and should be focused on protecting the mother–infant dyad from the detrimental effects of pandemic-related stress during the COVID-19 healthcare emergency.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press.

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

Footnotes

Additional members of the MOM-COPE project: Elisa Bettiga3, Emma Bonetti9, Renza Bonini3, Elisa Cavaleri9, Giovanna Centinaio4, Andrea Citterio8, Giuliana Del Campo2, Mattia Dominioni7, Andrea Gritti7, Gaia Kullmann5, Laura Malerba9, Eloisa Mariani5,13, Fabiana Mambretti8, Cristiana Pavesi3, Benedetta C. Pietra4, Caterina Sabatini4, Pierangelo Veggiotti6, Maria Luisa Ventura5,13, Marco Villa8, Sonia Zatti9, Marzo Zecca7

References

Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting stress index: Manual (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
Barello, S., Palamenghi, L., & Graffigna, G. (2020). Burnout and somatic symptoms among frontline healthcare professionals at the peak of the Italian COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113129. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berretta, E., Guida, E., Forni, D., & Provenzi, L. (2021). Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) methylation during the first thousand days: Environmental exposures and developmental outcomes. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 125, 493502. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.03.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslin, N., Baptiste, C., Gyamfi-Bannerman, C., Miller, R., Martinez, R., Bernstein, K., … Goffman, D. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: Two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York city hospitals. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2, 100118. doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100118Google Scholar
Brock, R. L., O'Hara, M. W., Hart, K. J., McCabe-Beane, J. E., Williamson, J. A., Brunet, A., … King, S. (2015). Peritraumatic distress mediates the effect of severity of disaster exposure on perinatal depression: The Iowa flood study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28, 515522. doi:10.1002/jts.22056CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cameron, E. E., Joyce, K. M., Delaquis, C. P., Reynolds, K., Protudjer, J., & Roos, L. E. (2020). Maternal psychological distress & mental health service use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276, 765774. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.081CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Class, Q. A., Abel, K. M., Khashan, A. S., Rickert, M. E., Dalman, C., Larsson, H., … D'Onofrio, B. M. (2014). Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal and postnatal maternal bereavement stress. Psychological Medicine, 44, 7184. doi:10.1017/S0033291713000780CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Condon, J. T., & Corkindale, C. J. (1998). The assessment of parent-to-infant attachment: Development of a self-report questionnaire instrument. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 16, 5776. doi:10.1080/02646839808404558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daglar, G., & Nur, N. (2018). Level of mother-baby bonding and influencing factors during pregnancy and postpartum period. Psychiatria Danubina, 30, 433440. doi:10.24869/psyd.2018.433CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, E. P., & Narayan, A. J. (2020). Pregnancy as a period of risk, adaptation, and resilience for mothers and infants. Development and Psychopathology, 32, 16251639. doi:10.1017/S0954579420001121CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Devlin, A. M., Brain, U., Austin, J., & Oberlander, T. F. (2010). Prenatal exposure to maternal depressed mood and the MTHFR c677 T variant affect SLC6A4 methylation in infants at birth. PLoS One, 5, e12201. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Liew, J., Zhou, Q., Losoya, S. H., … Cumberland, A. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45, 9881008. doi:10.1037/a0016213CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fallon, V., Silverio, S. A., Halford, J., Bennett, K. M., & Harrold, J. A. (2021). Postpartum-specific anxiety and maternal bonding: Further evidence to support the use of childbearing specific mood tools. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 39, 114124. doi:10.1080/02646838.2019.1680960CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feldman, R. (2015). Mutual influences between child emotion regulation and parent-child reciprocity support development across the first 10 years of life: Implications for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 10071023. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000656CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Field, T. (2018). Postnatal anxiety prevalence, predictors and effects on development: A narrative review. Infant Behavior & Development, 51, 2432. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2018.02.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuller, A., Messito, M. J., Mendelsohn, A. L., Oyeku, S. O., & Gross, R. S. (2018). Prenatal material hardships and infant regulatory capacity at 10 months old in low-income Hispanic mother-infant pairs. Academic Pediatrics, 18, 897904. doi:10.1016/j.acap.2018.04.134CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., & Rothbart, M. K. (2012). Etiology of preschool behavior problems: Contributions of temperament attributes in early childhood. Infant Mental Health Journal, 33, 197211. doi:10.1002/imhj.21312CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gartstein, M. A., & Rothbart, M. K. (2003). Studying infant temperament via the revised infant behavior questionnaire. Infant Behavior and Development, 26, 6486. doi:10.1016/S0163-6383(02)00169-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gartstein, M. A., & Skinner, M. K. (2018). Prenatal influences on temperament development: The role of environmental epigenetics. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 12691303. doi:10.1017/S0954579417001730CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunning, M., Halligan, S. L., & Murray, L. (2013). Contributions of maternal and infant factors to infant responding to the still face paradigm: A longitudinal study. Infant Behavior and Development, 36, 319328. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.02.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gutteling, B. M., De Weerth, C., Willemsen-Swinkels, S. H. N., Huizink, A. C., Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G. H. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2005). The effects of prenatal stress on temperament and problem behavior of 27-month-old toddlers. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 4151. doi:10.1007/s00787-005-0435-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howland, M. A., Sandman, C. A., Davis, E. P., & Glynn, L. M. (2020). Prenatal maternal psychological distress and fetal developmental trajectories: Associations with infant temperament. Development and Psychopathology, 32, 16851695. doi:10.1017/S095457942000142XCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huizink, A. C., Robles De Medina, P. G., Mulder, E. J. H., Visser, G. H. A., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2002). Psychological measures of prenatal stress as predictors of infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 10781085. doi:10.1097/00004583-200209000-00008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laplante, D. P., Brunet, A., & King, S. (2016). The effects of maternal stress and illness during pregnancy on infant temperament: Project ice storm. Pediatric Research, 79, 107113. doi:10.1038/pr.2015.177CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lebel, C., MacKinnon, A., Bagshawe, M., Tomfohr-Madsen, L., & Giesbrecht, G. (2020). Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 513. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.126CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, B., Crnic, K. A., Luecken, L. J., & Gonzales, N. A. (2014). Maternal prenatal stress and infant regulatory capacity in Mexican Americans. Infant Behavior and Development, 37, 571582. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.07.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lista, G., & Bresesti, I. (2020). Fatherhood during the COVID-19 pandemic: An unexpected turnaround. Early Human Development, 144, 105048. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2020.105048CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
López-Morales, H., del Valle, M. V., Canet-Juric, L., Andrés, M. L., Galli, J. I., Poó, F., & Urquijo, S. (2021). Mental health of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study. Psychiatry Research, 295, 113567. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113567CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masiero, M., Mazzocco, K., Harnois, C., Cropley, M., & Pravettoni, G. (2020). From individual to social trauma: Sources of everyday trauma in Italy, the US and UK during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 21, 17. doi:10.1080/15299732.2020.1787296CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matvienko-Sikar, K., Murphy, G., & Murphy, M. (2018). The role of prenatal, obstetric, and post-partum factors in the parenting stress of mothers and fathers of 9-month old infants. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 39, 4755. doi:10.1080/0167482X.2017.1286641CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morikawa, M., Okada, T., Ando, M., Aleksic, B., Kunimoto, S., Nakamura, Y., … Ozaki, N. (2015). Relationship between social support during pregnancy and postpartum depressive state: A prospective cohort study. Scientific Reports, 5, 19. doi:10.1038/srep10520CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Müller, M., Tronick, E., Zietlow, A. L., Nonnenmacher, N., Verschoor, S., & Träuble, B. (2016). Effects of maternal anxiety disorders on infant self-comforting behaviors: The role of maternal bonding, infant gender and age. Psychopathology, 49, 295304. doi:10.1159/000448404CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nicol-Harper, R., Harvey, A. G., & Stein, A. (2007). Interactions between mothers and infants: Impact of maternal anxiety. Infant Behavior and Development, 30, 161167. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2006.08.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oberlander, T. F., Weinberg, J., Papsdorf, M., Grunau, R., Misri, S., & Devlin, A. M. (2008). Prenatal exposure to maternal depression, neonatal methylation of human glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and infant cortisol stress responses. Epigenetics, 3, 97106. doi:10.4161/epi.3.2.6034CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Obrochta, C. A., Chambers, C., & Bandoli, G. (2020). Psychological distress in pregnancy and postpartum. Women and Birth, 33, 583591. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2020.01.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ohara, M., Okada, T., Aleksic, B., Morikawa, M., Kubota, C., Nakamura, Y., … Ozaki, N. (2017). Social support helps protect against perinatal bonding failure and depression among mothers: A prospective cohort study. Scientific Reports, 7, 9546. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08768-3CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pope, J., Olander, E. K., Leitao, S., Meaney, S., & Matvienko-Sikar, K. (2021). Prenatal stress, health, and health behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic: An international survey. Women and Birth. ahead of print. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2021.03.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2000). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 427441. doi:10.1017/S0954579400003096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preis, H., Mahaffey, B., Heiselman, C., & Lobel, M. (2020). Vulnerability and resilience to pandemic-related stress among U.S. Women pregnant at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Social Science and Medicine, 266, 113348. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Provenzi, L., Baroffio, E., Ligabue, S., & Borgatti, R. (2020a). The little professor and the virus: Scaffolding children's meaning making during the COVID-19 emergency. Frontiers in psychiatry, 11, 817. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00817CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Provenzi, L., Brambilla, M., Scotto di Minico, G., Montirosso, R., & Borgatti, R. (2020b). Maternal caregiving and DNA methylation in human infants and children: Systematic review. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 19, e12616. doi:10.1111/gbb.12616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Provenzi, L., Fumagalli, M., Bernasconi, F., Sirgiovanni, I., Morandi, F., Borgatti, R., & Montirosso, R. (2017). Very preterm and full-term infants’ response to socio-emotional stress: The role of postnatal maternal bonding. Infancy, 22, 695712. doi:10.1111/infa.12175CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Provenzi, L., Grumi, S., Giorda, R., Biasucci, G., Bonini, R., Cavallini, A., … Borgatti, R. (2020c). Measuring the outcomes of maternal COVID-19-related prenatal exposure (MOM-COPE): Study protocol for a multicentric longitudinal project. BMJ Open, 10, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Provenzi, L., & Tronick, E. (2020). The power of disconnection during the COVID-19 emergency: From isolation to reparation. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12, S252S254. doi:10.1037/tra0000619CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Racine, N., Devereaux, C., Cooke, J. E., Eirich, R., Zhu, J., & Madigan, S. (2021). Adverse childhood experiences and maternal anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 21, 28. doi:10.1186/s12888-020-03017-wCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Racine, N., Plamondon, A., Hentges, R., Tough, S., & Madigan, S. (2019). Dynamic and bidirectional associations between maternal stress, anxiety, and social support: The critical role of partner and family support. Journal of Affective Disorders, 252, 1924. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2019.03.083CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Razurel, C., Kaiser, B., Sellenet, C., & Epiney, M. (2013). Relation between perceived stress, social support, and coping strategies and maternal well-being: A review of the literature. Women and Health, 53, 7499. doi:10.1080/03630242.2012.732681CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Core Team. (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from https://www.R-project.org/.Google Scholar
Riva Crugnola, C., Ierardi, E., Ferro, V., Gallucci, M., Parodi, C., & Astengo, M. (2016). Mother-infant emotion regulation at three months: The role of maternal anxiety, depression and parenting stress. Psychopathology, 49, 285294. doi:10.1159/000446811CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 136. doi:10.18637/jss.v048.i02CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salehi, L., Rahimzadeh, M., Molaei, E., Zaheri, H., & Esmaelzadeh-Saeieh, S. (2020). The relationship among fear and anxiety of COVID-19, pregnancy experience, and mental health disorder in pregnant women: A structural equation model. Brain and Behavior, 10, e01835. doi:10.1002/brb3.1835CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwartz, D. A. (2020). An analysis of 38 pregnant women with COVID-19, their newborn infants, and maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal coronavirus infections and pregnancy outcomes. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 144, 799805. doi:10.5858/arpa.2020-0901-SACrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sheinkopf, S. J., Lester, B. M., LaGasse, L. L., Seifer, R., Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., … Wright, L. L. (2006). Interactions between maternal characteristics and neonatal behavior in the prediction of parenting stress and perception of infant temperament. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 2740. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsj026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simcock, G., Laplante, D. P., Elgbeili, G., Kildea, S., Cobham, V., Stapleton, H., & King, S. (2017). Infant neurodevelopment is affected by prenatal maternal stress: The QF2011 Queensland flood study. Infancy, 22, 282302. doi:10.1111/infa.12166CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Luschene, R. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
Su, Q., Zhang, H., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., Ding, D., Zeng, J., … Li, H. (2015). Maternal stress in gestation: Birth outcomes and stress-related hormone response of the neonates. Pediatrics and Neonatology, 56, 376381. doi:10.1016/j.pedneo.2015.02.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tani, F., & Castagna, V. (2017). Maternal social support, quality of birth experience, and post-partum depression in primiparous women. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 30, 689692. doi:10.1080/14767058.2016.1182980CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tietz, A., Zietlow, A. L., & Reck, C. (2014). Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: The crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 17, 433442. doi:10.1007/s00737-014-0423-xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Bussel, J. C. H., Spitz, B., & Demyttenaere, K. (2010). Three self-report questionnaires of the early mother-to-infant bond: Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the MPAS. PBQ and MIBS. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 13, 373384. doi:10.1007/s00737-009-0140-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., van den Heuvel, M. I., Lahti, M., Braeken, M., de Rooij, S. R., Entringer, S., … Schwab, M. (2020). Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 117, 2664. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.07.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wittig, S. M. O., & Rodriguez, C. M. (2019). Interaction between maternal and paternal parenting styles with infant temperament in emerging behavior problems. Infant Behavior and Development, 57, 101323. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2019.04.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xie, R. H., He, G., Koszycki, D., Walker, M., & Wen, S. W. (2009). Prenatal social support, postnatal social support, and postpartum depression. Annals of Epidemiology, 19, 637643. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.03.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xie, R.-H., Yang, J., Liao, S., Xie, H., Walker, M., & Wen, S. W. (2010). Prenatal family support, postnatal family support and postpartum depression. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 50, 340345. doi:10.1111/j.1479-828X.2010.01185.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Xiong, J., Lipsitz, O., Nasri, F., Lui, L. M. W., Gill, H., Phan, L., … McIntyre, R. S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 5564. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zaigham, M., & Andersson, O. (2020). Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID-19: A systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 99, 823829. doi:10.1111/aogs.13867CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zhu, P., Sun, M.-S., Hao, J.-H., Chen, Y.-J., Jiang, X.-M., Tao, R.-X., … Tao, F.-B. (2014). Does prenatal maternal stress impair cognitive development and alter temperament characteristics in toddlers with healthy birth outcomes? Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56, 283289. doi:10.1111/dmcn.12378CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 3041. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Provenzi et al. supplementary material

Provenzi et al. supplementary material

Download Provenzi et al. supplementary material(File)
File 13 KB
9
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Prenatal maternal stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and infant regulatory capacity at 3 months: A longitudinal study
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Prenatal maternal stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and infant regulatory capacity at 3 months: A longitudinal study
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Prenatal maternal stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and infant regulatory capacity at 3 months: A longitudinal study
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *