Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-8lphq Total loading time: 0.615 Render date: 2022-07-01T21:37:12.127Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Positive maternal mental health during pregnancy associated with specific forms of adaptive development in early childhood: Evidence from a longitudinal study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 November 2017

Desiree Y. Phua
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
Michelle K. Z. L. Kee
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
Dawn X. P. Koh
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
Anne Rifkin-Graboi
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
Mary Daniels
KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore
Helen Chen
KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore
Yap Seng Chong
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences National University of Singapore
Birit F. P. Broekman
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences
Iliana Magiati
National University of Singapore
Neerja Karnani
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences National University of Singapore
Michael Pluess
Queen Mary University
Michael J. Meaney*
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences McGill University
Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Michael J. Meaney, Sackler Program for Epigenetics & Psychobiology, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, 6875 Boul LaSalle, Montreal, Quebec H4H 1R3, Canada; E-mail:


The quality of prenatal maternal mental health, from psychological stress and depressive symptoms to anxiety and other nonpsychotic mental disorders, profoundly affects fetal neurodevelopment. Despite the evidence for the influence of positive mental well-being on health, there is, to our knowledge, no research examining the possible effects of positive antenatal mental health on the development of the offspring. Using exploratory bifactor analysis, this prospective study (n = 1,066) demonstrated the feasibility of using common psychiatric screening tools to examine the effect of positive maternal mental health. Antenatal mental health was assessed during 26th week of pregnancy. The effects on offspring were assessed when the child was 12, 18, and 24 months old. Results showed that positive antenatal mental health was uniquely associated with the offspring's cognitive, language and parentally rated competences. This study shows that the effects of positive maternal mental health are likely to be specific and distinct from the sheer absence of symptoms of depression or anxiety.

Special Issue Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study is funded by the Singapore National Research Foundation under its Translational and Clinical Research Flagship Programme and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council (Singapore NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008 and NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014). Additional funding is provided by the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science Technology and Research. We acknowledge additional funding from the Toxic Stress Network of the JPB Foundation and the Sackler Foundation (to M.J.M.). We thank the GUSTO Study group and all clinical and home visit staff involved. The voluntary participation of all participants is greatly appreciated. The GUSTO study group includes Pratibha Agarwal, Arijit Biswas, Choon Looi Bong, Shirong Cai, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Yiong Huak Chan, Cornelia Yin Ing Chee, Yin Bun Cheung, Audrey Chia, Amutha Chinnadurai, Chai Kiat Chng, Mary Foong-Fong Chong, Shang Chee Chong, Mei Chien Chua, Chun Ming Ding, Eric Andrew Finkelstein, Doris Fok, Keith M. Godfrey, Anne Eng Neo Goh, Yam Thiam Daniel Goh, Joshua J. Gooley, Wee Meng Han, Mark Hanson, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, Joanna D. Holbrook, Chin-Ying Hsu, Hazel Inskip, Jeevesh Kapur, Ivy Yee-Man Lau, Bee Wah Lee, Yung Seng Lee, Ngee Lek, Sok Bee Lim, Yen-Ling Low, Iliana Magiati, Lourdes Mary Daniel, Cheryl Ngo, Krishnamoorthy Naiduvaje, Wei Wei Pang, Boon Long Quah, Victor Samuel Rajadurai, Mary Rauff, Salome A. Rebello, Jenny L. Richmond, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Allan Sheppard, Borys Shuter, Leher Singh, Shu-E Soh, Walter Stunkel, Lin Lin Su, Kok Hian Tan, Oon Hoe Teoh, Mya Thway Tint, Hugo P S van Bever, Rob M. van Dam, Inez Bik Yun Wong, P. C. Wong, Fabian Yap, and George Seow Heong Yeo.


Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Charman, T., Richler, J., Pasco, G., & Brayne, C. (2008). The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): A normally distributed quantitative measure of autistic traits at 18–24 months of age: Preliminary report. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 14141425. doi:10.1007/s10803-007-0509-7 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Antoni, M. H., Carver, C. S., & Lechner, S. C. (2009). Enhancing positive adaptation: Example intervention during treatment for breast cancer. In Park, C. L., Lechner, S. C., Antoni, M. H., & Stanton, A. L. (Eds.), Medical illness and positive life change (pp. 197214). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Antoni, M. H., Lutgendorf, S. K., Cole, S. W., Dhabhar, F. S., Sephton, S. E., McDonald, P. G., & Sood, A. K. (2006). The influence of bio-behavioural factors on tumour biology: Pathways and mechanisms. Nature Reviews Cancer, 6, 240. doi:10.1038/nrc1820 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aspinwall, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2010). The value of positive psychology for health psychology: Progress and pitfalls in examining the relation of positive phenomena to health. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 39, 415. doi:10.1007/s12160-009-9153-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Babenko, O., Kovalchuk, I., & Metz, G. A. (2015). Stress-induced perinatal and transgenerational epigenetic programming of brain development and mental health. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 48, 7091. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.11.013 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baibazarova, E., van de Beek, C., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Buitelaar, J., Shelton, K. H., & van Goozen, S. H. M. (2013). Influence of prenatal maternal stress, maternal plasma cortisol and cortisol in the amniotic fluid on birth outcomes and child temperament at 3 months. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 907915. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.09.015 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bayley, N. (2006). Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory—II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Bennett, H. A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., Koren, G., & Einarson, T. R. (2004). Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: Systematic review. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103, 698709. doi:10.1097/01.aog.0000116689.75396.5f CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beydoun, H., & Saftlas, A. F. (2008). Physical and mental health outcomes of prenatal maternal stress in human and animal studies: A review of recent evidence. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 22, 438466. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2008.00951.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bowers, M. E., & Yehuda, R. (2016). Intergenerational transmission of stress in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 232244. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.247 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Briggs-Gowan, M. J., & Carter, A. S. (1998). Preliminary acceptability and psychometrics of the Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA): A new adult-report questionnaire. Infant Mental Health Journal, 19, 422445. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(199824)19:4<422::aid-imhj5>3.0.CO;2-U 3.0.CO;2-U>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buss, C., Davis, E. P., Shahbaba, B., Pruessner, J. C., Head, K., & Sandman, C. A. (2012). Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, E1312E1319. doi:10.1073/pnas.1201295109 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caspi, A., Houts, R. M., Belsky, D. W., Goldman-Mellor, S. J., Harrington, H., Israel, S., & Poulton, R. (2014). The p factor: One general psychopathology factor in the structure of psychiatric disorders? Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 119137. doi:10.1177/2167702613497473 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castro, R. T. A., Anderman, C. P., Glover, V., O'Connor, T. G., Ehlert, U., & Kammerer, M. (2016). Associated symptoms of depression: Patterns of change during pregnancy. Archives of Women's Mental Health. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s00737-016-0685-6 Google Scholar
Charil, A., Laplante, D. P., Vaillancourt, C., & King, S. (2010). Prenatal stress and brain development. Brain Research Reviews, 65, 5679. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2010.06.002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chekroud, A. M., Gueorguieva, R., Krumholz, H. M., Trivedi, M. H., Krystal, J. H., & McCarthy, G. (2017). Reevaluating the efficacy and predictability of antidepressant treatments: A symptom clustering approach. JAMA Psychiatry, 74, 370378. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0025 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cooper, A., Lloyd, G., Weinman, J., & Jackson, G. (1999). Why patients do not attend cardiac rehabilitation: Role of intentions and illness beliefs. Heart, 82, 234236. doi:10.1136/hrt.82.2.234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782786. doi:10.1192/bjp.150.6.782 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Creswell, J. D., Welch, W. T., Taylor, S. E., Sherman, D. K., Gruenewald, T. L., & Mann, T. (2005). Affirmation of personal values buffers neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses. Psychological Science, 16, 846851. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01624.x CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danner, D. D., Snowdon, D. A., & Friesen, W. V. (2001). Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findings from the nun study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 804813. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.80.5.804 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Cates, A., Stranges, S., Blake, A., & Weich, S. (2015). Mental well-being: An important outcome for mental health services? British Journal of Psychiatry, 207, 195197. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.114.158329 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dixon, W. E. Jr., & Smith, P. H. (2000). Links between early temperament and language acquisition. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, 417440.Google Scholar
Dueber, D. M. (2016). Bifactor Indices Calculator: A Microsoft Excel-based tool to calculate various indices relevant to bifactor CFA models. Retrieved from Google Scholar
Eid, M., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., & Borkenau, P. (2003). Sociability and positive emotionality: Genetic and environmental contributions to the covariation between different facets of extraversion. Journal of Personality, 71, 319346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Field, T. (2011). Prenatal depression effects on early development: A review. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 114. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2010.09.008 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. R. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crisis? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 365. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.365 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fried, E. I. (2017). The 52 symptoms of major depression: Lack of content overlap among seven common depression scales. Journal of Affective Disorders, 208, 191197. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.10.019 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fried, E. I., Nesse, R. M., Zivin, K., Guille, C., & Sen, S. (2014). Depression is more than the sum score of its parts: Individual DSM symptoms have different risk factors. Psychological Medicine, 44, 20672076. doi:10.1017/S0033291713002900 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gavin, N. I., Gaynes, B. N., Lohr, K. N., Meltzer-Brody, S., Gartlehner, G., & Swinson, T. (2005). Perinatal depression: A systematic review of prevalence and incidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106, 10711083. doi:10.1097/01.aog.0000183597.31630.db CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gentile, S. (2017). Untreated depression during pregnancy: Short-and long-term effects in offspring. A systematic review. Neuroscience, 342, 154166. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.09.001 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giltay, E. J., Geleijnse, J. M., Zitman, F. G., Buijsse, B., & Kromhout, D. (2007). Lifestyle and dietary correlates of dispositional optimism in men: The Zutphen Elderly Study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63, 483490. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.07.014 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gini, G., & Espelage, D. L. (2014). Peer victimization, cyberbullying, and suicide risk in children and adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association, 312, 545546. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.3212 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glover, V. (2014). Maternal depression, anxiety and stress during pregnancy and child outcome: What needs to be done. Best Practice in Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28, 2535. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2013.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, S. H., Rouse, M. H., Connell, A. M., Broth, M. R., Hall, C. M., & Heyward, D. (2011). Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 127. doi:10.1007/s10567-010-0080-1 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google ScholarPubMed
Graignic-Philippe, R., Dayan, J., Chokron, S., Jacquet, A. Y., & Tordjman, S. (2014). Effects of prenatal stress on fetal and child development: A critical literature review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 137162. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.10.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gröger, N., Matas, E., Gos, T., Lesse, A., Poeggel, G., Braun, K., & Bock, J. (2016). The transgenerational transmission of childhood adversity: Behavioral, cellular, and epigenetic correlates. Journal of Neural Transmission, 123, 10371052. doi:10.1007/s00702-016-1570-1 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (2001). Rethinking construct reliability within latent variable systems. In Cudeck, R., Toit, S. D., & Sörbom, D. (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: Present and future (pp. 195216). Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G., & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: A tutorial on parallel analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 191205. doi:10.1177/1094428104263675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hernández-Martínez, C., Val, V. A., Murphy, M., Busquets, P. C., & Sans, J. C. (2011). Relation between positive and negative maternal emotional states and obstetrical outcomes. Women & Health, 51, 124135. doi:10.1080/03630242.2010.550991 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howard, L. M., Molyneaux, E., Dennis, C.-L., Rochat, T., Stein, A., & Milgrom, J. (2014). Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period. Lancet, 384, 17751788. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61276-9 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howell, R. T., Kern, M. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2007). Health benefits: Meta-analytically determining the impact of well-being on objective health outcomes. Health Psychology Review, 1, 83136. doi:10.1080/17437190701492486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hu, Y., Stewart-Brown, S., Twigg, L., & Weich, S. (2007). Can the 12-item General Health Questionnaire be used to measure positive mental health? Psychological Medicine, 37, 10051013. doi:10.1017/S0033291707009993 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huizink, A. C., Mulder, E. J., & Buitelaar, J. K. (2004). Prenatal stress and risk for psychopathology: Specific effects or induction of general susceptibility? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 115. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.1.115 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Huppert, F. A., & Whittington, J. E. (2003). Evidence for the independence of positive and negative well-being: Implications for quality of life assessment. British Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 107122. doi:10.1348/135910703762879246 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iwata, N., Mishima, N., Shimizu, T., Mizoue, T., Fukuhara, M., Hidano, T., & Spielberger, C. D. (1998). Positive and negative affect in the factor structure of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Japanese workers. Psychological Reports, 82, 651656. doi:10.2466/pr0.1998.82.2.651 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Karmaliani, R., Asad, N., Bann, C. M., Moss, N., Mcclure, E. M., Pasha, O., & Goldenberg, R. L. (2009). Prevalence of anxiety, depression and associated factors among pregnant women of Hyderabad, Pakistan. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 55, 414424. doi:10.1177/0020764008094645 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kawabata, Y., Tseng, W.-L., & Crick, N. R. (2014). Mechanisms and processes of relational and physical victimization, depressive symptoms, and children's relational-interdependent self-construals: Implications for peer relationships and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 619634. doi:10.1017/S0954579414000273 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keyes, C. L. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Keyes, C. L., Dhingra, S. S., & Simoes, E. J. (2010). Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 23662371. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.192245 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kvaal, K., Laake, K., & Engedal, K. (2001). Psychometric properties of the state part of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in geriatric patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16, 980986. doi:10.1002/gps.458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Laake, L. M., & Bridgett, D. J. (2014). Happy babies, chatty toddlers: Infant positive affect facilitates early expressive, but not receptive language. Infant Behavior and Development, 37, 2932. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lamers, S. M., Westerhof, G. J., Glas, C. A., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2015). The bidirectional relation between positive mental health and psychopathology in a longitudinal representative panel study. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 553560. doi:10.1080/17439760.2015.1015156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Le Strat, Y., Dubertret, C., & Le Foll, B. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of major depressive episode in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135, 128138. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2011.07.004 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McDougall, P., & Vaillancourt, T. (2015). Long-term adult outcomes of peer victimization in childhood and adolescence: Pathways to adjustment and maladjustment. American Psychologist, 70, 300. doi:10.1037/a0039174 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moran, M. D. (2003). Arguments for rejecting the sequential Bonferroni in ecological studies. Oikos, 100, 403405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moreno, A. J., & Robinson, J. L. (2005). Emotional vitality in infancy as a predictor of cognitive and language abilities in toddlerhood. Infant and Child Development, 14, 383402. doi:10.1002/icd.406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mulder, E. J. H., Robles de Medina, P. G., Huizink, A. C., Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Buitelaar, J. K., & Visser, G. H. A. (2002). Prenatal maternal stress: Effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Human Development, 70, 314. doi:10.1016/S0378-3782(02)00075-0 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.Google Scholar
Newnham, E. A., Hooke, G. R., & Page, A. C. (2010). Progress monitoring and feedback in psychiatric care reduces depressive symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 127, 139146. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.05.003 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Donnell, K. J., & Meaney, M. J. (2017). Fetal origins of mental health: The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 319328. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16020138 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Okbay, A., Baselmans, B. M., De Neve, J.-E., Turley, P., Nivard, M. G., Fontana, M. A., … Derringer, J. (2016). Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses. Nature Genetics, 48, 624633. doi:10.1038/ng.3552 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.357 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pearson, R. M., Evans, J., Kounali, D., Lewis, G., Heron, J., Ramchandani, P. G., & Stein, A. (2013). Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: Risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. JAMA Psychiatry, 70, 13121319. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2163 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pluess, M., Velders, F. P., Belsky, J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Jaddoe, V. W., & Tiemeier, H. (2011). Serotonin transporter polymorphism moderates effects of prenatal maternal anxiety on infant negative emotionality. Biological Psychiatry, 69, 520525. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.006 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qiu, A., Tuan, T. A., Li, Y., Chen, H., Rifkin-Graboi, A., Broekman, B. F. P., & Meaney, M. J. (2015). Prenatal maternal depression alters amygdala functional connectivity in 6-month-old infants. Translational Psychiatry, 5, e508. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qiu, A., Tuan, T. A., Ong, M. L., Li, Y., Chen, H., Rifkin-Graboi, A., & Meaney, M. J. (2015). COMT haplotypes modulate associations of antenatal maternal anxiety and neonatal cortical morphology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 163172. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14030313 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reise, S. P. (2012). The rediscovery of bifactor measurement models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47, 667696. doi:10.1080/00273171.2012.715555 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rice, F., Harold, G., Boivin, J., Van den Bree, M., Hay, D., & Thapar, A. (2010). The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: Disentangling environmental and inherited influences. Psychological Medicine, 40, 335345. doi:10.1017/S0033291709005911 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rifkin-Graboi, A., Kong, L., Sim, L. W., Sanmugam, S., Broekman, B. F. P., Chen, H., & Qiu, A. (2015). Maternal sensitivity, infant limbic structure volume and functional connectivity: A preliminary study. Translational Psychiatry, 5, e668. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.133 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodriguez, A., Reise, S. P., & Haviland, M. G. (2016). Evaluating bifactor models: Calculating and interpreting statistical indices. Psychological Methods, 21, 137150. doi:10.1037/met0000045 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santos, H., Tan, X., & Salomon, R. (2017). Heterogeneity in perinatal depression: How far have we come? A systematic review. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 20, 1123. doi:10.1007/s00737-016-0691-8 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schwartz, D., Lansford, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (2015). Peer victimization during middle childhood as a lead indicator of internalizing problems and diagnostic outcomes in late adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 393404. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.881293 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shafer, A. B. (2006). Meta-analysis of the factor structures of four depression questionnaires: Beck, CES-D, Hamilton, and Zung. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 123146. doi:10.1002/jclp.20213 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sherman, D. K., Bunyan, D. P., Creswell, J. D., & Jaremka, L. M. (2009). Psychological vulnerability and stress: The effects of self-affirmation on sympathetic nervous system responses to naturalistic stressors. Health Psychology, 28, 554. doi:10.1037/a0014663 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simms, L. J., Grös, D. F., Watson, D., & O'Hara, M. W. (2008). Parsing the general and specific components of depression and anxiety with bifactor modeling. Depression and Anxiety, 25, E34E46. doi:10.1002/da.20432 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Soh, S. E., Lee, S. S. M., Hoon, S. W., Tan, M. Y., Goh, A., Lee, B. W., & Saw, S. M. (2012). The methodology of the GUSTO cohort study: A novel approach in studying pediatric allergy. Asia Pacific Allergy, 2, 144148. doi:10.5415/apallergy.2012.2.2.144 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
Steptoe, A., Wright, C., Kunz-Ebrecht, S. R., & Iliffe, S. (2006). Dispositional optimism and health behaviour in community-dwelling older people: Associations with healthy ageing. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 7184. doi:10.1348/135910705X42850 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Szekely, E., Pappa, I., Wilson, J. D., Bhamidi, S., Jaddoe, V. W., Verhulst, F. C., & Shaw, P. (2016). Childhood peer network characteristics: Genetic influences and links with early mental health trajectories. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 57, 687694. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12493 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tam, H.-l., Yuk-Ching, S. K. L., Hay-Ming, H. L., Yiu-Tsang, A. L., Yeung, W.-K., & Ip-Ki, C. L. (2017). The moderating effects of positive psychological strengths on the relationship between parental anxiety and child depression: The significance of father's role in Hong Kong. Children and Youth Services Review. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, S. E., Lerner, J. S., Sherman, D. K., Sage, R. M., & McDowell, N. K. (2003). Are self-enhancing cognitions associated with healthy or unhealthy biological profiles? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 605. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.4.605 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van den Bergh, B. R. H., Mulder, E. J. H., Mennes, M., & Glover, V. (2005). Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioural development of the fetus and child: Links and possible mechanisms. A review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 237258. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.10.007 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, C. S., Hay, D. F., Simmonds, J. R., & van Goozen, S. H. (2014). Antenatal depression and children's developmental outcomes: Potential mechanisms and treatment options. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 957971. doi:10.1007/s00787-014-0582-3 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. (2004). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence, practice. Geneva: Author. Retrieved from Google Scholar
Cited by

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Positive maternal mental health during pregnancy associated with specific forms of adaptive development in early childhood: Evidence from a longitudinal study
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Positive maternal mental health during pregnancy associated with specific forms of adaptive development in early childhood: Evidence from a longitudinal study
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Positive maternal mental health during pregnancy associated with specific forms of adaptive development in early childhood: Evidence from a longitudinal study
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *