Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-568f69f84b-h2zp4 Total loading time: 0.371 Render date: 2021-09-20T20:47:36.694Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Influences of victimization and comorbid conditions on substance use disorder outcomes in justice-involved youth: A discrete time survival mixture analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 July 2019

Jordan P. Davis*
Affiliation:
Department of Children, Youth, and Families, Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Tim Janssen
Affiliation:
Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Emily R. Dworkin
Affiliation:
Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Tara M. Dumas
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Huron University College at Western University, London, ON, Canada
Jeremy Goldbach
Affiliation:
Department of Children, Youth, and Families, Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
John Monterosso
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
*Corresponding
Author for Correspondence: Jordan P. Davis, 669 W 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA90089; E-mail: jordanpd@usc.edu.

Abstract

To understand how exposure to victimization during adolescence and the presence of comorbid psychological conditions influence substance use treatment entry and substance use disorder diagnosis from 14 to 25 years old among serious juvenile offenders, this study included 1,354 serious juvenile offenders who were prospectively followed over 7 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to assess profiles of early victimization during adolescence (14–17 years). Discrete time survival mixture analysis was used to assess time to treatment entry and substance use disorder diagnosis. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were used as predictors of survival time. Mixture models revealed three profiles of victimization: sustained poly-victimization, moderate/decreasing victimization, and low victimization. Youth in the sustained poly-victimization class were more likely to enter treatment earlier and have a substance use diagnosis earlier than other classes. PTSD was a significant predictor of treatment entry for youth in the sustained poly-victimization class, and MDD was a significant predictor of substance use disorder diagnosis for youth in the moderate/decreasing victimization class. Therefore, substance use prevention programming targeted at youth experiencing poly-victimization in early adolescence—especially those who have PTSD or MDD—is needed.

Type
Regular Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abram, K. M., Teplin, L. A., King, D., Longworth, S. L., Emanuel, K., Romero, E. G., … Olson, N. D. (2013). PTSD, trauma, and comorbid psyciatric disorders in detained youth. Washington DC: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
Aebi, M., Linhart, S., Thun-Hohenstein, L., Bessler, C., Steinhausen, H.-C., & Plattner, B. (2015). Detained male adolescent offender's emotional, physical and sexual maltreatment profiles and their associations to psychiatric disorders and criminal behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 9991009. doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9961-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 319361. doi:10.1177/0022427801038004001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Agnew, R. (2009). General strain theory. In Handbook on crime and deviance (pp. 169185). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2014). Auxiliary variables in mixture modeling: Three-step approaches Using M plus. Structural Equation Modeling, 21, 329341. doi:10.1080/10705511.2014.915181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Begle, A. M., Hanson, R. F., Danielson, C. K., McCart, M. R., Ruggiero, K. J., Amstadter, A. B., … Kilpatrick, D. G. (2011). Longitudinal pathways of victimization, substance use, and delinquency: Findings from the National Survey of Adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 682689. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.12.026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belenko, S., Knight, D., Wasserman, G. A., Dennis, M. L., Wiley, T., Taxman, F. S., … Sales, J. (2017). The Juvenile Justice Behavioral Health Services Cascade: A new framework for measuring unmet substance use treatment services needs among adolescent offenders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 74, 8091. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2016.12.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bender, K., Thompson, S., & Ferguson, K. (2014). Substance use predictors of victimization profiles among homeless youth: A latent class analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 155164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Butcher, F., Holmes, M. R., Kretschmar, J. M., & Flannery, D. J. (2016). Polyvictimization across social contexts: Home, school, and neighborhood violence exposure. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 43, 17261740. doi:10.1177/0093854816662679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Casey, B. J., Jones, R. M., Levita, L., Libby, V., Pattwell, S. S., Ruberry, E. J., … Somerville, L. H. (2010). The storm and stress of adolescence: Insights from human imaging and mouse genetics. Developmental Psychobiology, 52, 225235. doi:10.1002/dev.20447Google ScholarPubMed
Chan, D. (2009). So why ask me? Are self-report data really that bad. In Lance, C. & Vandenberg, R. (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends: Doctrine, verity and fable in the organizational and social sciences (pp. 309336). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Chassin, L., Dmitrieva, J., Modecki, K., Steinberg, L., Cauffman, E., Piquero, A. R., … Losoya, S. H. (2010). Does adolescent alcohol and marijuana use predict suppressed growth in psychosocial maturity among male juvenile offenders? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 4860. doi:10.1037/a0017692CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65, 541561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danese, A., & McEwen, B. S. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 2939. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.08.019CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, J. P., Dumas, T. M., Berey, B. L., Merrin, G. J., Cimpian, J. R., & Roberts, B. W. (2017). Effect of victimization on impulse control and binge drinking among serious juvenile offenders from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 15151532. doi:10.1007/s10964-017-0676-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, J. P., Dumas, T. M., Berey, B. L., Merrin, G. J., Tan, K., & Madden, D. R. (2018). Poly-victimization and trajectories of binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood among serious juvenile offenders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 186, 2935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, J. P., Dumas, T. M., Wagner, E. F., & Merrin, G. J. (2016). Social ecological determinants of substance use treatment entry among serious juvenile offenders from adolescence through emerging adulthood. Journal of Substance Abuse, 71, 815. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2016.08.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davis, J. P., Dworkin, E. R., Helton, J., Prindle, J., Patel, S., Dumas, T. M., & Miller, S. (2019). Extending poly-victimization theory: Differential effects of adolescents’ experiences of victimization on substance use disorder diagnoses upon treatment entry. Child Abuse & Neglect, 89, 165177.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dierkhising, C. B., Ford, J. D., Branson, C., Grasso, D. J., & Lee, R. (2018). Developmental timing of polyvictimization: Continuity, change, and association with adverse outcomes in adolescence. Child Abuse & Neglect. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/J.CHIABU.2018.07.022Google ScholarPubMed
Doran, N., Luczak, S. E., Bekman, N., Koutsenok, I., & Brown, S. A. (2012). Adolescent substance use and aggression. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 748769. doi:10.1177/0093854812437022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dworkin, E. R., Wanklyn, S., Stasiewicz, P. R., & Coffey, S. F. (2018). PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse. Addictive Behaviors, 76, 188194. doi:10.1016/J.ADDBEH.2017.08.019CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Enders, C. K. (2011). Analyzing longitudinal data with missing values. Rehabilitation Psychology, 56, 267288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farmer, E. M. Z., Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2003). Pathways into and through mental health services for children and adolescents. Psychiatric Services, 54, 6066. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.54.1.60CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Feinstein, E. C., Richter, L., & Foster, S. E. W. (2012). Addressing the critical health problem of adolescent substance use through health care, research, and public policy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50, 431436. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.12.033CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2007). Polyvictimization and trauma in a national longitudinal cohort. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 149166. doi:10.1017/S0954579407070083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Hamby, S., & Ormrod, R. (2011). Polyvictimization: Children's exposure to multiple types of violence, crime, and abuse. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Retrieved from http://scholars.unh.edu/ccrc/25Google Scholar
Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Hamby, S. L. (2015). Prevalence of childhood exposure to violence, crime, and abuse. JAMA Pediatrics, 169, 746. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, J. D., Elhai, J. D., Connor, D. F., & Frueh, B. C. (2010). Poly-victimization and risk of posttraumatic, depressive, and substance use disorders and involvement in delinquency in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 545552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ford, J. D., Grasso, D. J., Hawke, J., & Chapman, J. F. (2013). Poly-victimization among juvenile justice-involved youths. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 788800. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.01.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ford, J. D., Hartman, J. K., Hawke, J., & Chapman, J. F. (2008). Traumatic victimization, posttraumatic stress disorder, suicidal ideation, and substance abuse risk among juvenile justice-involved youth. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 1, 7592. doi:10.1080/19361520801934456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garner, B. R., Hunter, B. D., Smith, D. C., Smith, J. E., & Godley, M. D. (2014). The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 19, 261269. doi:10.1177/1077559514547264CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Stuhlmacher, A. F., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Halpert, J. A. (2003). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 447466.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Gipson, P. Y. (2004). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Measurement issues and prospective effects. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 412425. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_23CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grasso, D. J., Saunders, B. E., Williams, L. M., Hanson, R., Smith, D. W., & Fitzgerald, M. M. (2013). Patterns of multiple victimization among maltreated children in navy families. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 597604. doi:10.1002/jts.21853CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, J. G., McLaughlin, K. A., Berglund, P. A., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication I: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 113123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunnar, M. R., Wewerka, S., Frenn, K., Long, J. D., Griggs, C., Adam, E., … Reynolds, F. (2009). Developmental changes in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal activity over the transition to adolescence: Normative changes and associations with puberty. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 69. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000054CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harkness, K., & Hayden, E. P. (Eds.) (2018). Early life stress and psychopathology (Vol. 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hussong, A. M., Jones, D. J., Stein, G. L., Baucom, D. H., & Boeding, S. (2011). An internalizing pathway to alcohol use and disorder. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25, 390404. doi:10.1037/a0024519CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Juster, R.-P., Bizik, G., Picard, M., Arsenault-Lapierre, G., Sindi, S., Trepanier, L., … Lord, C. (2011). A transdisciplinary perspective of chronic stress in relation to psychopathology throughout life span development. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 725776.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Andrews, G., Mroczek, D., Ustun, B., & Wittchen, H.-U. (1998). The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview—Short form (CIDI-SF). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 7, 171185. doi:10.1002/mpr.47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khantzian, E. (2003). The self-medication hypothesis revisited: The dually diagnosed patient. Primary Psychiatry, 10, 4754.Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, D. G., Ruggiero, K. J., Acierno, R., Saunders, B. E., Resnick, H. S., & Best, C. L. (2003). Violence and risk of PTSD, major depression, substance abuse/dependence, and comorbidity: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 692700. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.71.4.692CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Korte, S. M., Koolhaas, J. M., Wingfield, J. C., & McEwen, B. S. (2005). The Darwinian concept of stress: Benefits of allostasis and costs of allostatic load and the trade-offs in health and disease. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 338. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.08.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kretschmar, J. M., Tossone, K., Butcher, F., & Flannery, D. J. (2017). Patterns of poly-victimization in a sample of at-risk youth. Journal of Child and Adolescent Trauma, 10, 363375. doi:10.1007/s40653-016-0109-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Larson, E. B., Shadlen, M.-F., Wang, L., McCormick, W. C., Bowen, J. D., Teri, L., & Kukull, W. A. (2004). Survival after initial diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 501. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-7-200404060-00008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lipsky, S., & Caetano, R. (2008). Is intimate partner violence associated with the use of alcohol treatment services? Results From the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 3038. doi:10.15288/jsad.2008.69.30CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Liu, R. T., Kleiman, E. M., Nestor, B. A., & Cheek, S. M. (2015). The hopelessness theory of depression: A quarter-century in review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 22, 345365. doi:10.1111/cpsp.12125Google Scholar
Marshall, B. D. L., Prescott, M. R., Liberzon, I., Tamburrino, M. B., Calabrese, J. R., & Galea, S. (2012). Coincident posttraumatic stress disorder and depression predict alcohol abuse during and after deployment among Army National Guard soldiers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 124, 193199. doi:10.1016/J.DRUGALCDEP.2011.12.027CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maschi, T., Hatcher, S. S., Schwalbe, C. S., & Rosato, N. S. (2008). Mapping the social service pathways of youth to and through the juvenile justice system: A comprehensive review. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 13761385. doi:10.1016/J.CHILDYOUTH.2008.04.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mauricio, A. M., Little, M., Chassin, L., Knight, G. P., Piquero, A. R., Losoya, S. H., & Vargas-Chanes, D. (2009). Juvenile offenders’ alcohol and marijuana trajectories: Risk and protective factor effects in the context of time in a supervised facility. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 440453. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9324-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 3344. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb09546.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McEwen, B. S. (2003). Mood disorders and allostatic load. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 200207. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00177-XCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McEwen, B., & Stellar, E. (1993). Stress and the individual: Mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 18, 20932101.10.1001/archinte.1993.00410180039004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McFarlane, A. C. (2010). The long-term costs of traumatic stress: Intertwined physical and psychological consequences. World Psychiatry, 9, 310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mergler, M., Driessen, M., Havemann-Reinecke, U., Wedekind, D., Lüdecke, C., Ohlmeier, M., … Pletke, C. (2018). Differential relationships of PTSD and childhood trauma with the course of substance use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/J.JSAT.2018.07.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., Fagan, J., Cauffman, E., Piquero, A. R., Chassin, L., … Hecker, T. (2004). Theory and research on desistance from antisocial activity among serious adolescent offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2, 213236.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Muthen, B., & Masyn, K. (2005). Discrete-time survival mixture analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 30, 2758. doi:10.3102/10769986030001027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ouimette, P., Read, J. P., Wade, M., & Tirone, V. (2010). Modeling associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms and substance use. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 6467. doi:10.1016/J.ADDBEH.2009.08.009CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozechowski, T. J., Becker, S. J., & Hogue, A. (2016). SBIRT-A: Adapting SBIRT to maximize developmental fit for adolescents in primary care. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 62, 2837. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2015.10.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 38, 931964. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00911.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pratt, T. C., Turnavoic, J. J., Fox, K. A., & Wright, K. A. (2014). Self-control and victimization: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 52, 87116. doi:10.1111/1745-9125.12030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Puzzanchera, C. (2009). Juvenile Arrests, 2007. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ram, N., & Grimm, K. J. (2009). Growth mixture modeling: A method for identifying differences in longitudinal change among unobserved groups. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33, 565576. doi:10.1177/0165025409343765CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. (1993). The Nimh Community Violence Project: I. Children as Victims of and Witnesses to Violence. Psychiatry, 56, 721. doi:10.1080/00332747.1993.11024617CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roberts, N. P., Roberts, P. A., Jones, N., & Bisson, J. I. (2015). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid substance use disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 38, 2538. doi:10.1016/J.CPR.2015.02.007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Romeo, R. D. (2010). Adolescence: A central event in shaping stress reactivity. Developmental Psychobiology, 52. doi:10.1002/dev.20437Google ScholarPubMed
Romeo, R. D., & McEwen, B. S. (2006). Stress and the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 202214. doi:10.1196/annals.1376.022CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruglass, L. M., Hien, D. A., Hu, M.-C., & Campbell, A. N. C. (2014). Associations between post-traumatic stress symptoms, stimulant use, and treatment outcomes: A secondary analysis of NIDA's Women and Trauma Study. American Journal on Addictions, 23, 9095. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.12068.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sapolsky, R. M., Alberts, S. C., & Altmann, J. (1997). Hypercortisolism associated with social subordinance or social isolation among wild baboons. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 11371143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schepis, T. S., Rao, U., Yadav, H., & Adinoff, B. (2011). The limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the development of alcohol use disorders in youth. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 595605. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01380.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneider, R., Burnette, M., & Timko, C. (2008). History of physical or sexual abuse and participation in 12-step self-help groups. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 34, 617625. doi:10.1080/00952990802308148CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schneider, R., Timko, C., Moos, B., & Moos, R. (2011). Violence victimization, help-seeking, and one- and eight-year outcomes of individuals with alcohol use disorders. Addiction Research & Theory, 19, 2231. doi:10.3109/16066359.2010.507891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schubert, C. A., Mulvey, E. P., Steinberg, L., Cauffman, E., Losoya, S. H., Hecker, T., … Knight, G. P. (2004). Operational lessons from the pathways to desistance project. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2, 237255.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Selner-O'Hagan, M. B., Kindlon, D. J., Buka, S. L., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. J. (1998). Assessing exposure to violence in urban youth. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 215224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shonkoff, J. P., & Garner, A. S. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129, e232e246. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2663CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Song, L., Singer, M. I., & Anglin, T. M. (1998). Violence exposure and emotional trauma as contributors to adolescents’ violent behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 152, 531536. doi:10.1001/archpedi.152.6.531CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swendsen, J., Conway, K. P., Degenhardt, L., Glantz, M., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., … Kessler, R. C. (2010). Mental disorders as risk factors for substance use, abuse and dependence: Results from the 10-year follow-up of the National Comorbidity Survey. Addiction, 105, 11171128. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02902.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tossone, K., Jefferis, E. S., Grey, S. F., Bilge-Johnson, S., Bhatta, M. P., & Seifert, P. (2015). Poly-traumatization and harmful behaviors in a sample of emergency department Psychiatric Intake Response Center youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 40, 142151. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.11.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tripodi, S. J., & Bender, K. (2011). Substance abuse treatment for juvenile offenders: A review of quasi-experimental and experimental research. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39, 246252. doi:10.1016/J.JCRIMJUS.2011.02.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tsogia, D., Copello, A., & Orford, J. (2001). Entering treatment for substance misuse: A review of the literature. Journal of Mental Health, 10, 481499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turanovic, J. J., Pratt, T. C., & Piquero, A. R. (2018). Structural constraints, risky lifestyles, and repeat victimization. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 34, 251274. doi:10.1007/s10940-016-9334-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, H. A., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2010). Poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 323330. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.11.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Underwood, L. A., & Washington, A. (2016). Mental illness and juvenile offenders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 228. doi:10.3390/ijerph13020228CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child Maltreatment, 2008. Washinton, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Wildeman, C., Emanuel, N., Leventhal, J. M., Putnam-Hornstein, E., Waldfogel, J., & Lee, H. (2014). The prevalence of confirmed maltreatment among US children, 2004 to 2011. JAMA Pediatrics, 168, 706. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.410CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wittchen, H.-U. (1994). Reliability and validity studies of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): A critical review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 28, 5784. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(94)90036-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization. (1994). Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): Researcher's Manual. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.Google Scholar
Wright, E. M., Fagan, A. A., & Pinchevsky, G. M. (2013). The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 899909. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.04.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Davis et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S3

Download Davis et al. supplementary material(File)
File 26 KB
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Influences of victimization and comorbid conditions on substance use disorder outcomes in justice-involved youth: A discrete time survival mixture analysis
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Influences of victimization and comorbid conditions on substance use disorder outcomes in justice-involved youth: A discrete time survival mixture analysis
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Influences of victimization and comorbid conditions on substance use disorder outcomes in justice-involved youth: A discrete time survival mixture analysis
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *