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Influences of victimization and comorbid conditions on substance use disorder outcomes in justice-involved youth: A discrete time survival mixture analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 July 2019

Jordan P. Davis*
Department of Children, Youth, and Families, Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Tim Janssen
Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA
Emily R. Dworkin
Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Tara M. Dumas
Department of Psychology, Huron University College at Western University, London, ON, Canada
Jeremy Goldbach
Department of Children, Youth, and Families, Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
John Monterosso
Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Author for Correspondence: Jordan P. Davis, 669 W 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA90089; E-mail:


To understand how exposure to victimization during adolescence and the presence of comorbid psychological conditions influence substance use treatment entry and substance use disorder diagnosis from 14 to 25 years old among serious juvenile offenders, this study included 1,354 serious juvenile offenders who were prospectively followed over 7 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to assess profiles of early victimization during adolescence (14–17 years). Discrete time survival mixture analysis was used to assess time to treatment entry and substance use disorder diagnosis. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were used as predictors of survival time. Mixture models revealed three profiles of victimization: sustained poly-victimization, moderate/decreasing victimization, and low victimization. Youth in the sustained poly-victimization class were more likely to enter treatment earlier and have a substance use diagnosis earlier than other classes. PTSD was a significant predictor of treatment entry for youth in the sustained poly-victimization class, and MDD was a significant predictor of substance use disorder diagnosis for youth in the moderate/decreasing victimization class. Therefore, substance use prevention programming targeted at youth experiencing poly-victimization in early adolescence—especially those who have PTSD or MDD—is needed.

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