Hostname: page-component-797576ffbb-bqjwj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-12-02T02:04:10.834Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Adverse childhood experiences: Mechanisms of risk and resilience in a longitudinal urban cohort

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 October 2019

Alison Giovanelli*
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN, USA Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
Christina F. Mondi
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN, USA
Arthur J. Reynolds
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN, USA
Suh-Ruu Ou
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN, USA
Author for Correspondence: Alison Giovanelli, Department of Pediatrics, Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 3333 California Street Suite 245, San FranciscoCA94118. E-mail:


There is an extensive literature describing the detrimental effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACE; e.g., abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction) on physical and mental health. However, few large-scale studies have explored these associations longitudinally in urban minority cohorts or assessed links to broader measures of well-being such as educational attainment, occupation, and crime. Although adversity and resilience have long been of interest in developmental psychology, protective and promotive factors have been understudied in the ACE literature. This paper investigates the psychosocial processes through which ACEs contribute to outcomes, in addition to exploring ways to promote resilience to ACEs in vulnerable populations. Follow-up data were analyzed for 87% of the original 1,539 participants in the Chicago Longitudinal Study (N = 1,341), a prospective investigation of the impact of an Early Childhood Education program and early experiences on life-course well-being. Findings suggest that ACEs impact well-being in low-socioeconomic status participants above and beyond the effects of demographic risk and poverty, and point to possible mechanisms of transmission of ACE effects. Results also identify key areas across the ecological system that may promote resilience to ACEs, and speak to the need to continue to support underserved communities in active ways.

Regular Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Allem, J. P., Soto, D. W., Baezconde-Garbanati, L., & Unger, J. B. (2015). Adverse childhood experiences and substance use among Hispanic emerging adults in southern California. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 199204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Bremner, J. D., Walker, J. D., Whitfield, C. H., Perry, B. D., … & Giles, W. H. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256, 174186. doi:10.1007/s00406-005-0624-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Andersen, S. L., & Teicher, M. H. (2008). Stress, sensitive periods and maturational events in adolescent depression. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 183191. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2008.01.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barratt, W. (2006). The Barratt simplified measure of social status (BSMSS): Measuring SES. Unpublished manuscript, Indiana State University.Google Scholar
Beauchaine, T. P., Neuhaus, E., Brenner, S. L., & Gatzke-Kopp, L. (2008). Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 745774. doi:10.1017/S0954579408000369CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belcher, A. M., Volkow, N. D., Moeller, F. G., & Ferré, S. (2014). Personality traits and vulnerability or resilience to substance use disorders. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18, 211217. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.01.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Belfield, C. R., Nores, M., Barnett, S., & Schweinhart, L. (2006). The High/Scope Perry Preschool Program cost–benefit analysis using data from the age-40 followup. Journal of Human Resources, 41, 162190. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.01.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bell, C. C., & Jenkins, E. J. (1993). Community violence and children on Chicago's southside. Psychiatry, 56, 4654. doi:10.1080/00332747.1993.11024620CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ben-Shlomo, Y., & Kuh, D. (2002). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 285293. doi:10.1093/ije/31.2.285CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berens, A. E., Jensen, S. K. G., & Nelson, C. A. (2017). Biological embedding of childhood adversity: From physiological mechanisms to clinical implications. BMC Medicine, 15, Article 13. doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0895-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bethell, C., Carle, A., Hudziak, J., Gombojav, N., Powers, K., … & Braveman, P. (2017). Methods to assess adverse childhood experiences of children and families: Towards approaches to promote child well-being in policy and practice. Academic Pediatrics, 17, S51S69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bethell, C. D., Newacheck, P., Hawes, E., & Halfon, N. (2014). Adverse childhood experiences: Assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience. Health Affairs, 33, 21062115. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2014.0914CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371399. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135233CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bremner, J. D. (2003). Does stress damage the brain? Understanding trauma-based disorders from a neurological perspective. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99(2), 353395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruce, J., McDermott, J.M., Fisher, P.A., & Fox, N. A. (2009). Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures to assess the effects of a preventive intervention: A preliminary study with preschool-aged foster children. Prevention Science, 10, 129140. ScholarPubMed
Bühl, A., & Zöfel, P. (2002). Advanced Data Analysis with SPSS. VS Publishing House for Social Sciences.Google Scholar
Bush, N. R., Lane, R. D., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Mechanisms underlying the association between early-life adversity and physical health: Charting a course for the future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 78, 11141119. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000421CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kaiser Permanente. The ACE Study Survey Data [Unpublished Data]. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2018 from Scholar
Chandler, G. E., Roberts, S. J., & Chiodo, L. (2015). Resilience intervention for young adults with adverse childhood experiences. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 21, 406416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217225. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2003.12.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Cannon, T. D. (1999). Neurodevelopmental processes in the ontogenesis and epigenesis of psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 375393. doi:10.1017/S0954579499002114CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). (2006). Developmental psychopathology, Volume 3: risk, disorder, and adaptation. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Garmezy, N. (1993). Prospects and promises in the study of resilience. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 497502. doi:10.1017/S0954579400006118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cicchetti, D., & Gunnar, M. R. (2008). Integrating biological measures into the design and evaluation of preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 737743. doi: 10.1017/S0954579408000357CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., Hetzel, S., Rogosch, F. A., Handley, E. D., & Toth, S. L. (2016). An investigation of child maltreatment and epigenetic mechanisms of mental and physical health risk. Development and Psychopathology, 28, 13051317. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000869CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cicchetti, D., & Lynch, M. (1993). Toward an ecological/transactional model of community violence and child maltreatment: Consequences for children's development. Psychiatry, 56, 96118. doi:10.1080/00332747.1993.11024624CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cogburn, C. D., Chavous, T. M., & Griffin, T. M. (2011). School-based racial and gender discrimination among African American adolescents: Exploring gender variation in frequency and implications for adjustment. Race and Social Problems, 3, 2537. doi:10.1007/s12552-011-9040-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conger, R. D., & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). An interactionist perspective on the socioeconomic context of human development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 175199. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085551CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65, 541561. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00768.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (1983). As the twig is bent: Lasting effects of preschool programs. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Copeland-Linder, N., Lambert, S. F., Chen, Y. F., & Ialongo, N. S. (2011). Contextual stress and health risk behaviors among African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 158173. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9520-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crews, F., He, J., & Hodge, C. (2007). Adolescent cortical development: A critical period of vulnerability for addiction. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 86, 189199. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2006.12.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cronholm, P. F., Forke, C. M., Wade, R., Bair-Merritt, M. H., Davis, M., Harkins-Schwarz, M., … & Fein, J. A. (2015). Adverse childhood experiences: Expanding the concept of adversity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49, 354361. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cummings, E. M., & Valentino, K. (2015). Developmental psychopathology. In Overton, W.F. & Molenaar, P. (Eds.). Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, 7th edition: Theory & method, Vol.1. (pp. 567606). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
Danese, A., & McEwen, B.S. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease, Physiology and Behavior, 106, 2639. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.08.019CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Pariante, C. M., Ambler, A., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2008). Elevated inflammation levels in depressed adults with a history of childhood maltreatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65, 409415. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.65.4.409CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dannefer, D. (1987). Aging as intracohort differentiation: Accentuation, the Matthew effect, and the life course. Sociological Forum, 2, 211236. doi:10.1007/BF01124164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, D. 1999. Child Development: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Dennison, M. J., Rosen, M. L., Sambrook, K. A., Jenness, J. L., Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2019). Differential associations of distinct forms of childhood adversity with neurobehavioral measures of reward processing: A developmental pathway to depression. Child Development, 90, e96e113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dong, M., Giles, W. H., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Williams, J. E., Chapman, D. P., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Insights into causal pathways for ischemic heart disease adverse childhood experiences study. Circulation, 110, 17611766. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000143074.54995.7FCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dube, S. R., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., Chapman, D. P., Giles, W. H., & Anda, R. F. (2003). Childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction and the risk of illicit drug use: The adverse childhood experiences study. Pediatrics, 111, 564572. doi: 10.1542/peds.111.3.564CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
El Mhamdi, S., Lemieux, A., Bouanene, I., Salah, A. B., Nakajima, M., Salem, K. B., & Al'absi, M. (2017). Gender differences in adverse childhood experiences, collective violence, and the risk for addictive behaviors among university students in Tunisia. Preventive Medicine, 99, 99104. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.02.011CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, G. W., Li, D., & Whipple, S. S. (2013). Cumulative risk and child development. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 1342. doi:10.1037/a0031808CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evans, G. W., Vermeylen, F. M., Barash, A., Lefkowitz, E. G., & Hutt, R. L. (2009). The experience of stressors and hassles among rural adolescents from low-and middle-income households in the USA. Children Youth and Environments, 19, 164175. doi:10.7721/chilyoutenvi.19.2.0164Google Scholar
Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. (2013). Improving the adverse childhood experiences study scale. JAMA Pediatrics, 167, 7075. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.420CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flaherty, E. G., Sege, R. D., & Hurley, T. P. (2008). Translating child abuse research into action. Pediatrics, 122, S1S5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Galster, G.C. (2012). The mechanism(s) of neighbourhood effects: Theory, evidence, and policy implications. In von Ham, M., Manley, D., Bailey, N., Simpson, L., & Maclennan, D. (Eds.), Neighbourhood effects research: New perspectives (pp. 2356). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children: The search for protective factors. In Stevenson, J. E., (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology. Book supplement to the journal of child psychology and psychiatry 4. (pp. 213233). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.Google Scholar
Giovanelli, A. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences and adult well-being: Impacts by type, timing, and early childhood intervention. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.Google Scholar
Giovanelli, A., Hayakawa, M., Englund, M. M., & Reynolds, A. J. (2018). African-American males in Chicago: Pathways from early childhood intervention to reduced violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 62, 8086. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.08.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giovanelli, A., Reynolds, A., Mondi, C., and Ou, S-R. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and adult well-being in a low-income, urban cohort. Pediatrics, 137, e20154016. doi:10.1542/peds.2015–4016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giowa, P. T., Olson, A. L., & Johnson, D. J. (2006). Screening for adverse childhood experiences in a family medicine setting: A feasibility study. The Journal of the American Family Board of Medicine, 29, 303307. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2016.03.150310Google Scholar
Gonzalez, A., Monzon, N., Solis, D., Jaycox, L., & Langley, A. K. (2016). Trauma exposure in elementary school children: Description of screening procedures, level of exposure, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. School Mental Health, 8, 7788. doi:10.1007/s12310-015-9167-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunnar, M. R., Fisher, P. A., & The Early Experience, Stress, and Prevention Science Network. (2006). Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive intervention research on neglected and maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 651677. doi:10.10170 S0954579406060330CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gunnar, M., & Quevedo, K. (2007). The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 145173. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guterman, N. B. (2000). Stopping child maltreatment before it starts: Emerging horizons in early home visitation services. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Hackman, D. A., Gallop, R., Evans, G. W., & Farah, M. J. (2015). Socioeconomic status and executive function: Developmental trajectories and mediation. Developmental Science, 18, 686702. doi:10.1111/desc.12246CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Halfon, N., Larson, K., Lu, M., Tullis, E., & Russ, S. (2014). Lifecourse health development: Past, present, and future, 18, 344–365. doi:10.1007/s10995-013-1346-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Halonen, J. I., Vahtera, J., Kivimäki, M., Pentti, J., Kawachi, I., & Subramanian, S. V. (2014). Adverse experiences in childhood, adulthood neighbourhood disadvantage and health behaviours. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 68, 741746. doi:10.1136/jech-2013-203441CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hardt, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Validity of adult retrospective reports of adverse childhood experiences: Review of the evidence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 260273. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00218.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heim, C., & Binder, E. B. (2012). Current research trends in early life stress and depression: Review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene–environment interactions, and epigenetics. Experimental Neurology, 233, 102111. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2011.10.032CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hertzman, C. (1999). The biological embedding of early experience and its effects on health in adulthood. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 8595. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08107.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hieronymus, A.N., Lindquist, E. F., & Hoover, H. D. (1982). Iowa Tests of Basic Skills: Manual for School Administrators. Chicago: Riverside Publishing Co.Google Scholar
Hightower, A. D. (1986). The Teacher–Child Rating Scale: A brief objective measure of elementary children's school problem behaviors and competencies. School Psychology Review, 15, 393409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoover, H. D., and Hieronymus, A. N. (1990). Manual for school administrators supplement, Levels 5–14, Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Form J. Chicago: Riverside Publishing.Google Scholar
Joreskog, K., & Sorbom, D. (2005). LISREL 10: User's reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software.Google Scholar
Karatekin, C., & Hill, M. (2019). Expanding the Original Definition of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 12(3), 289306. Scholar
Karoly, L. A., & Bigelow, J. H. (2005). The economics of investing in universal preschool education in California. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karoly, L. A., & Bigelow, J. H. (2005). The economics of investing in universal preschool education in California. New York: Rand Corporation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karoly, L. A., Kilburn, M. R., & Cannon, J. S. (2006). Early childhood interventions: Proven results, future promise. New York: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
Kelly-Irving, M, Lepage, B, Dedieu, D, Bartley, M, Blane, D, Grosclaude, P, Lang, T, Delpierre, C. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality. European Journal of Epidemiology, 28, 114. doi:10.1007/s10654-013-9832-9CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ko, S. J., Ford, J. D., Kassam-Adams, N., Berkowitz, S. J., Wilson, C., Wong, M., … Layne, C. M. (2008). Creating trauma-informed systems: Child welfare, education, first responders, health care, juvenile justice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 396404. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.39.4.396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koita, K, Long, D, Hessler, D, Benson, M, Daley, K, Bucci, M, et al. (2018) Development and implementation of a pediatric adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and other determinants of health questionnaire in the pediatric medical home: A pilot study. PLoS ONE, 13, e0208088. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0208088CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koss, K.J., & Gunnar, M.R. (2018). Annual research review: Early adversity, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and child psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59, 327346. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12784CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lanier, P., Maguire-Jack, K., Lombardi, B., Frey, J., & Rose, R. A. (2018). Adverse childhood experiences and child health outcomes: Comparing cumulative risk and latent class approaches. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 22, 288297. doi:10.1007/s10995-017-2365-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larkin, H., Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2013). Social Work and Adverse Childhood Experiences Research: Implications for Practice and Health Policy. Social Work in Public Health, 29(1), 116. Scholar
Layne, C. M., Ippen, C. G., Strand, V., Staber, M., Abramovitz, R., & Pynoos, R. (2011). The Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma: A tool for training a trauma-informed workforce. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research. Practice, & Policy, 3, 243252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., Snipper, A., & Ramey, C. T. (1982). Lasting effects of early education: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, i–151. doi:10.2307/1165938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luby, J., Belden, A., Botteron, K., Marrus, N., Harms, M. P., Babb, C., … & Barch, D. (2013). The effects of poverty on childhood brain development: The mediating effect of caregiving and stressful life events. JAMA pediatrics, 167, 11351142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luthar, S. S. (2003). Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.). Developmental psychopathology, Vol 3: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed.). (pp. 739795). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Maas, C., Herrenkohl, T. I., & Sousa, C. (2008). Review of research on child maltreatment and violence in youth. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 9, 5667. doi:10.1177/1524838007311105CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Marcus, S. M., Flynn, H. A., Blow, F. C., & Barry, K. L. (2004). Depressive symptoms among pregnant women screened in obstetrics settings. Journal of Women's Health, 12. doi: 10.1089/154099903765448880Google Scholar
Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227238. doi:10.1037//0003-066X.56.3.227CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Masten, A. S., & Garmezy, N. (1985). Risk, vulnerability, and protective factors in developmental psychopathology. In Lahey, B. B., & Kazdin, A. E. (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (pp. 152). Boston, MA: Springer.Google Scholar
Masten, A. S., & Obradović, J. (2006). Competence and resilience in development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 1327. doi:10.1196/annals.1376.003CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matthews, K. A., & Gallo, L. C. (2011). Psychological perspectives on pathways linking socioeconomic status and physical health. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 501530. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.031809.130711CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., DeCross, S. N., Jovanovic, T., & Tottenham, N. (2019). Mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology: Learning as an intervention target. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 118, 101109.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., & Nelson, C. A. (2017). Neglect as a violation of species-expectant experience: Neurodevelopmental consequences. Biological Psychiatry, 82, 462471. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.02.1096CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mersky, J. P., Janczewski, C. E., & Topitzes, J. (2017). Rethinking the measurement of adversity: Moving toward second-generation research on adverse childhood experiences. Child Maltreatment, 22, 5868. doi:10.1177/1077559516679513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Myers, S. S., & Robinson, L. R. (2007). The Role of the Family Context in the Development of Emotion Regulation. Social development (Oxford, England), 16(2), 361749.Google ScholarPubMed
Narayan, A. J., Rivera, L. M., Bernstein, R. E., Harris, W. W., & Lieberman, A. F. (2018). Positive childhood experiences predict less psychopathology and stress in pregnant women with childhood adversity: A pilot study of the benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) scale. Child Abuse & Neglect, 78, 1930. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.09.022CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nurius, P. S., Green, S., Logan-Greene, P., & Borja, S. (2015). Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 45, 143153. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.03.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nurius, P. S., Logan-Greene, P., & Green, S. (2012). Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) within a social disadvantage framework: Distinguishing unique, cumulative, and moderated contributions to adult mental health. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 40, 278290. doi:10.1080/10852352.2012.707443CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Odgers, C. L., & Jaffee, S. R. (2013). Routine versus catastrophic influences on the developing child. Annual Review of Public Health, 34, 2948. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114447CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olson, A. L., Dietrich, A. J., Prazar, G., & Hurley, J. (2006). Brief maternal depression screening at well-child visits. Pediatrics, 118, 207216. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2346CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ou, S., & Reynolds, A. J. (2010). Grade retention, postsecondary education, and public aid receipt. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 32, 118139. doi:10.3102/0162373709354334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, S., Greer, S., & Zuckerman, B. (1988). Double jeopardy: The impact of poverty on early child development. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 35, 12271240. doi:10.1016/S0031-3955(16)36580-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perry, B. D., & Pollard, R. (1998). Homeostasis, stress, trauma, and adaptation: A neurodevelopmental view of childhood trauma. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7, 3351. doi:10.1016/S1056-4993(18)30258-XCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pervanidou, P., & Chrousos, G. P. (2012). Metabolic consequences of stress during childhood and adolescence. Metabolism, 61, 611619. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2011.10.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pollard, J. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1999). Risk and protection: Are both necessary to understand diverse behavioral outcomes in adolescence? Social Work Research, 23, 145158. doi:10.1093/swr/23.3.145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabkin, J. G., & Struening, E. L. (1976). Live events, stress, and illness. Science (New York, N.Y.), 194(4269), 10131033.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, A. (2000). Success in early intervention: The Chicago child-parent centers. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Reynolds, A., & Ou, S-R. (2004). Alterable predictors of child well-being in the Chicago longitudinal study. Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 114. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2003.11.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reynolds, A., & Ou, S-R. (2011). Paths of effects from preschool to adult well-being: A confirmatory analysis of the child-parent center program. Child Development, 82, 555582. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01562.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, A., & Ou, S-R. (2016). Generative mechanisms in early childhood interventions: A confirmatory research framework for prevention. Prevention Science, 17(7), 794805. doi:10.1007/s11121-015-0611-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, A., Ou, S-R, Mondi, C., & Hayakawa, M. (2017). Processes of early childhood interventions to adult well-being. Child Development, 88, 378387. doi:10.1111/cdev.12733CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, A., Temple, J. A., Ou, S-R., Arteaga, I. A., & White, B. A. (2011). School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: Effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups. Science, 333, 360364. doi:10.1126/science.1203618CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, A., Temple, J. A., Ou, S-R., Robertson, D. L., Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J. W., & Niles, M. D. (2007). Effects of a school-based, early childhood intervention on adult health and well-being: A 19-year follow-up of low-income families. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161, 730739. doi:10.1001/archpedi.161.8.730CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., White, B. A., Ou, S., & Robertson, D. L. (2011). Age 26 cost–benefit analysis of the child-parent center early education program. Child Development, 82, 379404. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01563.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children's responses to stress and disadvantage. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 8, 316331.Google ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In Rolf, J., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Neuchterlein, K. H., & Weintraub, S. (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 181214). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schafer, J. L. (1997). Analysis of incomplete multivariate data. London, UK: Chapman and Hall/CRC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwab-Stone, M., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Silver, D., Lichtman, J., & Voyce, C. (1999). No safe haven II: The effects of violence exposure on urban youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 359367. doi:10.1097/00004583-199904000-00007CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schweinhart, L. J., Montie, J., Xiang, Z., Barnett, W. S., Belfield, C. R., & Nores, M. (2005). Lifetime effects: The High/Scope Perry Preschool study through age 40. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.Google Scholar
Schweinhart, L. J., & Weikart, D. P. (1980). Young children grow up: The effects of the Perry Preschool Program on youth through age 15. Monographs of the High Scope Educational Research Foundation (No. 7). Ypsilanti, MI: High Scope Press.Google Scholar
Sciaraffa, M. A., Zeanah, P. D., & Zeanah, C. H. (2018). Understanding and promoting resilience in the context of adverse childhood experiences. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46, 343353. doi:10.1007/s10643-017-0869-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shonkoff, J. P., Boyce, W. T., & McEwen, B. S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: Building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA, 301, 22522259. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.754CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shonkoff, J. P., Garner, A. S., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., McGuinn, L., … & Committee on Early Childhood, Adoption, and Dependent Care. (2012). The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129, e232e246. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2663CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singh-Manoux, A., Ferrie, J. E., Chandola, T., & Marmot, M. (2004). Socioeconomic trajectories across the life course and health outcomes in midlife: Evidence for the accumulation hypothesis? International Journal of Epidemiology, 33, 10721079. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh224CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swahn, M. H., Whitaker, D. J., Pippen, C. B., Leeb, R. T., Teplin, L. A., Abram, K. M., & McClelland, G. M. (2006). Concordance between self-reported maltreatment and court records of abuse or neglect among high-risk youths. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 18491853. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.058230CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Temple, J. A., & Reynolds, A. (2007). Benefits and costs of investments in preschool education: Evidence from the Child–Parent Centers and related programs. Economics of Education Review, 26, 126144. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2005.11.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Turner, R. J., & Lloyd, D. A. (2004). Stress burden and the lifetime incidence of psychiatric disorder in young adults: Racial and ethnic contrasts. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 481488. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.5.481CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van der Kolk, B. A., Perry, J. C., & Herman, J. L. (1991). Childhood origins of self-destructive behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 16651671.Google ScholarPubMed
Vittinghoff, E., Glidden, D. V., Shiboski, S. C., & McCulloch, C. E. (2012). Regression methods in biostatistics: Linear, logistic, survival, and repeated measures models. Springer Science & Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wade, R. Jr, Cronholm, P. F., Fein, J. A., Forke, C. M., Davis, M. B., Harkins-Schwarz, M., … & Bair-Merritt, M. H. (2016). Household and community-level adverse childhood experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population. Child Abuse & Neglect, 52, 135145. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.11.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walberg, H. J., & Tsai, S. (1983). Matthew effects in education. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 5973. doi:10.3102/00028312020003359Google Scholar
Wang, X., & Maguire-Jack, K. (2018). Family and environmental influences on child behavioral health: the role of neighborhood disorder and adverse childhood experiences. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 39, 2836. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000506Google ScholarPubMed
Ward, E., & Mengesha, M. (2013). Depression in African American men: A review of what we know and where we need to go from here. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 386397. doi:10.1111/ajop.12015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, D. C. (2012). Depression over the adult life course for African American men: Toward a framework for research and practice. American Journal of Men's Health, 6, 194210. doi:10.1177/1557988311424072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Werner, E. E. (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood: a longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 7281.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, D. R., & Jackson, P. B. (2005). Social sources of racial disparities in health. Health Affairs, 24, 325334. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.24.2.325CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Giovanelli et al. supplementary material

Giovanelli et al. supplementary material 1

Download Giovanelli et al. supplementary material(File)
File 50 KB
Supplementary material: File

Giovanelli et al. supplementary material

Giovanelli et al. supplementary material 2

Download Giovanelli et al. supplementary material(File)
File 86 KB