Published online by Cambridge University Press: 08 October 2007
1 Iliffe, John, “Breaking the Chain at Its Weakest Link: TANU and the Colonial Office,” in, Maddox, Gregory H. and Giblin, James L., eds., In Search of a Nation: Histories of Authority and Dissidence in Tanzania (Oxford: James Currey, 2005), 168–97Google Scholar, quote 189.
2 Ibid. Here Turnbull was referring to two major anti-colonial rebellions: Kenya's Mau Mau of the 1950s and the 1905–1907 Maji Maji uprising against German colonial rule in Tanzania.
3 Nyerere, Julius, “Foreword,” in, Stahl, Kathleen M., Tanganyika: Sail in the Wilderness (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1961), 6–8Google Scholar.
4 Elizabeth Schmidt summarizes the recent historiography of nationalism in “Top Down or Bottom Up? Nationalist Mobilization Reconsidered, with Special Reference to Guinea (French West Africa),” American Historical Review 110, 4 (2005): 975–1014; and Mobilizing the Masses: Gender, Ethnicity, and Class in the Nationalist Movement in Guinea, 1939–1958 (Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 2005).
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13 Grove drew attention to this historiographical gap in Ecology, Climate and Empire, 218.
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19 Notable exceptions include: Castro, Alfonso Peter, “Southern Mount Kenya and Colonial Forest Conflicts,” in, Richards, John F. and Tucker, Richard P., eds., World Deforestation in the Twentieth Century (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1988), 33–55Google Scholar; Anderson, David, Eroding the Commons: The Politics of Ecology in Baringo, Kenya 1890–1963 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2002), 258–66Google Scholar.
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24 Grove, Ecology, Climate and Empire, 179.
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29 Forms of hidden peasant protest are summarized in Isaacman, Allen, “Peasants and Rural Social Protest in Africa,” in, Cooper, Frederick, Isaacman, Allen, Mallon, Florencia E., Roseberry, William, and Stern, Steve J., Confronting Historical Paradigms: Peasants, Labor, and the Capitalist World System in Africa and Latin America (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), 205–317Google Scholar; Adas, Michael, “From Avoidance to Confrontation: Peasant Protest in Precolonial and Colonial Southeast Asia,” in, Dirks, Nicholas B., ed., Colonialism and Culture. (Ann Arbor: Comparative Studies in Society and History Book Series, University of Michigan Press, 1992), 89–134Google Scholar.
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43 Ministry of Defense (hereafter DEFE) 4/2, COS 28(47)5, “African Development: Draft Report by the Chiefs of Staff on Transport in Africa,” 19 Feb. 1947; FO 800/435; “African Development: Beira Port and Railway,” 23 Oct. 1948; DEFE 4/19, COS 6 (49) 2, “The Strategic Aspect of the Proposed Railway Development in East and Central Africa,” 10 Jan. 1949; T 229/712, “Survey on East and Central Railway Link,” 12 Jan. 1950. All in Hyam, Labour Government, nos. 118, 128, 130, and 135.
44 Brookfield, “New Railroad and Port Developments,” 65.
45 DEFE 4/19, COS 6 (49) 2, “The Strategic Aspect of the Proposed Railway Development in East and Central Africa,” 10 Jan. 1949; T 229/712 “Survey on East and Central Railway Link,” 12 Jan. 1950, both in Hyam, Labour Government, 278, 293.
46 Brookfield, “New Railroad and Port Developments,” 60–70.
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49 Public Record Office (hereafter PRO) CO822/553, “A Review of Development Plans in the Southern Province of Tanganyika 1953,” 45–46; PRO/CAB 128/18, CM 83 (50) 4, “Production of Groundnuts in East Africa: Cabinet Conclusions,” 7 Dec. 1950, in Hyam, Labour Government, 293–94.
50 Tanzania National Archives (hereafter TNA) 35114, vol. II, Overseas Food Corporation to Hutt, Member for Development, 21 Oct. 1950.
51 Annual Report (1946), 2.
54 Annual Report (1947), 1.
55 Annual Report (1948), 5.
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57 Troup, R. S., Report on Forestry in Tanganyika Territory (Dar es Salaam: Government Printer, 1936), 8–9Google Scholar. Mvule was known as iroko in West Africa. During the colonial period the taxonomic name for mvule was Chlorophora excelsa.
58 TNA/ACC270/A/16/SD, Handing Over Notes, Southern Forest Division, July 1952.
59 Christopher Conte discusses migrant Kenyan pitsawyers in Highland Sanctuary, 85.
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62 TNA ACC57/9/1, Assistant Conservator of Forests to D.C., Kisarawe, 18 Nov. 1948.
63 TNA ACC57/9/1, DO Coast to Assistant Conservator of Forests, 23 Aug. 1949.
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73 The difficulties in growing mvule are discussed in “Report on Chlorophora,” reviewed in Empire Forestry Review 36 (1957): 306–7.
74 Annual Report (1948), 1; Tanganyika's Timber Resources, 10.
75 TNA G8/665, Verhandlung der Landkommission des Bezirksamtes Lindi, No. 30, 19–21 Aug. 1910. In recent years coastal forests have been identified as distinct biota owing to a large number of unique plant and animal species. Burgess and Clarke, Coastal Forests.
76 TNA 16/25/15, W. Robertson, Conservator of Forests to A. H. Pike, Sept. 1948.
77 Plant Sciences Library, Oxford Forest Institute, “Forest Adviser's Note on a Visit to Tanganyika, October-November 1951,” 5.
78 PRO/CO/822/154/2, Report of Working Party, Dec. 1950, 107.
79 Annual Report (1951), 19.
80 Annual Report (1951), 43.
81 TNA ACC 460/4/25/32 Vol. I, Notes by K. L. Sanders, Deputy Labor Commissioner, 9–20 Dec. 1952.
82 Sangster, R. G., Forestry in Tanganyika, 1951–55 (Dar es Salaam: Government Printer, 1956), 12.Google Scholar
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84 Tanganyika's Timber Resources, 7.
85 TNA ACC270/A/20/SD, Acting Conservator of Forests, Annual Report for 1950, 6 Jan. 1951.
86 TNA ACC640/4/25/32/I, Ministry of Labor; Braund, Calling to Mind, 57.
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88 Cooper, Decolonization, ch. 8.
89 Coulson, Andrew, Tanzania: A Political Economy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982), 139Google Scholar.
90 Rizzo, “What Was Left of the Groundnut Scheme?”
91 TNA ACC460/4/25/21/I, Ministry of Labor.
92 TNA ACC460/4/25/21/I, Strike Report—Steel Brothers Limited, Rondo.
93 Shivji describes the Building and Construction Workers Union as among the more radical unions in Tanganyika because it tended to be more tenacious in its strikes and because it refused to affiliate with the much larger Transport and Government Workers' Union. Shivji, Law, State and the Working Class, 187, 195.
94 Shivji, Law, State and the Working Class, 185–86; Tanganyika District Books, Nachingwea, Vol. II, Extracts from Annual Reports of the District Commissioners (1957).
96 Agrawal, Environmentality, ch. 4.
97 TNA 16/25/3, District Officer Songea to Provincial Commissioner Lindi, 21 Apr. 1933, 144. James L. Giblin provides examples of the preservation of sacred forests in order to legitimate chiefs in A History of the Excluded: Making Family a Refuge from State in Twentieth-Century Tanzania (Oxford: James Currey, 2005), 222–31.
98 Examples of the problems that colonial-era chiefs had in balancing the demands of the colonial state and the needs for local legitimacy include Spear, Thomas, “Indirect Rule, the Politics of Neo-Traditionalism and the Limits of Invention in Tanzania,” in, Maddox, Gregory H. and Giblin, James L., eds., In Search of a Nation: Histories of Authority and Dissidence in Tanzania (Oxford: James Currey, 2005), 70–85Google Scholar; Gregory H. Maddox, “Narrative Power in Colonial Ugogo: Mazengo of Mvumi,” ibid., 86–102.
99 Conte, Highland Sanctuary, 10.
100 TNA ACC336/AN.4/67/010, Forest Reserves, Southern Province, 1958.
101 Giblin, History of the Excluded, 214–22.
102 Agrawal, Environmentality, 77–81.
103 Interviews with the author, Mambisi, 17 July 2004, and Kinjumbi, 24 July 2004.
104 Young and Fosbrooke, Smoke in the Hills, 62–69.
105 Annual Report (1956), 13.
106 Annual Report (1959), 11.
107 Giblin, History of the Excluded, 218–20.
108 These and other numbers are based on data from Annual Reports, 1945–1959.
109 As noted in TNA ACC 270/A/20/SD, Annual Report of the Southern Forest Division for the Year Ending 31st December 1949.
110 TNA ACC 270/A/20/SD, Acting Conservator of Forests to Conservator of Forests, Rondo, 6 Jan. 1951.
111 “Fire and Forest,” East African Agricultural Journal (July, 1947), 1–2.
112 Annual Report (1960), 12.
113 Annual Report (1954), 17.
114 Annual Report (1957), 7, 17; Neumann, Imposing Wilderness, 118.
115 Annual Report (1956), 6.
116 Annual Report (1957), 14.
117 Annual Report (1958), 12.
118 TNA ACC270/A/15/SD, Diary of District Forestry Officer Southern Division for week ending 3 March 1951.
119 Annual Report (1957), 18.
120 TNA 16/25/3, Trotman to Provincial Commissioners, 9 Feb. 1952, 411.
121 TNA ACC270/A/15/SD, Diary of District Forest Officer Southern Div. for week ending 3 March 1951.
122 TNA ACC270/A/20/SD, J. M. Bryce, Acting Conservator of Forests, Annual Report for 1950, 6 Jan. 1951.
123 Those organizations were the Tanganyika African Tenants' Association and the Tanganyika African Traders' Union. TNA ACC540/F2/2, Mogo Forest Reserve; “Ripoti ya Tume ya Rais ya Kuchunguza Matukio ya Tarehe 26 na 27 January 2001,” par. 52. TATU was founded in 1956 by African businessmen seeking to compete with Asians.
124 Iliffe, Modern History, 558–62; Coulson, Tanzania, 135–37.
125 Annual Report (1960), 12.
126 Tanganyika District Books—Nachingwea District, Book II, Extracts from Annual Reports, 1960, “Land.”
127 Annual Report (1962), 14.
128 Iliffe, “Breaking the Chain,” 174.
130 Annual Report (1965), 16–17.
131 TNA ACC460/4/25/32 Vol. I, Labor Officer Lindi to Laborcom DSM, 19 Jan. 1959, and 26 Mar. 1959; Anon., “600 Workers End Strike,” Tanganyika Standard, 18 Oct. 1959.
132 Annual Report (1961), 19–20; Farrer, R. P., “The First Eight Years on the Rondo,” Empire Forestry Review 39 (1960): 89–93.Google Scholar
133 TNA ACC604/FD33/19, Regional Forest Officer, Mtwara to Director of Natural Resources, Dar es Salaam, 16 Jan. 1970; Forest Project Officer to Director of Natural Resources, 4 Aug. 1970.
134 TNA ACC604/FD33/19, Afisa Mali Asili to Mradi wa Msitu Rondo, 1 Oct. 1974.
135 Godfrey Stalin Mwafongo, “The Sky-Scraping Rondo Forest,” The Nationalist, No. 2141, 15 Mar. 1971.