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Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in a Real-World Study of Participants With OSA With or Without Comorbid Depression

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 April 2023

Sairam Parthasarathy
Affiliation:
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
Jerry Zhang
Affiliation:
Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Danielle Hyman
Affiliation:
Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA
James Doherty
Affiliation:
Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Ragy Saad
Affiliation:
Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA
Benjamin Fox
Affiliation:
Evidation Health, San Mateo, CA, USA
Nell J. Marshall
Affiliation:
Evidation Health, San Mateo, CA, USA
Gregory Parks
Affiliation:
Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA, USA Axsome Therapeutics, New York, NY, USA
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Abstract

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Background

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder that is highly comorbid with psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in psychiatric disorders and OSA. In participants with OSA, EDS can persist despite use of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. This analysis of real-world data aimed to describe EDS and its relationship with PAP use in participants with and without depression.

Methods

US residents (≥18 years of age, self-reported physician diagnosis of OSA [from 1/1/2015 to 3/31/2020]) completed a survey in Evidation Health’s Achievement app assessing subjective levels of sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]) and self-reported PAP usage, categorized as nonuse (no PAP use), nonadherent (<4 h/night or <5 d/wk), intermediate (4-6 h/night, ≥5 d/wk), or highly adherent (≥6 h/night, ≥5 d/wk). ESS score >10 defined EDS. A linear model assessed relationships between PAP use and ESS score. P-values are uncontrolled for multiplicity (nominal).

Results

In total, 2289 participants (EDS, n=972; no EDS, n=1317) completed the survey (50.3% female; 82.5% White; mean±standard deviation [SD] age, 44.8 ± 11.1 years). Anxiety and depression were the most common comorbidities and were more common in participants with EDS (49% and 49%, respectively) than those without EDS (41% and 37%, respectively). Overall, EDS was more common among participants with comorbid depression (49%) than those without (38%), even among highly adherent PAP users (46% vs 30%, respectively). In a linear model (PAP users only), an additional 1 h/night of PAP use was associated with lower ESS scores in the subgroup of participants without depression (n=928; estimate [SE], −0.42 [0.09]; P<0.05), but not in the subgroup with depression (n=661; estimate [SE], −0.15 [0.10]; P>0.05). In a sensitivity analysis that excluded participants using medications that cause sleepiness, PAP use was associated with lower ESS scores regardless of depression status; however, EDS remained more common in participants with comorbid depression (46%) than in those without (36%).

Conclusions

In this real-world population of participants with OSA, those with EDS were more likely to have comorbid anxiety or depression. EDS was more common in participants with comorbid depression than those without, even with highly adherent PAP use. PAP use was associated with lower ESS scores in participants without comorbid depression, but not in those with comorbid depression; the use of medications that cause sleepiness may contribute to but does not fully explain this phenomenon.

Funding

Axsome Therapeutics and Jazz Pharmaceuticals

Type
Abstracts
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press