Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-vmftn Total loading time: 0.46 Render date: 2023-01-31T05:23:53.769Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Urbanization and emerging mental health issues

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  06 April 2020

Antonio Ventriglio*
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
Julio Torales
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, National University of Asunción, Asunción, Paraguay
João M. Castaldelli-Maia
Affiliation:
Department of Neuroscience, Medical School, Fundação do ABC, Santo André, Brazil Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Domenico De Berardis
Affiliation:
Department of Mental Health, Teramo, Italy
Dinesh Bhugra
Affiliation:
Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College, London, United Kingdom
*
Antonio Ventriglio, MD PhD, Email: a.ventriglio@libero.it

Abstract

Rapid urbanization worldwide is associated to an increase of population in the urban settings and this is leading to new emerging mental health issues. This narrative mini-review is based on a literature search conducted through PubMed and EMBASE. A total of 113 articles published on the issue of urban mental health have been selected, cited, reviewed, and summarized. There are emerging evidences about the association between urbanization and mental health issues. Urbanization affects mental health through social, economic, and environmental factors. It has been shown that common mental syndromes report higher prevalence in the cities. Social disparities, social insecurity, pollution, and the lack of contact with nature are some of recognized factors affecting urban mental health. Further reserach studies and specific guidelines should be encouraged to help policy makers and urban designers to improve mental health and mental health care facilities in the cities; additional strategies to prevent and reduce mental illness in the urban settings should be also adopted globally.

Type
Review
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Bhugra, D, Castaldelli-Maia, JM, Torales, J, et al. Megacities, migration, and mental health. Lancet Psychiatry. 2019;6(11):884885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhugra, D, Ventriglio, A, Castaldelli-Maia, JM, et al. Urban Mental Health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2019.Google Scholar
United Nations. World Urbanization Prospects. The 2014 revision. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-Highlights.pdf. Accessed November 17, 2019.Google Scholar
Carta, MG, Bhugra, D. Urbanization and mental health. In: Bhugra, D, Ventriglio, A, João Castaldelli-Maia, JM, et al., eds. Urban Mental Health. Oxford University Press. 2019.Google Scholar
Faris, REL, Dunham, HW. Mental Disorders in Urban Areas: An Ecological Study of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses. Chicago, IL, USA: University of Chicago Press; 1939.Google Scholar
Rapp, MA, Kluge, U, Penka, S, et al. When local poverty is more important than your income: mental health in minorities in inner cities. World Psychiatry. 2015;14:249250.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sariaslan, A, Fazel, S, D’Onofrio, BM, et al. Schizophrenia and subsequent neighborhood deprivation: revisiting the social drift hypothesis using population, twin and molecular genetic data. Transl Psychiatry. 2016;6:e796.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toulopoulou, T, Picchioni, M, Mortensen, PB, et al. IQ, the urban environment, and their impact on future schizophrenia risk in men. Schizophr Bull. 2017;43:10561063.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
March, D, Hatch, SL, Morgan, C, et al. Psychosis and place. Epidemiol Rev. 2008;30:84100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, LR, Holbrook, JR, Bitsko, RH, et al. Differences in health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders among children aged 2–8 years in rural and urban areas—United States, 2011–2012. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017;66(SS-8):11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schomerus, G, Heider, D, Angermeyer, MC, et al. European Schizophrenia Cohort. Residential area and social contacts in schizophrenia. Results from the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC). Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42:617622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luciano, M, De Rosa, C, Del Vecchio, V, et al. Perceived insecurity, mental health and urbanization: results from a multicentric study. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2016;62(3):252261.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schomerus, G, Heider, D, Angermeyer, MC, et al. Urban residence, victimhood and the appraisal of personal safety in people with schizophrenia: results from the European Schizophrenia Cohort (EuroSC). Psychol Med. 2008;38:591597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stockdale, SE, Wells, KB, Tang, L, et al. The importance of social context: neighborhood stressors, stressbuffering mechanisms, and alcohol, drug, and mental health disorders. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65:18671881.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Litman, T. Urban Sanity: Understanding Urban Mental Health Impacts and How to Create Saner, Happier Cities. Victoria, Canada: Victoria Transport Policy Institute; 2016.Google Scholar
Gascon, M, Triguero-Mas, M, Martínez, D, et al. Mental health benefits of long-term exposure to residential green and blue spaces: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(4):43544379.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (WHO). Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise: Quantification of Healthy Life Years Lost in Europe. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2011.Google Scholar
Ventriglio, A, Bellomo, A, Di Gioia, I. et al. Environmental pollution and mental health: a narrative review of literature. CNS Spectr. 2019; Submitted.Google Scholar
Peen, J, Schoevers, RA, Beekman, AT, et al. The current status of urban–rural differences in psychiatric disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010;121:8493.10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01438.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheng, C, Yang, CY, Inder, Ket al. Urban-rural differences in mental health among Chinese patients with multiple chronic conditions. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2019;29(2):224234. doi:10.1111/inm.12666.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, J, Marshall, GN, Pincus, HA, et al. Are mental disorders more common in urban than rural areas of the United States? J Psychiatr Res. 2014;56:505.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nunes, MA, Pinheiro, AP, Bessel, M, et al. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2016;38:9197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. National Mental Health Survey 2015-2016: Summary. Bengaluru, India: National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences; 2016. http://www.nimhans.ac.in/sites/default/files/u197/National%20Mental%20Health%20Survey%20-2015-16%20Summary_0.pdf. Accessed November 17, 2019.Google Scholar
Desai, NG, Tiwari, SC, Nambi, S, et al. Urban mental health services in India: how complete or incomplete? Ind J Psychiatr. 2004;46:195212.Google ScholarPubMed
Abbott, A. Stress and the city: urban decay. Nature. 2012;490:162164.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, RE, Burgess, EW. The City. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press; 1925.Google Scholar
Faris, R, Dunham, H. Mental Disorders in Urban Areas. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1939.Google Scholar
American Psychological Association Task Force on Urban Psychology. Toward an Urban Psychology: Research, Action, and Policy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2005.Google Scholar
Adli, M. Urban Stress and Mental Health. London, UK: London School of Economics; 2011. https://lsecities.net/media/objects/articles/urban-stress-and-mental-health/en-gb/. Accessed October 17, 2019.Google Scholar
Houtman, I, Jettinghoff, K, Cedillo, L. Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries: a modern hazard in a traditional working environment: advice to employers and worker representatives. Protecting workers’ health, series no 6. World Health Organization; 2007.Google Scholar
World Health Organization (WHO). Why Urban Health Matters. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2010.Google Scholar
Kessler, RCP, Chiu, WTA, Demler, OM, et al. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSMIV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 2005;62:617627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Penchansky, R, Thomas, JW. The concept of access: definition and relationship to consumer satisfaction. Med Care. 1981;19:127140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, C, Hewson, DL, Munger, R, et al. Evolving models of behavioral health integration in primary care. 2010. http://www.milbank.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/EvolvingCare.pdf. Accessed November 17, 2019.Google Scholar
Manjunatha, N, Singh, G, Chaturvedi, SK. Manochaitanya programme for better utilization of primary health centres. Ind J Med Res. 2017;145:163165.Google ScholarPubMed
Hare, EH. Mental illness and social condition in Bristol. J Ment Sci. 1956;102:349357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giggs, JA, Cooper, JE. Ecological structure and the distribution of schizophrenia and affective psychoses in Nottingham. Br J Psychiatr. 1987;151:627633.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giggs, JA. Distribution of schizophrenics in Nottingham. Trans Inst Br Geogr. 1973;59:576.Google Scholar
Giggs, JA. Mental disorders and ecological structure in Nottingham. Soc Sci Med. 1986;23:945961.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maylaih, E, Weyerer, S, Hafner, H. Spatial concentration of the incidence of treated psychiatric disorders in Mannheim. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1980;80:650656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafner, H, Reimann, H. Spatial distribution of mental disorders in Mannheim, 1965. In: Hare, EH, Wing, JK, eds. Psychiatric Epidemiology. London, UK: Oxford University Press; 1970:341354.Google Scholar
Loffler, W, Hafner, H. Ecological patterns of first admitted schizophrenics to two German cities over 25 years. Soc Sci Med. 1999;49:93108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mintz, NL, Schwartz, DT. Urban ecology and psychosis: community factors in the incidence of schizophrenia and manic-depression among Italians in Greater Boston. Int J Soc Psychiatr. 1964;10:101118.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oh, H, Susser, E, Koyanagi, Aet al. Urban birth and psychotic experiences in the United States. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2020;141(2):167169. doi:10.1111/acps.13106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirkbride, JB, Fearon, P, Morgan, C, et al. Neighbourhood variation in the incidence of psychotic disorders in Southeast London. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42:438445.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirkbride, JB, Hameed, Y, Ankireddypalli, G, et al. The epidemiology of first-episode psychosis in early intervention in psychosis services: findings from the Social Epidemiology of Psychoses in East Anglia [SEPEA] Study. Ame J Psychiatr. 2017;174:143153.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kirkbride, JB, Jones, PB, Ullrich, S, et al. Social deprivation, inequality, and the neighborhood-level incidence of psychotic syndromes in East London. Schizophr Bull. 2014;40:169180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moreno-Küstner, B, Mayoral, F, Navas-Campaña, D, et al. Prevalence of schizophrenia and related disorders in Malaga (Spain): results using multiple clinical databases. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2016;25:3848.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J, Hannssen, M, Bak, M, et al. Do urbanicity and familial liability coparticipate in causing psychosis? Am J Psychiatr. 2003;160:477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Os, J, Hanssen, M, Bijl, RV, Vollebergh, W. Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community level of psychotic symptoms: an urban-rural comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatr. 2011;58:663668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Lee, SH, Ripke, S, Neale, BM, et al. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genomewide SNPs. Nature Gen. 2013;45:984994.Google Scholar
Neale, BM, Sklar, P. Genetic analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder reveals polygenicity but also suggests new directions for molecular interrogation. Curr Op Neurobiol. 2015;30:131138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pedersen, CB, Mortensen, PB. Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or in individuals? Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163:971978.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zammit, S, Owen, MJ, Lewis, G. Misconceptions about gene-environment interactions in psychiatry. EBMH. 2010;13:6568.Google Scholar
Martinotti, G, Lupi, M, Carlucci, L, et al. Novel psychoactive substances: use and knowledge among adolescents and young adults in urban and rural areas. Hum Psychopharmacol 2015;30(4):295301. doi:10.1002/hup.2486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schifano, F, Leoni, M, Martinotti, G, et al. Importance of cyberspace for the assessment of the drug abuse market: preliminary results from the Psychonaut 2002 project. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2003;6(4):405410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schelin, EM, Munk-Jorgensen, P, Olesen, AV, et al. Regional differences in schizophrenia incidence in Denmark. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2000;101:293299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fusar-Poli, P, Sullivan, SA, Shah, JL, et al. Improving the detection of individuals at clinical risk for psychosis in the community, primary and secondary care: an integrated evidence-based approach. Front Psychiatr. 2019;24(10):774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bhavsar, V, Dorrington, S, Morgan, C, et al. Psychotic experiences, psychiatric comorbidity and mental health need in the general population: a cross-sectional and cohort study in Southeast London. Psychol Med. 2019;12:111.Google Scholar
Fusar-Poli, P, Stringer, DMS, Durieux, A, et al. Clinical-learning versus machine-learning for transdiagnostic prediction of psychosis onset in individuals at-risk. Transl Psychiatry. 2019;17;9(1):259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Durkheim, E. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. London, UK: Routledge; 1897/1951.Google Scholar
Taylor, R, Page, A, Morrell, S, et al. Social and psychiatric influences on urban–rural differentials in Australian suicide. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2005;35:277290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheung, YTD, Spittal, MJ, Pirkis, J, et al. Spatial analysis of suicide mortality in Australia: investigation of metropolitan-rural-remote differentials of suicide risk across states/territories. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75:14601468.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Qin, P. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity—a population based linkage study. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:846852.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Middleton, N, Gunnell, D, Frankel, S, et al. Urban–rural differences in suicide trends in young adults: England and Wales, 1981–1998. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57:11831194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sha, F, Yip, PS, Law, YW. Decomposing change in China’s suicide rate,1990–2010: ageing and urbanisation. Inj Prev. 2016;23:4045.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Knipe, DW, Padmanathan, P, Muthuwatta, L, et al. Regional variation in suicide rates in Sri Lanka between 1955 and 2011: a spatial and temporal analysis. BMC Pub Health. 2017;17:193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Page, A, Liu, S, Gunnell, D, et al. Suicide by pesticide poisoning remains a priority for suicide prevention in China: Analysis of national mortality trends 2006–2013. J Aff Dis. 2017;208:418423.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Melo, HPM, Moreira, AA, Makse, HA, et al. Statistical signs of social influence on suicides. Sci Rep. 2014;1(4):6239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, J, Lee, WY, Noh, M, Khang, YH. Does a geographical context of deprivation affect differences in injury mortality? A multilevel analysis in South Korean adults residing in metropolitan cities. J Epidemiol Comm Health. 2014;68:457465.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Law, CK, Snider, AM, De Leo, D. The influence of deprivation on suicide mortality in urban and rural Queensland: an ecological analysis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014;49:19191928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barker, E, Kolves, K, De Leo, D. Rail-suicide prevention: systematic literature review of evidence-based activities. Asia Pac Psychiatry. 2017;9:e12246.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pirkis, J, San Too, L, Spittal, MJ, et al. Interventions to reduce suicides at suicide hotspots: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatr. 2015;2(11):9941001.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krausz, M, Strehlau, V, Choi, F, et al. Urbanization and marginalization. In: Bhugra, D, Ventriglio, A, Castaldelli-Maia, JM, et al., eds. Urban Mental Health. Oxford University Press; 2019. ISBN-13:9780198804949.Google Scholar
Bhugra, D, Ventriglio, A. Home is where heart is. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015;131(4):235–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ventriglio, A, Mari, M, Bellomo, A, et al. Homelessness and mental health: a challenge. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015;61(7):621622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stergiopoulos, V, Cusi, A, Bekele, T, et al. Neurocognitive impairment in a large sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015;131(4):256268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krausz, RM, Clarkson, AF, Strehlau, V, et al. Mental disorder, service use, and barriers to care among 500 homeless people in 3 different urban settings. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48:12351243.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Priebe, S, Matanov, A, Schor, R, et al. Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalised groups in Europe: a qualitative study of expert views in 14 countries. BMC Pub Health. 2012;12:248.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hwang, SW, Burns, T. Health interventions for people who are homeless. Lancet. 2014;384:15411547.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, G, Aubry, T, Lafrance, A. A review of the literature on the effectiveness of housing and support, assertive community treatment, and intensive case management interventions for persons with mental illness who have been homeless. Am J Orthopsychiatr. 2007;77:350361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ventriglio, A, Bhugra, D. Social justice for the mentally ill. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2015;61(3):213214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williams, D, Neighbors, H, Jackson, J. Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. Am J Pub Health. 2003;93:200208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meyer, I. Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychol Bull. 2003;129:674697.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kalra, G, Ventriglio, A, Bhugra, D. Sexuality and mental health: Issues and what next? Int Rev Psychiatry. 2015;27(5):463469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bradlow, R, Singh, N, Beloskar, S, et al. Gender and sexual minorities. In: Bhugra, D, Ventriglio, A, Castaldelli-Maia, JM, et al., eds. Urban Mental Health. Oxford University Press; 2019; ISBN-13: 9780198804949.Google Scholar
Wienke, C, Hill, G. Does place of residence matter? Rural–urban differences and the wellbeing of gay men and lesbians. J Homosexuality. 2013;60:12561279.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peckins, MK, Roberts, AG, Hein, TC, et al. Violence exposure and social deprivation is associated with cortisol reactivity in urban adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinol. 2019;4(111):104426.Google Scholar
Forthal, S, Fekadu, A, Medhin, G, et al. Rural vs urban residence and experience of discrimination among people with severe mental illnesses in Ethiopia. BMC Psychiatr. 2019;5(19, 1):340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golembiewski, J. The designed environment and how it affects brain morphology and mental health. HERD. 2016;9:161171.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krabbendam, L, van Os, J. Schizophrenia and urbanicity: a major environmental influence—conditional on genetic risk. Schizophr Bull. 2005;31:795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golembiewski, J. Architecture, the urban environment and severe psychosis. Part I: aetiology. J Urban Des Ment Health. 2017;2:1.Google Scholar
Bargh, JA, Dijksterhuis, A. The perception-behavior expressway: automatic effects of social perception on social behavior. Adv Exp Soc Psychol. 2001;33:140.Google Scholar
Gibson, JJ. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1979.Google Scholar
Rizzolatti, G, Craighero, L. The mirror neuron system. Ann Rev Neurosci. 2004;27:169192.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramnani, N, Owen, AM. Anterior prefrontal cortex: insights into function from anatomy and neuroimaging. Nature Rev Neurosci. 2004;5:184194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lederbogen, F, Kirsch, P, Haddad, L, et al. City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans. Nature. 2011;474:498501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golembiewski, J. All common psychotic symptoms can be explained by the theory of ecological perception. Med Hypoth. 2012;78:710.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Silva JA, Costa E, Steffen, RE. Urban environment and psychiatric disorders: a review of the neuroscience and biology. Metabolism. 2019;100S:153940. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2019.07.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lemmers-Jansen, IL, Fett, AJ, van Os, J, et al. Trust and the city: Linking urban upbringing to neural mechanisms of trust in psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiat. 2020;54(2):138149.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
The Centre for Urban Design and Mental Health. https://www.urbandesignmentalhealth.com/#. Accessed November 17, 2019.Google Scholar
White, MP, Alcock, I, Wheeler, BW, et al. Would you be happier living in a greener urban area? A fixed-effects analysis of panel data. Psychol Sci. 2013;24:920928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liao, J, Zhang, B, Xia, W, et al. Residential exposure to green space and early childhood neurodevelopment. Environ Int. 2019;128:7076. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.03.070.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kumar, P, Druckman, A, Gallagher, J, et al. The nexus between air pollution, green infrastructure and human health. Environ Int. 2019;133(Pt A):105181. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.105181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Labib, SM, Lindley, S, Huck, JJ. Spatial dimensions of the influence of urban green-blue spaces on human health: a systematic review. Environ Res. 2019;2:108869. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2019.108869.Google Scholar
Wilson, EO. Biophilia—the Human Bond with Other Species. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1984.Google Scholar
Ulrich, RS. Aesthetic and affective responses to natural environment. In: Altman, I, Wohlwill, J, eds. Behaviour and the Natural Environment. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1983:85125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaplan, R, Kaplan, S. The Experience of Nature. A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press; 1983.Google Scholar
Stathopoulou, G, Powers, MB, Berry, AC, et al. Exercise interventions for mental health: a quantitative and qualitative review. Clin Psychol. 2006;13:179193.Google Scholar
Leavell, MA, Leiferman, JA, Gascon, M, et al. Nature-based social prescribing in urban settings to improve social connectedness and mental well-being: a review. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2019;6(4):297308. doi:10.1007/s40572-019-00251-7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Litman, Todd. Urban Sanity: Understanding Urban Mental Health Impacts and How to Create Saner, Happier Cities. Victoria Transport Policy Institute; 2017. www.vtpi.org/urban-sanity.pdf.Google Scholar
Baumann, PS, Söderström, O, Abrahamyan Empson, L, et al. Urban remediation: a new recovery-oriented strategy to manage urban stress after first-episode psychosis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019;55(3):273283. doi:10.1007/s00127-019-01795-7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Okkels, N, Kristiansen, CB, Munk-Jørgensen, P, et al. Urban mental health: challenges and perspectives. Curr Opin Psychiatry.2018;31(3):258264. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Urbanization and emerging mental health issues
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Urbanization and emerging mental health issues
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Urbanization and emerging mental health issues
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *