Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5cfd469876-tkzrn Total loading time: 0.271 Render date: 2021-06-24T03:15:03.092Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Habitual versus affective motivations in obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 February 2020

Gabriela M. Ferreira
Affiliation:
Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Rico S.C. Lee
Affiliation:
Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
Marcelo Piquet-Pessôa
Affiliation:
Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Gabriela B. de Menezes
Affiliation:
Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Maria E. Moreira-de-Oliveira
Affiliation:
Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Lucy Albertella
Affiliation:
Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
Murat Yücel
Affiliation:
Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Victoria, Australia
Marcelo dos Santos Cruz
Affiliation:
Substance Abuse Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Samara dos Santos-Ribeiro
Affiliation:
Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Leonardo F. Fontenelle
Affiliation:
Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Victoria, Australia D’Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective

To (1) confirm whether the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale is able to generate a 3-factor solution in a population of obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients; (2) compare these clinical groups in their habit, reward, and fear motivations; and (3) investigate whether homogenous subgroups can be identified to resolve heterogeneity within and across disorders based on the motivations driving ritualistic and drinking behaviors.

Methods

One hundred and thirty-four obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 76) or AUD (n = 58) patients were assessed with a battery of scales including the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Alcohol Dependence Scale, the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System Scale, and the Urgency, (lack of ) Premeditation, (lack of ) Perseverance, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency Impulsive Behavior Scale.

Results

A 3-factor solution reflecting habit, reward, and fear subscores explained 56.6% of the total variance of the Habit, Reward, and Fear Scale. Although the habit and fear subscores were significantly higher in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the reward subscores were significantly greater in AUD patients, a cluster analysis identified that the 3 clusters were each characterized by differing proportions of OCD and AUD patients.

Conclusions

While affective (reward- and fear-driven) and nonaffective (habitual) motivations for repetitive behaviors seem dissociable from each other, it is possible to identify subgroups in a transdiagnostic manner based on motivations that do not match perfectly motivations that usually described in OCD and AUD patients.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Reed, GM, First, MB, Kogan, CS, et al. Innovations and changes in the ICD-11 classification of mental, behavioural and neurodevelopmental disorders. World Psychiatry. 2019;18(1):319.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
Hollander, E, Benzaquen, SD. The obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Int Rev Psychiatry. 1997;9(1):99110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luigjes, J, Lorenzetti, V, de Haan, S, et al. Defining compulsive behavior. Neuropsychol Rev. 2019;29(1):413.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Evenden, JL. Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology. 1999;146(4):348361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grant, JE, Potenza, MN. Compulsive aspects of impulse-control disorders. Psychiatric Clin N Am. 2006;29(2):539551.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maloney, EM, Djamshidian, A, O’Sullivan, SS. Phenomenology and epidemiology of impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson’s disease, atypical Parkinsonian disorders and non-Parkinsonian populations. J Neurol Sci. 2017;374:4752.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fontenelle, LF, Mendlowicz, MV, Versiani, M. Impulse control disorders in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;59(1):3037.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matsunaga, H, Kiriike, N, Matsui, T, Oya, K, Okino, K, Stein, DJ. Impulsive disorders in Japanese adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2005;46(1):4349.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koob, GF, Volkow, ND. Neurocircuitry of addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35(1):217238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fontenelle, LF, Oostermeijer, S, Harrison, BJ, Pantelis, C, Yucel, M. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction: common features and potential treatments. Drugs. 2011;71(7):827840.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yucel, M, Oldenhof, E, Ahmed, SH, et al. A transdiagnostic dimensional approach towards a neuropsychological assessment for addiction: an international Delphi consensus study. Addiction. 2019;114(6):10951109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fontenelle, LF, Oldenhof, E, Moreira-de-Oliveira, ME, et al. A transdiagnostic perspective of constructs underlying obsessive-compulsive and related disorders: an International Delphi Consensus Study (submitted).Google Scholar
Chamberlain, SR, Fineberg, NA, Menzies, LA, et al. Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(2):335338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillan, CM, Morein-Zamir , S, Urcelay, GP, et al. Enhanced avoidance habits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2014;75(8):631638.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillan, CM, Papmeyer, M, Morein-Zamir , S, et al. Disruption in the balance between goal-directed behavior and habit learning in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168(7):718726.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbit, LH, Janak, PH. Habitual alcohol seeking: neural bases and possible relations to alcohol use disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40(7):13801389.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iancu, I, Lowengrub, K, Dembinsky, Y, Kotler, M, Dannon, PN. Pathological gambling: an update on neuropathophysiology and pharmacotherapy. CNS Drugs. 2008;22(2):123138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seibell, PJ, Hollander, E. Management of obsessive-compulsive disorder. F1000prime Rep. 2014;6:68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Piquet-Pessoa , M, Fontenelle, LF. Opioid antagonists in broadly defined behavioral addictions: a narrative review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016;17(6):835844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, SW, Grant, JE, Adson, DE, Shin, YC. Double-blind naltrexone and placebo comparison study in the treatment of pathological gambling. Biol Psychiatry. 2001;49(11):914921.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mann, K, Roos, CR, Witkiewitz, K. Response to letter to editor (precision medicine in alcohol dependence: evidence of efficacy and initial support for comparative effectiveness). Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43(9):18011802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piquet-Pessoa , M, Chamberlain, SR, Lee, RSC, et al. A study on the correlates of habit-, reward-, and fear-related motivations in alcohol use disorder. CNS Spectr. 2019:18.Google Scholar
Baron, A, Galizio, M. Positive and negative reinforcement: should the distinction be preserved? Behav Anal. 2005;28(2):8598.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van den Heuvel, OA, van Wingen, G, Soriano-Mas , C, et al. Brain circuitry of compulsivity. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;26(5):810827.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robbins, TW, Costa, RM. Habits. Curr Biol. 2017;27(22):R1200R1206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cho, SB, Su, J, Kuo, SI, et al. Positive and negative reinforcement are differentially associated with alcohol consumption as a function of alcohol dependence. Psychol Addict Behav. 2019;33(1):5868.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferreira, GM, Yucel, M, Dawson, A, Lorenzetti, V, Fontenelle, LF. Investigating the role of anticipatory reward and habit strength in obsessive-compulsive disorder. CNS Spectr. 2017;22(3):295304.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pietrefesa, AS, Coles, ME. Moving beyond an exclusive focus on harm avoidance in obsessive-compulsive disorder: behavioral validation for the separability of harm avoidance and incompleteness. Behav Ther. 2009;40(3):251259.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Burchi, E, Makris, N, Lee, MR, Pallanti, S, Hollander, E. Compulsivity in alcohol use disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: implications for neuromodulation. Front Behav Neurosci. 2019;13:70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M, Williams, JBW. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Patient Edition. New York, NY: SCID-I/P; 2002.Google Scholar
Amorim, P. Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): validação de entrevista breve para diagnóstico de transtornos mentais. Braz J Psychiatry. 2000;22:106115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verplanken, B, Orbell, S. Reflections on past behavior: a self-report index of habit strength. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2003;33(6):13131330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goodman, WK, Price, LH, Rasmussen, SA, et al. The Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale. II. Validity. Archiv Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46(11):10121016.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodman, WK, Price, LH, Rasmussen, SA, et al. The Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale. I. Development, use, and reliability. Archiv Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46(11):10061011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doyle, SR, Donovan, DM. A validation study of the alcohol dependence scale. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2009;70(5):689699.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carver, CS, White, TL. Behavioral inhibition, behavioral activation, and affective responses to impending reward and punishment: the BIS/BAS scales. J Personal Soc Psychol. 1994;67(2):319333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynam, DR, Smith, GT, Whiteside, SP, Cyders, MA. The UPPS-P: Assessing Five Personality Pathways to Impulsive Behavior (Technical Report). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University; 2006.Google Scholar
Hermens, DF, Redoblado Hodge, MA, Naismith, SL, Kaur, M, Scott, E, Hickie, IB. Neuropsychological clustering highlights cognitive differences in young people presenting with depressive symptoms. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2011;17(2):267276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hermens, DF, Naismith, SL, Chitty, KM, et al. Cluster analysis reveals abnormal hippocampal neurometabolic profiles in young people with mood disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25(6):836845.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lee, RSC, Hermens, DF, Naismith, SL, et al. Neuropsychological and functional outcomes in recent-onset major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: a longitudinal cohort study. Transl Psychiatry. 2015;5:e555.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clatworthy, J, Buick, D, Hankins, M, Weinman, J, Horne, R. The use and reporting of cluster analysis in health psychology: a review. Br J Health Psychol. 2005;10(Pt 3):329358.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chamberlain, SR, Lochner, C, Stein, DJ, et al. Behavioural addiction—a rising tide? Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;26(5):841855.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abramovitch, A, Pizzagalli, DA, Reuman, L, Wilhelm, S. Anhedonia in obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond comorbid depression. Psychiatry Res. 2014;216(2):223229.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grassi, G, Makris, N, Pallanti, S. Addicted to compulsion: assessing three core dimensions of addiction across obsessive-compulsive disorder and gambling disorder. CNS Spectr. 2019:110. doi:10.1017/S1092852919000993 Google ScholarPubMed
Pushkarskaya, H, Sobowale, K, Henick, D, et al. Contrasting contributions of anhedonia to obsessive-compulsive, hoarding, and post-traumatic stress disorders. J Psychiatric Res. 2019;109:202213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rouhani, N, Wimmer, GE, Schneier, FR, Fyer, AJ, Shohamy, D, Simpson, HB. Impaired generalization of reward but not loss in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2019;36(2):121129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fontenelle, LF, Oostermeijer, S, Ferreira, GM, Lorenzetti, V, Luigjes, J, Yucel, M. Anticipated reward in obsessive-compulsive disorder: are compulsions rewarding? J Clin Psychiatry. 2015;76(9):e1134-e1135.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kashyap, H, Fontenelle, LF, Miguel, EC, et al. ’Impulsive compulsivity’ in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a phenotypic marker of patients with poor clinical outcome. J Psychiatric Res. 2012;46(9):11461152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Figee, M, Vink, M, de Geus, F, et al. Dysfunctional reward circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69(9):867874.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Modell, JG, Glaser, FB, Mountz, JM, Schmaltz, S, Cyr, L. Obsessive and compulsive characteristics of alcohol abuse and dependence: quantification by a newly developed questionnaire. Alcoholism Clin Exp Res. 1992;16(2):266271.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hogarth, L, Balleine, BW, Corbit, LH, Killcross, S. Associative learning mechanisms underpinning the transition from recreational drug use to addiction. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2013;1282:1224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Ferreira et al. Supplementary Materials

Ferreira et al. Supplementary Materials

Download Ferreira et al. Supplementary Materials(File)
File 91 KB
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Habitual versus affective motivations in obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Habitual versus affective motivations in obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Habitual versus affective motivations in obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol use disorder
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *