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School-related adjustment in children and adolescents with CHD

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 March 2017

Yu-Mi Im
Seoul Women’s College of Nursing, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Sunhee Lee*
College of Nursing, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Tae-Jin Yun
Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Jae Young Choi
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: S. Lee, College of Nursing, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06591, Korea. Tel: +82 2 2258 7414; Fax: +82 2 2258 7772; E-mail:


Advancements in medical and surgical treatment have increased the life expectancy of patients with CHD. Many patients with CHD, however, struggle with the medical, psychosocial, and behavioural challenges as they transition from childhood to adulthood. Specifically, the environmental and lifestyle challenges in school are very important factors that affect children and adolescents with CHD. This study aimed to evaluate school-related adjustments depending on school level and disclosure of disease in children and adolescents with CHD. This was a descriptive and exploratory study with 205 children and adolescents, aged 7–18 years, who were recruited from two congenital heart clinics from 5 January to 27 February, 2015. Data were analysed using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and a univariate general linear model. School-related adjustment scores were significantly different according to school level and disclosure of disease (p<0.001) when age, religion, experience being bullied, and parents’ educational levels were assigned as covariates. The school-related adjustment score of patients who did not disclose their disease dropped significantly in high school. This indicated that it is important for healthcare providers to plan developmentally appropriate educational transition programmes for middle-school students with CHD in order for students to prepare themselves before entering high school.

Original Articles
© Cambridge University Press 2017 

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