Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-ns2hh Total loading time: 1.542 Render date: 2022-10-01T03:19:16.006Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

The Prevalence and Incidence of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: a Systematic Review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 June 2016

David B. Hogan
Affiliation:
Brenda Strafford Chair in Geriatric Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Kirsten M. Fiest
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Jodie I. Roberts
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Colleen J. Maxwell
Affiliation:
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Schools of Pharmacy and Public Health & Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Jonathan Dykeman
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Tamara Pringsheim
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Thomas Steeves
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Eric E. Smith
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Dawn Pearson
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Nathalie Jetté*
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
*
Correspondence to: Nathalie Jetté, Foothills Medical Center, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, 1403 29th Street NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada. Email: Nathalie.jette@albertahealthservices.ca
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Background

Population-based prevalence and incidence studies are essential for understanding the societal burden of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).

Methods

The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched to identify publications addressing the incidence and/or prevalence of DLB. References of included articles and prior systematic reviews were searched for additional studies. Two reviewers screened all abstracts and full-text reviews, abstracted data and performed quality assessments.

Results

Twenty-two studies were included. Incidence rates ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 per 1000 person-years. DLB accounted for 3.2-7.1% of all dementia cases in the incidence studies. Point and period prevalence estimates ranged from 0.02 to 63.5 per 1000 persons. Increasing prevalence estimates were reported with increasing age. DLB accounted for from 0.3 to 24.4% of all cases of dementia in the prevalence studies.

Conclusions

DLB becomes more common with increasing age and accounts for about 5% of all dementia cases in older populations.

Résumé

Prévalence et incidence de la démence à corps de Lewy : revue systématique du sujet.Contexte: Les études de population sur sa prévalence et son incidence sont essentielles à la compréhension du fardeau social de la démence à corps de Lewy (DCL). Méthodologie: Nous avons identifié les publications sur l’incidence et/ou la prévalence de la DCL dans les bases de données MEDLINE et EMBASE. Nous avons recherché des études supplémentaires dans les articles et les revues systématiques antérieures cités à titre de références. Deux évaluateurs ont examiné tous les résumés et les évaluations de textes intégraux et l’extraction des données, et ils ont évalué la qualité des publications. Résultats: Vingt-deux études ont été incluses. Les taux d’incidence allaient de 0,5 à 1,6 par 1 000 personnes-années. La DCL constituait 3,2 à 7,1% de tous les cas de démence dans les études sur l’incidence. Les estimés de prévalence ponctuelle et par période allaient de 0,02 à 63,5 par 1 000 personnes. Des taux croissants de prévalence étaient rapportés en association avec l’augmentation de l’âge des sujets. La DCL était responsable de 0,3 à 24,4% de tous les cas de démence dans les études de prévalence.Conclusions: La DCL est plus fréquente avec l’âge et constitue environ 5% de tous les cas de démence dans les populations plus âgées.

Type
Original Articles
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an open access article, distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Copyright
Copyright © The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences Inc. 2016

Introduction

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is one of the commonest neurodegenerative dementias encountered in older patients.Reference McKeith, Mintzer, Aarsland, Burn, Chiu and Cohen-Mansfield 1 While recent clinic-based studies suggest that it accounts for up to 20% of all dementia cases,Reference McKeith, Mintzer, Aarsland, Burn, Chiu and Cohen-Mansfield 1 - Reference Alladi, Mekala, Chadalawada, Jala, Mridula and Kaul 5 this may represent an overestimate because of selection or referral bias.Reference Kokmen, Ozsarfati, Beard, O’Brien and Rocca 6 Population-based estimates of attributable risk derived from autopsy studies suggest that Lewy body disease accounts for 3 to 10% of the burden of dementia in older populations.Reference Sonnen, Larson, Crane, Haneuse, Li and Schellenberg 7 , Reference Matthews, Brayne, Lowe, McKeith, Wharton and Ince 8

Building on clinicopathological work,Reference Byrne, Lennox, Godwin-Austen, Jefferson, Lowe and Mayer 9 - Reference McKeith, Galasko, Wilcock and Byrne 11 consensus criteria for the diagnosis of DLB have been developed.Reference McKeith, Galasko, Kosaka, Perry, Dickson and Hansen 12 - Reference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 Their central feature is the presence of progressive cognitive decline of sufficient magnitude to interfere with normal social or occupational functioning. During the early stages of the illness, deficits in attention, executive function and visuospatial ability are often more striking than those with memory. The core clinical features of DLB are fluctuations in cognition with pronounced variations in attention and alertness, recurrent detailed visual hallucinations and spontaneous parkinsonism. The latest revisionReference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 added three suggestive features (neuroleptic sensitivity, reduced basal ganglia dopamine uptake on single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] or PET imaging, REM sleep behaviour disorder). Probable DLB is diagnosed if two core features or one core and at least one suggestive feature are present. Possible DLB requires the presence of either one core or suggestive feature.

Population-based prevalence and incidence studies are essential for understanding the societal burden of DLB and planning for the range of healthcare services needed for these individuals. In this paper, we report on a systematic review of population-based prevalence and/or incidence studies of DLB. This is a relatively understudied area, with only two prior systematic reviews on the epidemiology of DLB published.Reference Zaccai, McCracken and Brayne 15 , Reference Vann Jones and O’Brien 16 Since the appearance of the first one in 2005,Reference Zaccai, McCracken and Brayne 15 awareness of DLB has increased with both revised diagnostic criteriaReference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 and additional studies reporting primary data published. The earlier systematic reviewReference Zaccai, McCracken and Brayne 15 was based on seven studies compared to the 22 that we included. The second systematic reviewReference Vann Jones and O’Brien 16 is more current, but there were significant differences in the methodology used by the authors compared to our work. For example, their literature search was limited to one database (PubMed), and different criteria were utilized for the selection of articles. Of the 32 population-based studies included in either systematic review, only 11 [34.4%] were common to both. As our systematic review includes studies not incorporated in the previously published systematic reviews and utilizes different study methods, we feel it offers an additional perspective for the literature on this topic.

Methods

This is one of a series of systematic reviews on the incidence and prevalence of priority neurological conditions identified by the Public Health Agency of Canada and Neurological Health Charities Canada as part of the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions. These conditions included dementia.

Search Strategy and Study Selection

The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched using terms and approaches developed by the authors in consultation with an academic librarian to identify publications dealing with the incidence and/or prevalence of dementia and the commoner dementia aetiologies in middle-aged and older adults (i.e., Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, DLB) (see Appendix A for detailed search terms). Population-based studies that reported on the incidence and/or prevalence of dementia and the commoner aetiologies were included provided they: (1) were published in English or French; (2) reported primary or original data; and (3) had a publication date of 2000 or later (international studies) or a publication date of 1985 or later (Canadian studies). The 2000-or-later publication date was used to avoid overlap with previous systematic reviews of the epidemiology of dementia, while the earlier date for Canadian studies was chosen to ensure that all relevant national reports were included (note: no Canadian studies on DLB were found).

Two reviewers independently screened all retrieved abstracts and performed full-text reviews on selected papers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus with the option of involving a third reviewer if one could not be reached (which was never required). The reviewers also searched the references of included articles and prior systematic reviews in order to detect additional eligible studies. Only studies that reported on the incidence and/or prevalence of DLB (or provided the necessary information to calculate an estimate) were included.

As more than a year elapsed between the initial literature search and completion of data abstraction, the EMBASE and MEDLINE database searches were updated (July of 2012). Search terms dealing with dementia aetiologies other than DLB were removed (see Appendix B for detailed search terms); otherwise, the methodology employed (including inclusion criteria and review procedures) was identical to that used in the original search.

Data Abstraction and Study Quality

The two reviewers independently abstracted data using a standard form. Overall prevalence and/or incidence values for DLB were recorded along with age- and sex-stratified data when available. Information regarding study location, age range of the study population (i.e., <65, 60+, 65+, 70+, 75+, 81+), case ascertainment methods, diagnostic criteria and definition of DLB were collected. The reviewers independently completed a quality assessment for each included study using an instrument specifically designed for this series of systematic reviews. Based on prior recommendations,Reference Boyle 17 , Reference Loney, Chambers, Bennett, Roberts and Stratford 18 studies were assessed on eight characteristics (an affirmative response was given one point, while all others were scored zero): (1) target population was clearly defined; (2) cases were ascertained by either a survey of the entire population or probability sampling; (3) the response rate was >70%; (4) nonresponders were described; (5) the sample was representative of the population; (6) data collection methods were standardized; (7) validated diagnostic criteria were used; and (8) presentation of incidence and/or prevalence estimates was reported with confidence intervals or by subgroup. Possible scores ranged from 0 to 8, with higher ones indicating a better quality assessment. For studies where the estimates were based on information provided by practitioners and/or health administration data, reviewers responded in the affirmative for the third, fifth and sixth points, and “not applicable” for the fourth. Any discrepancies were resolved by consensus or involvement of a third reviewer, if necessary.

Data Analysis

A pooled meta-analysis was not done due to significant between-study heterogeneity and the small sample size. Forest plots presenting the distribution of study estimates were produced. All statistical analyses were carried out in R version 2.14, and the Meta package was employed to produce forest plots. Because of higher diagnostic specificity,Reference McKeith, Galasko, Kosaka, Perry, Dickson and Hansen 12 the most restrictive definition for DLB that could be obtained from the reviewed papers (e.g., probable DLB rather than possible DLB) was used in our primary analyses of incidence and/or prevalence. Depending on study methodology, incidence proportion (or cumulative incidence, the proportion of the population at risk who develop DLB within a defined period), incidence rate (the rate at which new cases of DLB occur in a population during a defined period), period prevalence (total number of persons known to have DLB during a specified period) and point prevalence (the number of persons with DLB at a specified point in time) were provided.

Results

Search Strategy

In the initial search, 7923 unique references were identified on MEDLINE and/or EMBASE (see Figure 1). A total of 707 articles were selected for full-text review. Of these, 230 were excluded on the basis of publication date, 164 for not reporting on the incidence and/or prevalence of dementia, 116 as they were not population-based and 39 because they did not report original data. The updated MEDLINE and EMBASE search yielded a further 334 references. Eleven were selected for full-text review, and four met our inclusion criteria. An additional 12 articles were identified from the references of selected articles. A total of 174 articles met our inclusion criteria for dementia. Twenty-two of them reported on DLB and were included in our systematic review.Reference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 - Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 Of these papers, four focused solely on DLB,Reference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 , Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 while 18 dealt with some other aspect of the epidemiology of dementia but included data on DLB.Reference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 - Reference Nitrini, Caramelli, Herrera, Bahia, Caixeta and Radanovic 33 , Reference Rosenblatt, Samus, Steele, Baker, Harper and Brandt 36 - Reference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39

Figure 1 Flowchart of studies.

Selected Studies

Seventeen of the studies reported on prevalenceReference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 - Reference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 - Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 and five on incidence.Reference Matsui, Tanizaki, Arima, Yonemoto, Doi and Ninomiya 30 - Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 The mean quality score was 5.9 (standard deviation [SD] 1.3; range 4-8). Nineteen received scores of 5+. Please see Table 3 for the quality scores of individual studies.

Please refer to Tables 1 and 2 for a summary of study characteristics. Eight originated from the Western Pacific (Australia 1, Japan 6, Korea 1), 7 from Europe (Finland 1, France 1, Italy 1, Spain 1, Turkey 1, United Kingdom 2), 6 from the Americas (Brazil 3, Cuba 1, United States 2) and 1 from Southeast Asia (Sri Lanka). Most (n=21) of the studies reported on the incidence and/or prevalence in a defined geographic area. The exception examined prevalence among residents of 22 randomly selected assisted-living facilities in the city of Baltimore and several Maryland counties.Reference Rosenblatt, Samus, Steele, Baker, Harper and Brandt 36 Eight studies provided information on sex, with four reporting that it was more common among womenReference Gurvit, Emre, Tinaz, Bilgic, Hanagasi and Sahin 24 , Reference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 , Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 and four among men.Reference Nitrini, Caramelli, Herrera, Bahia, Caixeta and Radanovic 33 , Reference Spada, Stella, Calabrese, Bosco, Anello and Gueant-Rodriguez 37 , Reference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39 , Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 Two studies reported on study populations <65 years of age.Reference Harvey, Skelton-Robinson and Rossor 25 , Reference Ikejima, Yasuno, Mizukami, Sasaki, Tanimukai and Asada 28 Of those dealing with older populations, the lower age thresholds were 60+,Reference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 , Reference Spada, Stella, Calabrese, Bosco, Anello and Gueant-Rodriguez 37 65+,Reference de Jesus Llibre, Fernandez, Marcheco, Contreras, Lopez and Otero 21 , Reference de Silva, Gunatilake and Smith 22 , Reference Herrera, Caramelli, Silveira and Nitrini 26 , Reference Ikeda, Hokoishi, Maki, Nebu, Tachibana and Komori 27 , Reference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 - Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 - Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 70+,Reference Gascon-Bayarri, Rene, Del Barrio, De Pedro-Cuesta, Ramon and Manubens 23 , Reference Gurvit, Emre, Tinaz, Bilgic, Hanagasi and Sahin 24 75+Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 and 81+.Reference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 The final study did not employ an age range but dealt with an institutional population (mean age 85.6 years).Reference Rosenblatt, Samus, Steele, Baker, Harper and Brandt 36

Table 1 Studies reporting on the prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies

* CDR=Clinical Dementia Rating.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed.

Parkinson’s disease dementia.

DLB=dementia with Lewy bodies.

Table 2 Studies reporting on the incidence of dementia with Lewy bodies

DLB=dementia with Lewy bodies; AD=Alzheimer’s disease; PDD=Parkinson’s disease dementia; DMS–IV-R=Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed.

Fourteen studies used a multistage approach (i.e., initial screening assessment followed by an in-depth evaluation of those who screened positive for dementia ± a random sample of those screening negative) to detect cases. Most (n=20) studies used either DSM–III–R 41 or DSM–IV 42 criteria for the diagnosis of dementia. The two exceptions were oneReference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 that utilized Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)Reference Hughes, Berg, Danziger, Coben and Martin 43 scores and anotherReference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 that used both DSM–IV and ICD-10 criteria. 44 The disciplinary backgrounds of those performing clinical assessments were diverse and included (listed alphabetically) geriatric psychiatry, geriatrics, internal medicine, neurology (including residents in neurology), neuropsychology, neuropsychiatry, nursing, physiatry/disability medicine, psychiatry, physician (no specialty specified), psychology and psychometry. A consensus approach (i.e., more than one person involved) was used to make final diagnoses in 11 studies.Reference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 , Reference de Jesus Llibre, Fernandez, Marcheco, Contreras, Lopez and Otero 21 , Reference Gascon-Bayarri, Rene, Del Barrio, De Pedro-Cuesta, Ramon and Manubens 23 , Reference Gurvit, Emre, Tinaz, Bilgic, Hanagasi and Sahin 24 , Reference Herrera, Caramelli, Silveira and Nitrini 26 , Reference Miech, Breitner, Zandi, Khachaturian, Anthony and Mayer 32 - Reference Rosenblatt, Samus, Steele, Baker, Harper and Brandt 36 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38

Where stated (three studies did not provide information),Reference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 , Reference Miech, Breitner, Zandi, Khachaturian, Anthony and Mayer 32 , Reference Spada, Stella, Calabrese, Bosco, Anello and Gueant-Rodriguez 37 various versions of criteria developed by McKeith et al.Reference McKeith, Perry, Fairbairn, Jabeen and Perry 10 - Reference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 were used for diagnosing DLB. Fourteen studies did not indicate whether probable or both possible and probable DLB cases were being enumerated.Reference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 , Reference de Jesus Llibre, Fernandez, Marcheco, Contreras, Lopez and Otero 21 , Reference Gascon-Bayarri, Rene, Del Barrio, De Pedro-Cuesta, Ramon and Manubens 23 - Reference Ikejima, Yasuno, Mizukami, Sasaki, Tanimukai and Asada 28 , Reference Meguro, Ishii, Kasuya, Akanuma, Meguro and Kasai 31 - Reference Nitrini, Caramelli, Herrera, Bahia, Caixeta and Radanovic 33 , Reference Rosenblatt, Samus, Steele, Baker, Harper and Brandt 36 , Reference Spada, Stella, Calabrese, Bosco, Anello and Gueant-Rodriguez 37 , Reference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39 An incidence studyReference Matsui, Tanizaki, Arima, Yonemoto, Doi and Ninomiya 30 and two prevalence studiesReference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 , Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 reported on the number of possible and probable DLB cases, while an incidence studyReference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 and four prevalence onesReference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 , Reference de Silva, Gunatilake and Smith 22 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 gave the number of probable DLB cases (four of these studies also provided data on possible DLB cases). The specific methods used to identify hallucinations were provided by ten studiesReference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 , Reference Gascon-Bayarri, Rene, Del Barrio, De Pedro-Cuesta, Ramon and Manubens 23 , Reference Harvey, Skelton-Robinson and Rossor 25 , Reference Ikeda, Hokoishi, Maki, Nebu, Tachibana and Komori 27 , Reference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 , Reference Miech, Breitner, Zandi, Khachaturian, Anthony and Mayer 32 - Reference Rosenblatt, Samus, Steele, Baker, Harper and Brandt 36 (in seven, this was by the administration of a standardized behavioural instrument such as the Neuropsychiatric InventoryReference Cummings, Mega, Gray, Rosenberg-Thompson, Carusi and Gornbein 45 ). Four studies gave information on detection of parkinsonismReference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 , Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 (in three, this was by detailing components of the clinical assessment), and three provided the approach used for fluctuations (principally by asking subjects and informants).Reference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 , Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 While four studiesReference Matsui, Tanizaki, Arima, Yonemoto, Doi and Ninomiya 30 , Reference Meguro, Ishii, Kasuya, Akanuma, Meguro and Kasai 31 , Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 , Reference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39 used the latest revision of the consensus criteriaReference Vann Jones and O’Brien 16 that included suggestive features, no study described the methods used for their detection.

Seventeen studies did not address possible overlap between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and DLB. The five that did used dissimilar methodologies and reported on differing aspects of that relationship. Though the total number of cases per study was small, it was reported that a thirdReference Gascon-Bayarri, Rene, Del Barrio, De Pedro-Cuesta, Ramon and Manubens 23 to a halfReference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 of DLB cases also met AD criteria, that the ratio of “combined” AD and DLB to “pure” DLB ranged from 0.75Reference Matsui, Tanizaki, Arima, Yonemoto, Doi and Ninomiya 30 to 7.0,Reference Miech, Breitner, Zandi, Khachaturian, Anthony and Mayer 32 and that the ratio of AD with parkinsonism to probable DLB was 0.69.Reference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34

Eleven studies gave data on Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) as well as DLB,Reference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 , Reference de Jesus Llibre, Fernandez, Marcheco, Contreras, Lopez and Otero 21 , Reference Harvey, Skelton-Robinson and Rossor 25 , Reference Herrera, Caramelli, Silveira and Nitrini 26 , Reference Ikejima, Yasuno, Mizukami, Sasaki, Tanimukai and Asada 28 , Reference Miech, Breitner, Zandi, Khachaturian, Anthony and Mayer 32 , Reference Nitrini, Caramelli, Herrera, Bahia, Caixeta and Radanovic 33 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 - Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 with seven providing the criteria used to diagnose PDD (i.e., sixReference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 , Reference de Jesus Llibre, Fernandez, Marcheco, Contreras, Lopez and Otero 21 , Reference Harvey, Skelton-Robinson and Rossor 25 , Reference Ikejima, Yasuno, Mizukami, Sasaki, Tanimukai and Asada 28 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 utilized DSM–IV criteria 42 and anotherReference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39 used published PDD criteriaReference Emre, Aarsland, Brown, Burn, Duyckaerts and Mizuno 46 ). In one report,Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 the authors adhered to the “one-year rule” in distinguishing DLB from PDD,Reference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 , Reference Vann Jones and O’Brien 16 while in another,Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 no restriction on the duration of parkinsonism prior to the onset of dementia was used (the remaining studies did not comment on this issue). In three studies,Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 , Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 DLB was more common than PDD, while PDD was more common in fiveReference de Jesus Llibre, Fernandez, Marcheco, Contreras, Lopez and Otero 21 , Reference Herrera, Caramelli, Silveira and Nitrini 26 , Reference Miech, Breitner, Zandi, Khachaturian, Anthony and Mayer 32 , Reference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39 (the conditions in two studiesReference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 , Reference Harvey, Skelton-Robinson and Rossor 25 were equally common, and the final oneReference Ikejima, Yasuno, Mizukami, Sasaki, Tanimukai and Asada 28 made no attempt to distinguish between the two).

Among those aged 65+ residing in the community, DLB incidence rates ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 per 1000 person-years. Little could be said about the influence of age on incidence rates, as all incidence studies dealt with similarly aged individuals (i.e., 65+). One study reported that no increase in incidence was observed with increasing age.Reference Matsui, Tanizaki, Arima, Yonemoto, Doi and Ninomiya 30 All incidence studies scored 5+ on the quality assessment.

DLB accounted for 3.2 to 7.1% of incident dementia cases (mean 4.6%, SD 1.5). The percentages ascribed to DLB were similar in the studyReference Meguro, Ishii, Kasuya, Akanuma, Meguro and Kasai 31 that used 1996 consensus criteriaReference McKeith, Galasko, Kosaka, Perry, Dickson and Hansen 12 compared to the threeReference Ikejima, Yasuno, Mizukami, Sasaki, Tanimukai and Asada 28 , Reference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 , Reference Miech, Breitner, Zandi, Khachaturian, Anthony and Mayer 32 that utilized the 2005 revisionReference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 (4 and 5.3%, respectively). Likewise, the percentages were similar when the two studies published in 2005 or earlier (3.6%) were compared to the three published in 2006 or later (5.3%). The one study that reported on both probable and possible casesReference Perez, Helmer, Dartigues, Auriacombe and Tison 34 attributed 4.5% of dementia cases to DLB if both were included, compared to 2.0% if cases were restricted to those with probable DLB.

Point and period prevalence estimates varied more widely: from a low of 0.02 in a community and institutional study from Japan to a high of 63.5 per 1000 in a community study from Australia (Figures 2 and 3). If analysis was limited to the 12 studies scoring 5+ on the quality assessment, prevalence per 1000 varied from 0.02 to 33.3 per 1000 (Table 3).Reference Bottino, Azevedo, Tatsch, Hototian, Moscoso and Folquitto 20 - Reference Gurvit, Emre, Tinaz, Bilgic, Hanagasi and Sahin 24 , Reference Ikejima, Yasuno, Mizukami, Sasaki, Tanimukai and Asada 28 , Reference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 - Reference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39 Estimates rose with increasing age. In studies restricted to participants less than 65 years of age, prevalence was 0.02-0.06 per 1000 compared to 0.3-6.45 when participants were 60 or 65+, 8.6-33.3 among those 70+, and 63.5 in the one study limited to those 81+. This latter studyReference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 had the highest reported prevalence of DLB and a high proportion of dementia cases attributed to this condition (probable and possible DLB accounted for 53/78 [67.9%] of all dementia cases). Other unique features of the study included the use of CDR criteria to detect dementia and the severity of dementia among participants diagnosed with DLB (mean Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score of 12.6). This study was assigned a quality score of 4 (see Table 3) because of methodological concerns (i.e., a single non-examining physician made the diagnosis based on a review of assessment information).Reference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 The study with the second highest prevalence reported on the second oldest group of participants,Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 and, again, when present, dementia was of moderate severity (mean MMSE score of 14.1).

Figure 2 Point prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (listed in order from the youngest to the oldest age range for the study population).

Figure 3 Period prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (listed in order from the youngest to the oldest age range for the study population).

Table 3 Quality assessment scores of dementia with Lewy Bodies incidence and prevalence studies included in the systematic review

NR=not reported; NC=not clear.

DLB made up between 0.3 and 24.4% of all cases of dementia in the prevalence studies when the most restrictive definition for DLB provided was used (mean 6.4%, SD 6.1). The proportions were similar in the 11 studiesReference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 , Reference de Silva, Gunatilake and Smith 22 - Reference Jhoo, Kim, Huh, Lee, Park and Lee 29 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Yamada, Hattori, Miura, Tanabe and Yamori 40 using 1996 consensus criteriaReference McKeith, Galasko, Kosaka, Perry, Dickson and Hansen 12 and the oneReference Wada-Isoe, Uemura, Suto, Doi, Imamura and Hayashi 39 that utilized the 2005 revisionReference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 (7.8 and 5.3%, respectively). Likewise, the percentages were similar when the nine studies published in 2005 or earlier (7.5%) were compared with the eight reports published in 2006 or later (4.4%). Three studies provided information on both probable and possible DLB cases.Reference Bennett, Piguet, Grayson, Creasey, Waite and Broe 19 , Reference Rahkonen, Eloniemi-Sulkava, Rissanen, Vatanen, Viramo and Sulkava 35 , Reference Stevens, Livingston, Kitchen, Manela, Walker and Katona 38 Compared to restricting case definition to only probable DLB, including possible and probable cases increased by 1.5-3.2 fold the proportion of dementia cases attributed to DLB.

Discussion

We updated and/or expanded on prior systematic reviews on the incidence and prevalence of DLB.Reference Zaccai, McCracken and Brayne 15 , Reference Vann Jones and O’Brien 16 This allowed us to highlight a number of methodological issues that need to be addressed in order to derive more precise estimates of the true burden of this form of dementia. We could not perform a pooled meta-analysis due to the significant between-study heterogeneity and small sample size. While we found that DLB incidence rates ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 per 1000 person-years, prevalence varied more widely and ranged from 0.02 to 33.3 per 1000 even when restricted to higher-quality studies. The two other DLB systematic reviewsReference Zaccai, McCracken and Brayne 15 , Reference Vann Jones and O’Brien 16 reported similar results, while one that dealt with PDD estimated that in the general population in the 65+ group its prevalence was between 2 and 5 per 1000.Reference Aarsland, Zaccai and Brayne 47

The uncertainty about the prevalence of DLB is at least partially due to methodological issues. Most of the included studies (n=18) were not designed to specifically investigate the incidence and/or prevalence of DLB. The cognitive testing used to screen for cases had been primarily selected to detect AD (see Tables 1 and 2). How well they worked in detecting potential cases of DLB is unknown. The differing diagnostic criteria for dementia used would influence how often dementia would be detected.Reference Erkinjuntti, Ostbye, Steenhuis and Hachinski 48 While a clinic-based study reported that the 2005 consensus criteria for DLB identified more individuals with a dementia as suffering from probable DLB compared to the 1996 version (essentially by classifying more cases as probable and fewer as possible DLB),Reference Aarsland, Rongve, Nore, Skogseth, Skulstad and Ehrt 3 it is unknown whether they are more accurate. There is a suggestion that the diagnostic error rate for DLB has recently increased.Reference Nelson, Jicha, Kryscio, Abner, Schmitt and Cooper 49 We did not find marked differences between the two versions of diagnostic criteria in terms of the proportion of those with dementia identified as having DLB. How diagnostic criteria are operationalized is likely of more importance than which specific one is employed. Most of the studies we examined (n=14) did not specify whether they were reporting on probable DLB or possible as well, and they provided little if any information on how core and suggestive features of DLB were detected. Challenges in assessing these features (especially fluctuations) contribute to the difficulties encountered in accurately diagnosing DLB.Reference McKeith, Perry and Perry 13 The age ranges studied varied markedly. With an age-associated condition like DLB, this would have an effect on the estimates provided, which is what we found. Finally, the number of cases upon which estimates were based was often small (see Tables 1 and 2), thus decreasing their precision.Reference Barker and Foltynie 50

Issues exist with the consensus clinical criteria used for diagnosis, as the core and suggestive features are not specific to DLB. For example, parkinsonism, especially if mild, can be found with normal aging, idiopathic Parkinson’s disease and AD.Reference Louis and Bennett 51 Autopsy-based validation studies of these diagnostic criteria have shown variable but often low sensitivity and high specificity with stage-dependent false negative (usually early in the course of the illness) and false positive errors (especially with advanced dementia).Reference Nelson, Jicha, Kryscio, Abner, Schmitt and Cooper 49

Particular challenges arise when there are coexisting pathologies such as AD.Reference Lopez, Hamilton, Becker, Wisniewski, Kaufer and DeKosky 52 , Reference Tsuang, Simpson, Larson, Peskind, Kukull and Bowen 53 The complex relationship between DLB and AD is still being elucidated. Patients with DLB commonly have β-amyloid deposition and diffuse plaque formation without a significant burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles.Reference McKeith, Mintzer, Aarsland, Burn, Chiu and Cohen-Mansfield 1 , Reference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 Concomitant Alzheimer’s pathology is not excluded by a diagnosis of either probable or possible DLB. Another issue is the relationship between PDD and DLB. They are typically differentiated by the arbitrary “one-year rule” (i.e., DLB is diagnosed if dementia occurs within 12 months of the onset of extrapyramidal motor symptoms, while the diagnosis is PDD if the clinical history of parkinsonism is longer than a year).Reference McKeith, Galasko, Kosaka, Perry, Dickson and Hansen 12 , Reference McKeith, Dickson, Lowe, Emre, O’Brien and Feldman 14 The clinical and pathological overlaps with both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s raises uncertainty in the diagnosis of DLB. The term DLB, while acknowledging the presence of Lewy bodies, does not specify their relative importance compared to other brain pathologies in explaining a patient’s cognitive symptoms. It is not clear how cases with presumed “mixed” aetiologies, which are common with Lewy body disease, should be dealt with. As a minimum, the approach taken by the investigators should be described. This was often not mentioned in the studies reviewed. Validated biomarkers for DLB could improve on the accuracy of diagnosing DLB but are not generally available for clinical use.Reference Sinha, Firbank and O’Brien 54 Biomarkers may not be practical for population-based studies, and difficulties would remain in dealing with cases having more than one contributing aetiology and distinguishing DLB from PDD and atypical parkinsonian syndromes.

Notwithstanding these limitations, we can conclude that clinically defined DLB becomes more common with increasing age and accounts for about 5% of all dementia cases encountered in older populations. This updated information can be used in the planning of healthcare services and educational programs for practitioners. DLB presents unique diagnostic challenges that likely contributed to the wide variation in reported rates found in the literature reviewed. Standardization in the collection and reporting of data, how diagnostic criteria are operationalized and the approach taken in dealing with the borders between DLB and both AD and PDD would improve on the reliability and comparability of future epidemiologic studies of this condition.

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to Ms. Diane Lorenzetti, librarian at the University of Calgary, who guided the development of the search strategy for this systematic review. Our study is part of the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions. We wish to acknowledge the membership of Neurological Health Charities Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada for their contribution to the success of this initiative. Funding for the study was provided by the Public Health Agency of Canada. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors/researchers and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Disclosures

Nathalie Jetté has the following disclosures: Public Health Agency of Canada, Principal Investigator, research support; Canada Research Chair, Researcher, research support; Alberta Innovates Health Solutions, Researcher, research support.

David Hogan holds the Brenda Strafford Foundation Chair in Geriatric Medicine, though receives no salary support from this.

Kirsten Fiest, Jodie Roberts, Colleen Maxwell, Jonathan Dykeman, Tamara Pringsheim, Thomas Steeves, Eric Smith and Dawn Pearson do not have anything to disclose.

Statement of Authorship

DBH, KMF, JIR, CJM, TP and NJ contributed to study conception and design. DBH, KMF, JIR, CJM, TS, EES, DP and NJ contributed to acquisition of the data. DBH, KMF and JD conducted the data analysis. DBH, KMF, JIR, CJM, EES and NJ participated in interpretation of the study data. All authors participated in critically revising the manuscript for important intellectual content and gave final approval for the submission of this manuscript and any further submissions of this work.

Supplementary Material

To view supplementary material for this article, please visit http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1017/cjn.2016.2

References

1. McKeith, I, Mintzer, J, Aarsland, D, Burn, D, Chiu, H, Cohen-Mansfield, J, et al. Dementia with Lewy bodies. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3(1):19-28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Feldman, H, Levy, AR, Hsiung, GY, Peters, KR, Donald, A, Black, SE, et al. A Canadian cohort study of cognitive impairment and related dementias (ACCORD): study methods and baseline results. Neuroepidemiology. 2003;22(5):265-274.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Aarsland, D, Rongve, A, Nore, SP, Skogseth, R, Skulstad, S, Ehrt, U, et al. Frequency and case identification of dementia with Lewy bodies using the revised consensus criteria. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(5):445-452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. Woodward, MC, Woodward, E. A national survey of memory clinics in Australia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21(4):696-702.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5. Alladi, S, Mekala, S, Chadalawada, SK, Jala, S, Mridula, R, Kaul, S. Subtypes of dementia: a study from a memory clinic in India. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;32(1):32-38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
6. Kokmen, E, Ozsarfati, Y, Beard, CM, O’Brien, PC, Rocca, WA. Impact of referral bias on clinical and epidemiological studies of Alzheimer’s disease. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49(1):79-83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7. Sonnen, JA, Larson, EB, Crane, PK, Haneuse, S, Li, G, Schellenberg, GD, et al. Pathological correlates of dementia in a longitudinal, population-based sample of aging. Ann Neurol. 2007;62(4):406-413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Matthews, FE, Brayne, C, Lowe, J, McKeith, I, Wharton, SB, Ince, P. Epidemiological pathology of dementia: attributable risks at death in the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. PLoS Med. 2009;6(11):e1000180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Byrne, EJ, Lennox, G, Godwin-Austen, RB, Jefferson, D, Lowe, J, Mayer, RJ, et al. Dementia associated with cortical Lewy bodies: proposed clinical diagnostic criteria. Dementia. 1991;2:283-284.Google Scholar
10. McKeith, IG, Perry, RH, Fairbairn, AF, Jabeen, S, Perry, EK. Operational criteria for senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT). Psychol Med. 1992;22(4):911-922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. McKeith, IG, Galasko, D, Wilcock, GK, Byrne, EJ. Lewy body dementia: diagnosis and treatment. Br J Psychiatry. 1995;167(6):709-717.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12. McKeith, IG, Galasko, D, Kosaka, K, Perry, EK, Dickson, DW, Hansen, LA, et al. Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology. 1996;47(5):1113-1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13. McKeith, IG, Perry, EK, Perry, RH. Report of the second Dementia with Lewy Body International Workshop: diagnosis and treatment. Consortium on Dementia with Lewy Bodies. Neurology. 1999;53(5):902-905.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. McKeith, IG, Dickson, DW, Lowe, J, Emre, M, O’Brien, JT, Feldman, H, et al. Diagnosis and management of dementia with Lewy bodies: third report of the DLB Consortium. Neurology. 2005;65(12):1863-1872.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Zaccai, J, McCracken, C, Brayne, C. A systematic review of prevalence and incidence studies of dementia with Lewy bodies. Age Ageing. 2005;34(6):561-566.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16. Vann Jones, SA, O’Brien, JT. The prevalence and incidence of dementia with Lewy bodies: a systematic review of population and clinical studies. Psychol Med. 2013:1-11.Google ScholarPubMed
17. Boyle, MH. Guidelines for evaluating prevalence studies. Evid Based Mental Health. 1998;1:37-39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Loney, PL, Chambers, LW, Bennett, KJ, Roberts, JG, Stratford, PW. Critical appraisal of the health research literature: prevalence or incidence of a health problem. Chronic Dis Can. 1998;19(4):170-176.Google ScholarPubMed
19. Bennett, HP, Piguet, O, Grayson, DA, Creasey, H, Waite, LM, Broe, GA, et al. A 6-year study of cognition and spatial function in the demented and non-demented elderly: the Sydney Older Persons Study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2003;16:181-186.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Bottino, CMC, Azevedo, D Jr, Tatsch, M, Hototian, SR, Moscoso, MA, Folquitto, J, et al. Estimate of dementia prevalence in a community sample from São Paulo, Brazil. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(4):291-299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. de Jesus Llibre, J, Fernandez, Y, Marcheco, B, Contreras, N, Lopez, AM, Otero, M, et al. Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in a Havana municipality: a community-based study among elderly residents. MEDICC Rev. 2009;11(2):29-35.Google Scholar
22. de Silva, HA, Gunatilake, SB, Smith, AD. Prevalence of dementia in a semi-urban population in Sri Lanka: report from a regional survey. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18(8):711-715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
23. Gascon-Bayarri, J, Rene, R, Del Barrio, JL, De Pedro-Cuesta, J, Ramon, JM, Manubens, JM, et al. Prevalence of dementia subtypes in El Prat de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain: the PRATICON study. Neuroepidemiology. 2007;28(4):224-234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
24. Gurvit, H, Emre, M, Tinaz, S, Bilgic, B, Hanagasi, H, Sahin, H, et al. The prevalence of dementia in an urban Turkish population. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008;23(1):67-76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25. Harvey, RJ, Skelton-Robinson, M, Rossor, MN. The prevalence and causes of dementia in people under the age of 65 years. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(9):1206-1209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26. Herrera, E Jr, Caramelli, P, Silveira, ASB, Nitrini, R. Epidemiologic survey of dementia in a community-dwelling Brazilian population. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2002;16(2):103-108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
27. Ikeda, M, Hokoishi, K, Maki, N, Nebu, A, Tachibana, N, Komori, K, et al. Increased prevalence of vascular dementia in Japan: a community-based epidemiological study. Neurology. 2001;57(5):839-844.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
28. Ikejima, C, Yasuno, F, Mizukami, K, Sasaki, M, Tanimukai, S, Asada, T. Prevalence and causes of early-onset dementia in Japan: a population-based study. Stroke. 2009;40(8):2709-2714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29. Jhoo, JH, Kim, KW, Huh, Y, Lee, SB, Park, JH, Lee, JJ, et al. Prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in an elderly urban Korean population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health And Aging (KLoSHA). Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2008;26(3):270-276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30. Matsui, Y, Tanizaki, Y, Arima, H, Yonemoto, K, Doi, Y, Ninomiya, T, et al. Incidence and survival of dementia in a general population of Japanese elderly: the Hisayama study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80(4):366-370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
31. Meguro, K, Ishii, H, Kasuya, M, Akanuma, K, Meguro, M, Kasai, M, et al. Incidence of dementia and associated risk factors in Japan: the Osaki–Tajiri Project. J Neurol Sci. 2007;260(1–2):175-182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32. Miech, RA, Breitner, JCS, Zandi, PP, Khachaturian, AS, Anthony, JC, Mayer, L. Incidence of AD may decline in the early 90s for men, later for women: the Cache County study. Neurology. 2002;58(2):209-218.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33. Nitrini, R, Caramelli, P, Herrera, E Jr, Bahia, VS, Caixeta, LF, Radanovic, M, et al. Incidence of dementia in a community-dwelling Brazilian population. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2004;18(4):241-246.Google Scholar
34. Perez, F, Helmer, C, Dartigues, JF, Auriacombe, S, Tison, F. A 15-year population-based cohort study of the incidence of Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies in an elderly French cohort. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81(7):742-746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35. Rahkonen, T, Eloniemi-Sulkava, U, Rissanen, S, Vatanen, A, Viramo, P, Sulkava, R. Dementia with Lewy bodies according to the consensus criteria in a general population aged 75 years or older. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(6):720-724.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36. Rosenblatt, A, Samus, QM, Steele, CD, Baker, AS, Harper, MG, Brandt, J, et al. The Maryland Assisted-Living Study: prevalence, recognition, and treatment of dementia and other psychiatric disorders in the assisted-living population of central Maryland. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(10):1618-1625.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37. Spada, RS, Stella, G, Calabrese, S, Bosco, P, Anello, G, Gueant-Rodriguez, R-M, et al. Prevalence of dementia in a mountainous village of Sicily. J Neurol Sci. 2009;283(1–2):62-65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38. Stevens, T, Livingston, G, Kitchen, G, Manela, M, Walker, Z, Katona, C. Islington study of dementia subtypes in the community. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:270-276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
39. Wada-Isoe, K, Uemura, Y, Suto, Y, Doi, K, Imamura, K, Hayashi, A, et al. Prevalence of dementia in the rural island town of Ama-cho, Japan. Neuroepidemiology. 2009;32(2):101-106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40. Yamada, T, Hattori, H, Miura, A, Tanabe, M, Yamori, Y. Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies in a Japanese population. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55(1):21-25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
41. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 3rd ed. rev. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987.Google ScholarPubMed
42. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.Google ScholarPubMed
43. Hughes, CP, Berg, L, Danziger, WL, Coben, LA, Martin, RL. A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry. 1982;140:566-572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
44. World Health Organization. Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.Google ScholarPubMed
45. Cummings, JL, Mega, M, Gray, K, Rosenberg-Thompson, S, Carusi, DA, Gornbein, J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology. 1994;44(12):2308-2314.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46. Emre, M, Aarsland, D, Brown, R, Burn, DJ, Duyckaerts, C, Mizuno, Y, et al. Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2007;22(12):1689-1707; quiz 837.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
47. Aarsland, D, Zaccai, J, Brayne, C. A systematic review of prevalence studies of dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord. 2005;20(10):1255-1263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
48. Erkinjuntti, T, Ostbye, T, Steenhuis, R, Hachinski, V. The effect of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of dementia. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(23):1667-1674.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
49. Nelson, PT, Jicha, GA, Kryscio, RJ, Abner, EL, Schmitt, FA, Cooper, G, et al. Low sensitivity in clinical diagnoses of dementia with Lewy bodies. J Neurol. 2010;257(3):359-366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
50. Barker, RA, Foltynie, T. How common is dementia with Lewy bodies? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003;74(6):697-698.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51. Louis, ED, Bennett, DA. Mild Parkinsonian signs: an overview of an emerging concept. Mov Disord. 2007;22(12):1681-1688.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52. Lopez, OL, Hamilton, RL, Becker, JT, Wisniewski, S, Kaufer, DI, DeKosky, ST. Severity of cognitive impairment and the clinical diagnosis of AD with Lewy bodies. Neurology. 2000;54(9):1780-1787.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
53. Tsuang, D, Simpson, K, Larson, EB, Peskind, E, Kukull, W, Bowen, JB, et al. Predicting Lewy body pathology in a community-based sample with clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2006;19(4):195-201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
54. Sinha, N, Firbank, M, O’Brien, JT. Biomarkers in dementia with Lewy bodies: a review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012;27(5):443-453.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Figure 0

Figure 1 Flowchart of studies.

Figure 1

Table 1 Studies reporting on the prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies

Figure 2

Table 2 Studies reporting on the incidence of dementia with Lewy bodies

Figure 3

Figure 2 Point prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (listed in order from the youngest to the oldest age range for the study population).

Figure 4

Figure 3 Period prevalence of dementia with Lewy bodies (listed in order from the youngest to the oldest age range for the study population).

Figure 5

Table 3 Quality assessment scores of dementia with Lewy Bodies incidence and prevalence studies included in the systematic review

Supplementary material: File

Hogan supplementary material S1

Appendix

Download Hogan supplementary material S1(File)
File 28 KB
Supplementary material: File

Hogan supplementary material S2

Appendix

Download Hogan supplementary material S2(File)
File 30 KB
You have Access Open access
71
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Prevalence and Incidence of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: a Systematic Review
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The Prevalence and Incidence of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: a Systematic Review
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The Prevalence and Incidence of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: a Systematic Review
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *