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EVOLUTION IN A LABORATORY HOST–PARASITOID SYSTEM AND ITS EFFECT ON POPULATION KINETICS

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

Nasser Zareh
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology and Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
Mark Westoby
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology and Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
David Pimentel
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology and Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853

Abstract

A laboratory system was developed that allowed populations of the house fly, Musca domestica, and its hymenopterous, wasp parasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis, to interact and fluctuate in numbers, subject only to an upper limit on Musca density. In one (experimental) treatment, the selection pressure from Nasonia was allowed to operate, while in the control all Musca adults were replaced in each generation by individuals from a Musca population not exposed to Nasonia. Evolution for resistance of Musca to Nasonia became noticeable within four generations in the experimental treatment. Measured changes finally included increased fly pupal weight (although larval development period was not allowed to increase), less time spent as pupa, increased pupal mortality, and reduced fecundity of adults. Total per-generation increase of both control and experimental Nasonia was much reduced on experimental compared with control Musca. This was caused by reductions both in the longevity of female Nasonia and in the number of progeny they produced each day. From early in the experiment the increased resistance of Musca produced lower Nasonia densities in the experimental treatment. During the first 20 or so generations no difference could be detected in mean Musca density between the two treatments. After that time the density of adult Musca became greater, and fluctuated less, in the experimental than in the control treatment. This situation continued until the experiment ended at 50 generations.

Résumé

Un système de laboratoire a été développé permettant à des populations de la mouche domestique, Musca domestica, et de son parasitoïde hyménoptère, Nasonia vitripennis, d’interagir et de fluctuer en nombres, la seule limite imposée étant une densité maximale pour M. domestica. Pour le traitement expérimental, la pression de sélection due à Nasonia a été laissée libre d’opérer, alors que pour le cas témoin, les adultes de Musca étaient remplacés à chaque génération par des adultes provenant d’une population de Musca non exposée à Nasonia. L’évolution pour la résistance de Musca à Nasonia est apparue après quatre générations dans le traitement expérimental. Les changements éventuels mesurés chez la mouche ont été une augmentation du poids de la pupe (bien que la durée du développement larvaire ait été prévenue d’augmenter), une diminution de la durée du stade pupal, une augmentation de la mortalité pupale, et une réduction de la fécondité chez l’adulte. L’accroissement total par génération, des populations expérimentale et témoin de Nasonia, a subi une réduction marquée sur la population expérimentale de Musca par rapport à la population témoin de Musca. Cette baisse a été causée par une réduction à la fois de la longévité et du nombre de progénitures produites par jour chez les femelles de Nasonia. Durant les quelque 20 premières générations, aucune différence n’a été observée entre les deux traitements pour la densité de Musca. Par la suite, la densité de Musca a augmenté et a montré moins de fluctuations dans le cas expérimental que dans le cas témoin. Cette situation est demeurée inchangée jusqu’à la fin de l’expérience, après 50 générations.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1980

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