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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

David B. Orr*
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA 27695-7613
Charles P-C. Suh
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA 27695-7613
Kenneth W. Mccravy
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA 30602-2603
C. Wayne Berisford
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA 30602-2603
Gary L. Debarr
Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Athens, Georgia, USA 30602-2044
1 Author to whom all corresponding should be addressed (E-mail:


Inundative releases of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner were evaluated for suppression of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), in first-year loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., plantations. Three releases, spaced 7 d apart, were made in three 0.4-ha plots during second-generation R. frustrana egg deposition. Each release included three cohorts of T. exiguum developmentally separated by 25 degree-days. Mean ± SD field release rate for each cohort was 328 238 ± 88 379 females/ha. Mean T. exiguum emergence under laboratory conditions for released cohorts was 96 ± 2%, with 74 ± 3% females, of which 1 ± 1% of females displayed brachyptery; female longevity was 18 ± 3 d. Field emergence averaged 96 ± 4%. Parasitism of R. frustrana eggs was significantly increased, ranging from 40 ± 19 to 73 ± 22% in T. exiguum-treated plots and 17 ± 17 to 67 ± 21% in control plots. Data from all treated plots combined showed R. frustrana egg survival (hatching) was significantly reduced by 46%, and larval populations were significantly reduced by 60%. There was no significant difference in the percentage of terminals damaged between T. exiguum-treated (31 ± 16%) and control plots (45 ± 10%); however, length of terminal damage was significantly lower in treated plots. The percentage of damage to top whorl shoots was significantly lower in T. exiguum-treated plots compared with control plots, but there was no significant difference in length of tunneling damage. Damage to remaining shoots was not significantly different between T. exiguum-treated and control plots. Microhabitat significantly influenced both mean maximum and minimum temperature and the number of consecutive hours per day that were at or above 35 °C (critical temperature for T. exiguum survival). Soil surface with no cover had the greatest number of hours at or above 35 °C, followed by soil surface with herbaceous cover, and canopies of small trees (0.4 m tall). Canopy habitats in larger trees (0.9–1.8 m tall) had the most moderate temperature conditions. Parasitoid emergence was significantly reduced in response to increasing number of consecutive hours at or above 35 °C. Predation of parasitoids prior to emergence was significantly affected by microhabitat and by the length of time capsules were in the field before T. exiguum emergence (i.e., cohort number).


La libération massive de Trichogramma exiguum Pinto et Platner comme méthode de lutte contre le Perce-rameau du pin, Rhyacioma frustrana (Comstock), a été évaluée dans des plantations de pins taeda, Pinus taeda L., d’un an. Trois traitements ont été administrés à 7 jours d’intervalle dans trois parcelles de terrain de 0,4 ha au cours de la ponte de la deuxième génération de R. frustrana. Àchaque traitement, des individus de trois cohortes de T. exiguum séparées par 25 degrés-jours étaient libérés. Le taux de libération pour chaque cohorte, moyenne ± écart type, était de 328 238 ± 88 379 femelles/ha. L’émergence moyenne de T. exiguum dans des conditions de laboratoire chez les cohortes relâchées a été de 96 ± 2%, dont 74 ± 3% de femelles, parmi lesquelles 1 ± 1% étaient brachyptères; la longévité des femelles était de 18 ± 3 jours. En nature, l’émergence moyenne a été de 96 ± 4%. Les parasitisme des oeufs de R. frustrana a augmenté de façon significative, allant de 40 ± 19 à 73 ± 22% dans les parcelles traitées et de 17 ± 17 à 67 ± 21% dans les parcelles témoins. Les données de toutes les parcelles traitées combinées indiquent que la survie des oeufs de R. frusrana (à l’éclosion) est réduite significativement, de 46%, et que les populations de larves sont réduites significativement aussi, de 60%. Il n’y avait pas de différence significative dans le pourcentage de flèches attaquées par la tordeuse entre les parcelles traitées au moyen de T. exiguum (31 ± 16%) et les parcelles témoins (45 ± 10%), mais la longueur des tunnels creusés dans les flèches était significativement plus courte dans les parcelles traitées. Le pourcentage de pousses attaquées du premier verticille était significativement plus faible dans les parcelles traitées que dans les parcelles témoins, mais il n’y avait pas de différence significative dans la longueur des tunnels. Les dommages aux autres pousses ne différaient pas significativement dans les parcelles traitées et les parcelles témoins. Le microhabitat influençait fortement le maximum et le minimum moyens de température et le nombre d’heures consécutives dans la journée où la température était égale ou supérieure à 35 °C (température seuil de la survie de T. exiguum). Les surfaces de sol sans couverture restaient exposées au plus grand nombre d’heures à 35 °C ou plus, suivies des sols avec couverture d’herbacées, puis des couvertures de petits arbres (0,4 m de hauteur). Le feuillage des grands arbres (0,9 à 1,8 m de hauteur) offrait les conditions de température les plus modérées. L’émergence du parasitoïde était fortement réduite en réaction au nombre progressivement plus grand d’heures à 35 °C ou plus. La prédation des parasitoïdes avant l’émergence était significativement affectée par le microhabitat et par la durée de séjour des capsules en nature avant l’émergence de T. exiguum (i.e., le rang de la cohorte).

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 2000

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