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Immunosuppressive influence of parasitoid wasp Pimpla turionellae calyx fluid on host Galleria mellonella cell-mediated immune response and hemocyte viability

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 October 2021

Serhat Kaya*
Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, CanakkaleOnsekiz Mart University, Canakkale, Turkey
Fevzi Uçkan
Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kocaeli University, İzmit, Kocaeli, Turkey
Aylin Er
Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey
Author for correspondence: Serhat Kaya, Email:


Endoparasitoid species devoid of symbiotic viruses inject secretions derived from their reproductive glands into their hosts during parasitism in order to avoid various immune responses of their hosts. Pimpla turionellae L. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is an endoparasitoid that lacks polydnaviruses, and its venom has previously been shown to paralyze the host Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and suppress its immune reactions to ensure the egg survival. The present study demonstrates that another female-injected factor calyx fluid extracted from the P. turionellae ovary is also responsible for the suppression of G. mellonella immunity. The total hemocyte counts of G. mellonella decrease after treatment with calyx fluid in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant reductions in cell viability are also observed at all calyx fluid doses both in vivo and in vitro. The analyses of the beads injected into the insects as encapsulation targets revealed that the number of encapsulated beads reduced significantly compared to controls post-calyx fluid injection. The injection of the highest calyx fluid dose (1 female equivalent calyx) is sufficient to completely inhibit the strong encapsulation and melanization reactions of the last instar larvae 24 h post-injection. These results demonstrate that P. turionellae calyx fluid is required to regulate host immunity for successful parasitization.

Research Paper
Copyright © Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Immunosuppressive influence of parasitoid wasp Pimpla turionellae calyx fluid on host Galleria mellonella cell-mediated immune response and hemocyte viability
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