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Red/processed meat consumption and non-cancer-related outcomes in humans: umbrella review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 December 2022

Xingxia Zhang
Affiliation:
West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
Shiqi Liang
Affiliation:
West China School of Nursing, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China
Xinrong Chen
Affiliation:
West China School of Nursing, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China
Jie Yang
Affiliation:
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
Yong Zhou
Affiliation:
Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
Liang Du
Affiliation:
Chinese Evidence-based Medicine/Cochrane Center, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
Ka Li*
Affiliation:
West China School of Nursing, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China
*
*Corresponding author: Ka Li, email lika127@126.com

Abstract

The associations of red/processed meat consumption and cancer-related health outcomes have been well discussed. The umbrella review aimed to summarise the associations of red/processed meat consumption and various non-cancer-related outcomes in humans. We systematically searched the systematic reviews and meta-analyses of associations between red/processed meat intake and health outcomes from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases. The umbrella review has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42021218568). A total of 40 meta-analyses were included. High consumption of red meat, particularly processed meat, was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality, CVD and metabolic outcomes. Dose–response analysis revealed that an additional 100 g/d red meat intake was positively associated with a 17 % increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 15 % increased risk of CHD, 14 % of hypertension and 12 % of stroke. The highest dose–response/50 g increase in processed meat consumption at 95 % confident levels was 1·37, 95 % CI (1·22, 1·55) for T2DM, 1·27, 95 % CI (1·09, 1·49) for CHD, 1·17, 95 % CI (1·02, 1·34) for stroke, 1·15, 95 % CI (1·11, 1·19) for all-cause mortality and 1·08, 95 % CI (1·02, 1·14) for heart failure. In addition, red/processed meat intake was associated with several other health-related outcomes. Red and processed meat consumption seems to be more harmful than beneficial to human health in this umbrella review. It is necessary to take the impacts of red/processed meat consumption on non-cancer-related outcomes into consideration when developing new dietary guidelines, which will be of great public health importance. However, more additional randomised controlled trials are warranted to clarify the causality.

Type
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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