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A low-carbohydrate dietary pattern characterised by high animal fat and protein during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women: a prospective cohort study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 February 2021

Hongli Dong
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Hong Sun
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Congjie Cai
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Xinxin Pang
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Dan Bai
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Xi Lan
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Yiqi Zhang
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Ju Zhang
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
Guo Zeng*
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 16, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China
*
*Corresponding author: Guo Zeng, email scuhx_711@163.com

Abstract

We aimed to examine the association between low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) scores during the first trimester and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk in a Chinese population. A total of 1455 women were included in 2017. Dietary information during the first trimester was collected by 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d. The overall, animal and plant LCD scores, which indicated adherence to different low-carbohydrate dietary patterns, were calculated. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks gestation. Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. The results showed that the multivariable-adjusted RR of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the overall LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·42), 1·30 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·60) and 1·24 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·52) (P = 0·026 for trend). Multivariable-adjusted RR (95 % CI) of GDM from the lowest to the highest quartiles of the animal LCD score were 1·00 (reference), 1·20 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·50), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·14, 1·73) and 1·29 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·59) (P = 0·002 for trend). After additional adjustment for gestational weight gain before GDM diagnosis, the association of the overall LCD score with GDM risk was non-significant, while the association of animal LCD score with GDM risk remained significant. In conclusion, a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern characterised by high animal fat and protein during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of GDM in Chinese women.

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Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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A low-carbohydrate dietary pattern characterised by high animal fat and protein during the first trimester is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese women: a prospective cohort study
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