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Factors associated with the inflammatory potential of the Brazilian population’s diet

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 October 2020

Natália Oliveira Pereira
Affiliation:
Public Health Department, Biological and Health Sciences Center, Post-graduate Program in Collective Health, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA 65020-070, Brazil
Carolina Abreu de Carvalho
Affiliation:
Medical School and Post-graduate Program in Collective Health, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA 65020-070, Brazil
Naiara Sperandio
Affiliation:
Nutrition Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ 27930-560, Brazil
Karla Danielle Silva Marques
Affiliation:
Public Health Department, Biological and Health Sciences Center, Post-graduate Program in Collective Health, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA 65020-070, Brazil
Poliana Cristina de Almeida Fonseca Viola
Affiliation:
Nutrition Department, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, PI 64049-550, Brazil
Nitin Shivappa
Affiliation:
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA Department of Nutrition, Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
James R. Hébert
Affiliation:
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA Department of Nutrition, Connecting Health Innovations LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
Ana Karina Teixeira da Cunha França
Affiliation:
Public Health Department, Biological and Health Sciences Center, Post-graduate Program in Collective Health, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA 65020-070, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the inflammatory potential of the Brazilian population’s diet and its association with demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed with 34 003 individuals aged 10 years and older, evaluated by the National Diet and Nutrition Survey from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (POF 2008–2009). The Energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) was determined using thirty-four dietary parameters calculated through non-consecutive 2-d dietary records. Positive scores indicate a pro-inflammatory diet, while negative scores indicate an anti-inflammatory diet. A bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis based on a hierarchical theoretical model was performed to verify the factors associated with the E-DII. The mean of the E-DII was 1·04 (range of −4·77 to +5·98). The highest values of the pro-inflammatory E-DII were found among adolescents (1·42; P < 0·001) and individuals with higher income (1·10; P < 0·001) and level of education (1·18; P < 0·001). In the final model, the E-DII was associated with higher income quartiles and was higher in the Northeast and South regions, in white people, individuals with ≥9 years of education and adults and adolescents age group. The Brazilian population consumes a diet with high inflammatory potential, especially adolescents, white people and those with higher income and level of education. Thus, the index presented uneven distribution among the population, emphasising groups with higher dietary inflammatory potential. The socio-economic risk profile of a diet with higher inflammatory potential in medium-income countries is different from what is observed in high-income nations.

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Full Papers
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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