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Causal associations between dietary habits and CVD: a Mendelian randomisation study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 June 2023

Miaomiao Yang
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
Xiong Gao
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
Liangzhen Xie
Affiliation:
Department of Geriatrics, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
Zhizhan Lin
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
Xingsheng Ye
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
Jianyan Ou
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
Jian Peng*
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
*
*Corresponding author: Jian Peng, email jpeng@smu.edu.cn

Abstract

Over the years, numerous observational studies have substantiated that various dietary choices have opposing effects on CVD. However, the causal effect has not yet been established. Thus, we conducted a Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to reveal the causal impact of dietary habits on CVD. Genetic variants strongly associated with 20 dietary habits were selected from publicly available genome-wide association studies conducted on the UK Biobank cohort (n 449 210). Summary-level data on CVD were obtained from different consortia (n 159 836–977 323). The inverse-variance weighted method (IVW) was the primary outcome, while MR-Egger, weighted median and MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier were used to assess heterogeneity and pleiotropy. We found compelling evidence of a protective causal effect of genetic predisposition towards cheese consumption on myocardial infarction (IVW OR = 0·67; 95 % CI = 0·544, 0·826; P = 1·784 × 10−4) and heart failure (IVW OR = 0·646; 95 % CI = 0·513, 0·814; P = 2·135 × 10−4). Poultry intake was found to be a detrimental factor for hypertension (IVW OR = 4·306; 95 % CI = 2·158, 8·589; P = 3·416 × 10−5), while dried fruit intake was protective against hypertension (IVW OR = 0·473; 95 % CI = 0·348, 0·642; P = 1·683 × 10−6). Importantly, no evidence of pleiotropy was detected. MR estimates provide robust evidence for a causal relationship between genetic predisposition to 20 dietary habits and CVD risk, suggesting that well-planned diets may help prevent and reduce the risk of CVD.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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Footnotes

These authors contributed equally to this work and share first authorship

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