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Wholesome milk and strong meat: Peter Canisius’s catechisms and the conversion of Protestant Britain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 April 2015

Alexandra Walsham*
Professor of Modern History, University of Cambridge, Trinity College, Cambridge CB2 1TQ, UK. Email:


This article examines the vernacular translations of the famous catechisms prepared by the Dutch Jesuit Peter Canisius which circulated in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Britain. The various editions and adaptations of Canisius produced for English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish readers are texts in which anti-Protestant identity formation converges with the task of basic indoctrination. These include Laurence Vaux’s popular catechism of 1567, the traditionalist character of which is reassessed. Shedding light on the reception and domestication of the literature of the European Counter Reformation, these books illustrate how catechesis was revived and harnessed as a clerical tool for cultivating polemical resistance and as a device for inculcating saving knowledge and redeeming piety in those young in faith as well as in years. Recusant clergy, seminary priests and Jesuits tackled the task of restoring England to its traditional allegiance to Rome as if they were planting the faith in a pagan land and they utilised the same techniques and strategies as their colleagues in the newly discovered world. A study of Canisius’s catechisms highlights the fluid boundary between conversion and reconciliation in contemporary minds; illuminates the intertwining of the histories of evangelical mission and confessionalisation in the context of the British Isles; and helps to reintegrate minority Catholic communities back into our picture of the global movement for religious outreach and renewal.

Research Article
© Trustees of the Catholic Record Society 2015. Published by Cambridge University Press 

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I am grateful to Antje Flüchter and the participants in the conference ‘Comparing Catechisms: Entangling Christian History’, held at the University of Oslo in May 2014, for helpful comments on an earlier version of this article.


1 Charke, William, ‘Of the use of catechising’, in Richard Cawdrey, A Short and Fruitfull Treatise, of the Profit and Necessitie of Catechising (London, 1580)Google Scholar, sigs D2v-3r.

2 MacCulloch, Diarmaid, ‘Putting the English Reformation on the Map’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (hereafter TRHS), 15 (2005): 7595 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Reformation: Europe’s House Divided, 1490–1700 (London: Allen Lane, 2003).

3 Ha, Polly and Collinson, Patrick, eds, The Reception of Continental Reformation in Britain, Proceedings of the British Academy 164 (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Wendebourg, Dorothea, ed., Sister Reformations: The Reformation in Germany and in England (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010)Google Scholar.

4 For an overview, see my ‘In the Lord’s Vineyard: Catholic Reformation in Protestant Britain’, in Catholic Reformation in Protestant Britain (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), 1–49.

5 Ditchfield, Simon, ‘Decentering the Catholic Reformation: Papacy and Peoples in the Early Modern World’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 101 (2010): 186208 Google Scholar.

6 Ibid., 201.

7 Among many contributions, see Mills, Kenneth and Grafton, Anthony, eds. Conversion: Old Worlds and New (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2003)Google Scholar, esp. R. Po-Chia Hsia, ‘Translating Christianity: Counter-Reformation Europe and the Catholic Mission in China, 1580–1780’, 87–108; Armstrong, Megan, ‘Transatlantic Catholicism: Rethinking the Nature of the Catholic Tradition in the Early Modern Period’, History Compass 5 (2007): 19421966 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Clossey, Luke, Salvation and Globalization in the Early Jesuit Missions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Tara Alberts, ‘Catholic Missions to Asia’, Karin Vélez, ‘Catholic Missions to the Americas’, and Karen Melvin, ‘The Globalization of Reform’, in Alexandra Bamji, Geert Janssen, and Mary Laven, eds. The Ashgate Research Companion to the Counter-Reformation (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), 127–45; 147–162; 425–50 respectively. On catechising in particular, see Phan, Peter, Mission and Catechesis: Alexandre de Rhodes and Inculturation in Seventeenth-Century Vietnam (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1998)Google Scholar.

8 Burke, Peter and Hsia, R. Po-chia, eds. Cultural Translation in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9 Allison, A.F. and Rogers, D.M., The Contemporary Printed Literature of the English Counter-Reformation between 1558 and 1640: An Annotated Catalogue, 2 vols (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1989–1994)Google Scholar (hereafter ARCR). Volume 1: Works in Languages other than English; Volume 2: Works in English.

10 See my ‘“Domme Preachers”? Post-Reformation English Catholicism and the Culture of Print’, Past and Present (hereafter P&P) 168 (2000): 72–123.

11 For a fuller discussion, see my ‘Religious Ventriloquism: Translation, Cultural Exchange and the English Counter Reformation’ (forthcoming).

12 See The Theatre of Japonia’s Constancy in which an Hundred and Eighteene Glorious Martyrs Suffered Death for Christ, in the Yeare of our Lord 1622, trans. William Badduley ([St Omer, 1624]); Pedro Morejon, A Briefe Relation of the Persecution Lately made against the Catholike Christians, in the Kingdome of Japonia Divided into Two Books ([St Omer, 1619), epistle ‘To all that suffer Persecution in England for Catholike Religion’ (pp. 3–18); João Rodrigues, The Palme of Christian Fortitude. Or The Glorious Combats of Christians in Japonia ([St Omer], 1630).

13 Nancy Pollard Brown, ‘Robert Southwell: The Mission of the Written Word’, in Thomas M. McCoog, ed., The Reckoned Expense: Edmund Campion and the Early English Jesuits (Rome, 2nd edn, 2007), 251–75.

14 Bossy, John, The English Catholic Community 1570–1850 (London: Burns and Oates, 1975)Google Scholar, ch. 1 and passim.

15 Christopher Haigh, ‘From Monopoly to Minority: Catholicism in Early Modern England’, TRHS, 5th ser. 31 (1981): 129–47; ‘The Continuity of Catholicism in the English Reformation’, in Christopher Haigh, ed., The English Reformation Revised (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 176–208.

16 See Questier, Michael, Conversion, Politics and Religion in England, 1580–1625 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)Google Scholar, esp. ch. 3.

17 See Christopher Hill, ‘Puritans and “the Dark Corners of the Land”’, TRHS, 5th ser. 13 (1963): 77–102; Venard, Marc, ‘“Vos Indes sont ici” Missions lointaines ou/et missions intérieures dans le catholicisme français de la première moitié du XVIIe siècle’, in Guy Duboscq, ed., Les réveils missionaires en France: du moyen-âge ànos jours (XIIe–XXe siècles) (Paris: Beauchesne, 1984), 8389 Google Scholar; Prosperi, Adriano, ‘The Missionary’, in Rosari Villari, ed., Baroque Personae (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 160194 Google Scholar, at 178–9; Selwyn, Jennifer D., A Paradise Inhabited by Devils: The Jesuits’ Civilizing Mission in Early Modern Naples (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004)Google Scholar, ch. 3, esp. 195–6; Balleriaux, Catherine, ‘Reformation Strategies: Conversion, Civility, and Utopia in Missionary Writings about the New World, c. 1610–1690’ (unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Auckland, 2012)Google Scholar, ch. 2, esp. 80–1.

18 See Ditchfield, , ‘Decentering’, 203204 Google Scholar, and for an overview of catechising, see 203–6. See also Janz, Denis R., ‘Catechisms’, in Hans Hillerbrand, ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, 4 vols (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)Google Scholar, 1: 275–80; Bireley, Robert, The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450–1700: A Reassessment of the Counter Reformation (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999), 101104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

19 See O’Malley, John W., The First Jesuits (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 115126 Google Scholar; Clossey, Luke, Salvation and Globalization in the Early Jesuit Missions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 137, and see 240–1, 245–8. On Canisius, see J. Neville Figgis, ‘Petrus Canisius and the German Counter-Reformation’, English Historical Review (hereafter EHR) 24 (1909), 18–43; Broderick, James, Saint Peter Canisius (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1963)Google Scholar; Berndt, Rainer, ed., Petrus Canisius SJ (1521–1597): Humanist und Europäer (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. For Canisius’ catechisms in other contexts of Catholic renewal, see Johnson, Trevor, Magistrates, Madonnas and Miracles: The Counter Reformation in the Upper Palatinate (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009), 156162 Google Scholar; Louthan, Howard, Converting Bohemia: Force and Persuasion in the Catholic Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 192193 Google Scholar.

20 Wright, Jonathan, The Jesuits: Missions, Myths and Historians (London: Harper Collins, 2004)Google Scholar, 32. On the role of catechising in the early medieval Christianisation of Europe, see Owen M, Phelan, ‘Catechizing the Wild: The Continuity and Innovation of Missionary Catechesis under the Carolingians’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History (hereafter JEH) 61 (2010): 455–74.

21 As reflected, for example in the murals depicted on the walls of the English College at Rome. For contemporary engravings of these, see Giovanni Battista Cavalieri, Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ trophæa ([Rome, 1584]).

22 See Chatellier, Louis, The Religion of the Poor: Rural Missions in Europe and the Formation of Modern Catholicism c.1500–1800, trans. Brian Pearce (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)Google Scholar, 16, 22–3. See also John O’Malley, ‘Mission and the Early Jesuits’, in Ignatian Spirituality and Mission, The Way, Supplement 79 (1994): 3–10.

23 Both were translated into English: Robert Bellarmine, A Shorte Catechisme … Illustrated with the Images, trans. Richard Gibbons (Augusta, 1614); An Ample Declaration of the Christian Doctrine, trans. Richard Hadock (Douai, [1604]). See STC 1835–1837.7; ARCR II, 361–7.

24 See Gentilcore, David, ‘“Adapt Yourselves to the People’s Capabilities”: Missionary Strategies, Methods and Impact in the Kingdom of Naples, 1600–1800’, JEH 45 (1994): 269296 Google Scholar.

25 See O’Malley, First Jesuits, 123–4; Brodrick, , Saint Peter Canisius, 234243 Google Scholar. For a study and catalogue of editions published between 1555 and 1597, see Begheyn, Paul, ‘The Catechism (1555) of Peter Canisius, the Most Published Book by a Dutch Author in History’, Quaerendo 36 (2006): 5184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

26 See Ditchfield, , ‘Decentering’, 205206 Google Scholar; Mullett, Michael A., The Catholic Reformation (London: Routledge, 1999), 117119 Google Scholar. See also Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, ed. H. J. Schroeder (Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1978), 197.

27 O’Malley, First Jesuits, 124.

28 Brodrick, , Saint Peter Canisius, 242243 Google Scholar, 241, 245; whose figures are revised upwards by Begheyn, ‘Catechism’, 61 and passim. For an account of the impact of Canisius’s catechisms in France, see Guy Bedouelle, ‘L’influence des catechismes de Canisius en France’, in Pierre Colin et al, ed., Aux Origines du Catéchisme en France (Desclée: Relais- Desclée, 1989), 67–86.

29 See STC 4568–4572.5; Wing C436B. Green’s, Ian The Christian’s ABC: Catechisms and Catechizing in England c.1530–1740 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar focuses on Protestant catechisms, but lists Catholic editions in its extensive appendix. See 50, 580–751. Elizabeth Ferguson briefly discusses catechisms in ‘Religion by the Book: Negotiating Catholic Devotion in Post-Reformation England 1570–1625’ (unpubl. DPhil thesis, University of Oxford, 2011), 34–5. For a fuller account focusing on the role of catechisms in educating young Catholics, see Underwood, Lucy, Childhood, Youth and Religious Dissent in Post-Reformation England (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, ch. 3.

30 Janz, , ‘Catechisms’, 275 Google Scholar. See Hudson, Anne, ‘A New Look at the Lay Folk’s Catechism’, Viator 16 (1985): 243258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Swanson, R. N., ‘The Origins of the Lay Folks’ Catechism’, Medium Aevum 60 (1991): 92100 Google Scholar; Powell, Sue, ‘The Transmission and Circulation of The lay folk’s catechism’, in Alastair J. Minnis, ed., Late-Medieval Religious Texts and their Transmission: Essays in Honour of A. I. Doyle (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1994), 6784 Google Scholar; Duffy, Eamon, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England c. 1400–c.1580 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1992)Google Scholar, ch. 2; and Bast, Robert James, Honor your Fathers: Catechisms and the Emergence of a Patriarchal Ideology in Germany 1400–1600 (Leiden: Brill, 1997)Google Scholar, ch. 1, esp. 21–2. For the Protestant commonplace that catechesis had been neglected in the middle ages, see Green, Christian’s ABC, 13.

31 Richard Whitford, A Werke for Housholders or for them that have the Guidyng or Governaunce of any Company ([London, 1531]); Lupton, J. H., A Life of John Colet (London: Bell, 1909)Google Scholar, 286–90. See also Tudor, Philippa, ‘Religious Instruction for Children and Adolescent in the Early English Reformation’, JEH 35 (1984): 391413 Google Scholar.

32 Edmund Bonner, A Profitable and Necessarye Doctrine with Certayne Homelies Adioyned Therunto ([London, 1555]) and An Honest Godlye Instruction and Information for the Tradynge, and Bringinge up of Children ([London, 1555]), sig. A2r.

33 See Duffy, Eamon, Fires of Faith: Catholic England under Mary Tudor (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2009), 6768 Google Scholar, and ch. 3 passim. Canisius is quoted in Figgis, ‘Petrus Canisius’, 22.

34 Laurence Vaux, A Catechisme, or a Christian Doctrine Necessarie for Chyldren and the Ignorant People ([Louvain, 1568]), ‘The Author to the Reader’ (sigs. A3r-[4]v).

35 See T.G. Law’s introduction to his edition of A Catechisme or Christian Doctrine, Chetham Society, NS 4 (1885), xciii–xcvii; Bossy, English Catholic Community, 272. Vaux, Catechisme, 117.

36 Vaux, Catechisme, 142–80.

37 ‘Official Lists of Catholic Prisoners during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth’, in Miscellanea II, Catholic Record Society 2 (London, 1906), 225, 230.

38 Vaux, Catechisme, sig. A3v (vere A4v). It is recognized by Crichton, J. D., ‘Religious Education in England in the Penal Days (1559–1778)’, in Gerard S. Sloyan, ed., Shaping the Christian Message: Essays in Religious Education (New York: Macmillan, 1959), 6390 Google Scholar, at 72, though he too comments that it is ‘more medieval in tone than anything else’(73); by Brodrick, , Saint Peter Canisius, 243 Google Scholar; and by Underwood, Childhood, Youth and Religious Dissent, 54–5, who also remarks on its ‘traditionalism’. Begheyn, ‘Catechism’, excludes this from his list of editions of Canisius, 68.

39 See John J. LaRocca, ‘Laurence Vaux’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (accessed 1 Jan 2015). For Vaux’s activities in Lancashire, see Haigh, Christopher, Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975)Google Scholar, 248, 249–50, 251, 259, 266.

40 Law, ed., Catechisme, p. xcii; Vaux, Catechisme, 17, 76. Underwood, Childhood, Youth and Religious Dissent, 55.

41 Vaux, Catechisme, 36–7, 38, 39, 60–1, 62, 156.

42 For the full range of extant editions in sexto and duodecimo, see STC 24625.5–24627a.4; ARCR II, 748–56. Other contemporary impressions of this text may have appeared but have left no trace. See also the useful discussion in Southern, A. C., Elizabethan Recusant Prose 1559–1582 (London: Sands, 1950), 532536 Google Scholar.

43 Godly Contemplations for the Unlearned (Antwerp, 1575), title-page. This edition was bound with the Jesus Psalter. See STC 14563.3; ARCR II, 193. For evidence that it was bound with Vaux’s catechism, see the BL copy of the 1580 edition: STC 24626.3; ARCR II, 749–50. On illustrated continental editions of Canisius, see Lee Palmer Wandel, ‘Catechisms: Teaching the Eye to Read the World’, in Feike Dietz et al, eds. Illustrated Religious Texts in the North of Europe, 1500–1800 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014), 53–76. Bellarmine’s Shorte Catechisme, translated by Richard Gibbons in 1614 was explicitly prefaced by Pope Gregory’s famous utterance (p. 3) and accompanied by images of Scriptural scenes, the three persons of the Trinity, and the devout Christian life.

44 A briefe forme of confession, instructing all christian folk how to confesse their sinnes, and so to dispose themselves, that they may injoy the benefit of true Pennance ([London secret press], 1599), ‘To the Reader’. See STC 24627–24627a.4.

45 O’Malley, First Jesuits, 87; Green, Christian’s ABC, 14–15. On reconciliation, see Underwood, Childhood, Youth and Religious Dissent, 23–9.

46 See R. J. Fehrenbach and Joseph L. Black, eds. Private Libraries in Renaissance England: A Collection and Catalogue of Tudor and Early Stuart Book-Lists, vol. 8, PLRE 167–260 (Tempe, Az: Medieval and Renaissance Texts & Studies, 2014), entries 244.4, 248.1, 251.4.

47 It appears in William Fulke’s ‘Catalogue of all such Popish Bookes either answered, or to be aunswered, which have bene written in the Englishe tongue from beyond the Seas, or secretly dispersed here in England have come to our handes, since the beginning of the Queenes Maiesties reigne’, which was published in various controversial works, including D. Heskins, D. Sanders, and M. Rastel, Accounted (among their Faction) Three Pillers and Archpatriarches of the Popish Synagogue (London, 1579), sig. ¶2v and T. Stapleton and Martiall (Two Popish Heretikes) Confuted (London, 1580), unpaginated, following title page, when it was said to be in the process of being refuted, though no specific text in response to it is extant.

48 The edition in question is dated 1583 and was printed in Rouen on Robert Persons’ press (STC 24626.7; ARCR II, 751). There are copies in Lamport Hall, Northampton, in the possession of the Marquis of Bute, and in Salisbury Cathedral Library (classmark O.2.51). I am grateful to Emily Naish for her assistance during my visit to see the Salisbury copy. A Catechisme or Christian Doctrine, sigs H3v-5v. The edition also includes ‘Certayne degrees to vertue’, ‘A briefe meditation or rather forme of examination of ones conscience dayly to be used to bedward, wherein is conteyned a right practize of the former six steppes’, and ‘A note of such thinges as are represented to Christians by the usuall blessing of themselves with the signe of the crosse’. See also Law, ed., Catechisme, xcvii–xcviii, 95–7.

49 London, The National Archive, State Papers 12/142/14, transcribed in Henry Foley, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 7 vols in 8 (London, 1875–83), 6: 713–14n; T. F. Knox, ed., The First and Second Diaries of the English College, Douay: And an Appendix of Unpublished Documents (London: D. Nutt, 1878), 170; Haigh, Reformation and Resistance, 292.

50 Bristow, Richard, A Briefe Treatise of diverse Plaine and Sure Ways to Finde out the Truthe in this Doubtful and Dangerous Time of Heresie in Conteyning Sundry Worthy Motives unto the Catholike Faith, or Considerations to Move a Man to Believe the Catholikes, and not the Heretikes (Antwerp, 1574)Google Scholar and Demaundes to be Proponed of Catholiques to the Heretikes (Antwerp [Douai], 1576). The attacks on Luther, Calvin and Beza echo themes articulated in Peter Frarin’s scurrilous An Oration against the Unlawfull Insurrections of the Protestantes of our Time, under Pretence to Refourme Religion (Antwerp, 1566).

51 Laurence Vaux, Catechisme or Christian doctrine (St Omer, 1620; STC 24627a.2, copy in Folger Shakespeare Library), dedicatory epistle. On Frances Wolfreston, see Paul Morgan, ‘Frances Wolfreston and “hor bouks”: A Seventeenth-Century Woman Book-Collector’, The Library, 6th ser. 11 (1989): 197–219; Watt, Tessa, Cheap Print and Popular Piety, 1550–1640 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 315317 Google Scholar.

52 Certayne Necessarie Principles of Religion, which may be Entituled, A Catechisme Conteyning all the Partes of the Christian and Catholique Faith (Douai [London], [1579–80?]), ‘The Translatour to the Reader’, sigs. ¶3r-7v. This text is also listed, separately, in Fulke’s catalogues, cited in n. 45. On Carter, who was executed for printing Martin’s Treatise of schisme (1578), see Ian Gadd, ‘William Carter’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography,, accessed 11 Jan 2015. An edition of Canisius’s Certayne Devout Meditations very Necessary for Christian Men Devoutly to Meditate upon Morning and Evening, every Day in the Weeke concerning Christ his Lyfe and Passion, and the Fruites thereof was also published by William Carter in London, with the false imprint of Douai in 1576.

53 An Introduction to the Catholick Faith Containing a Brief Explication of the Christian Doctrine: Togeather with an Easie Method to Examine the Conscience for a General Confession: Whereunto is Added a Dailie Exercise of Devout Prayers ([Rouen], [1633]), sig. ā4r-v.

54 See Lucy Underwood, ‘Recusancy and the Rising Generation’, Recusant History (hereafter RH) 31 (2013), 511–33; and her Childhood, Youth and Religious Dissent. See also Shell, Alison, ‘Furor Juvenilis: Post-Reformation English Catholicism and Exemplary Youthful Behaviour’, in Ethan H. Shagan, ed., Catholics and the ‘Protestant Nation’: Religious Politics and Identity in Early Modern England (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), 185206 Google Scholar.

55 Charke, ‘Of the use of catechising’, in Cawdrey, Short and fruitefull treatise, sig. D3r.

56 Green, Ian, ‘“For Children in Yeeres and Children in Understanding”: The Emergence of the English Catechism under Elizabeth and the Early Stuarts’, JEH 37 (1986), 397425 Google Scholar, at 408; Christian’s ABC. Alexander Nowell, A Catechisme, or First Instruction and Learning of Christian Religion (London, 1570 and many other editions). For the importance of catechising in German Protestantism, see Strauss, Gerald, Luther’s House of Learning: Indoctrination of the Young in the German Reformation (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978)Google Scholar, ch. 8.

57 See O’Malley, First Jesuits, 87; Green, Christian’s ABC, 14.

58 See n. 17 above.

59 A Summe of Christian Doctrine: Composed in Latin … With an Appendix of the Fall of Man & Justification, according to the Doctrine of the Councel of Trent … To which is Adjoined the Explication of Certaine Questions not Handled at Large in the Booke as shall Appeare in the Table ([London?], [1592–6]), quotations at sigs *2r-3r. This was reissued under the same title in 1622, published at the Jesuit press in St Omer. On Garnet, see Thomas M. McCoog, ‘Henry Garnett’, in ODNB, (accessed 1 Jan 2015); Philip Caraman, Henry Garnet 1555–1606, and the Gunpowder Plot (London: Longmans, 1964).

60 Canisius, Summe, 75–7, 145–5.

61 Ibid., 187–9, 191.

62 Ibid., 196–223 (penance), 221 (purgatory), 258–64 (celibacy), 245, 156 (ministers and bishops).

63 Ibid., 449–85, at 452, 467, 475.

64 Ibid., quotations at sig. *3r and 485. The three treatises are 486–687.

65 Ibid., 525, 661–2. For Catholic anti-biographies of the reformers, see Marshall, Peter, ‘John Calvin and the English Catholics, c.1565–1640’, Historical Journal 53 (2010): 849870 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

66 Canisius, Summe, 627–8.

67 Ibid., sig. *4r.

68 See esp. [Henry Garnet], An Apology against the Defence of Schism. Lately Written by an English Divine at Doway, for Answere to a Letter of a Lapsed Catholike in England ([London, 1593]) and A Treatise of Christian Renunciation … Wherunto is Added a Shorte Discourse against Going to Hereticall Churches ([London, 1593]). See Walsham, Alexandra, Church Papists: Catholicism, Conformity and Confessional Polemic in Early Modern England (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1999 edn)Google Scholar, ch. 2 and ‘“Yielding to the Extremity of the Time”: Conformity, Orthodoxy and the Post-Reformation Catholic Community’, in Lake, Peter and Questier, Michael, eds, Conformity and Orthodoxy in the English Church, c.1560–1660 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2000), 211236 Google Scholar; Lake, Peter and Questier, Michael, The Trials of Margaret Clitherow: Persecution, Martyrdom and the Politics of Sanctity in Elizabethan England (London: Continuum, 2011)Google Scholar, esp. ch. 8. Garnet translated the Dottrina Christiana by another Jesuit Jacobus Ledesma in 1597. This was intended for the use of children and ‘unlearned Catholikes’ and took the form of a dialogue between a Master and his Disciple: Jacobus Ledesma, The Christian Doctrine in Manner of a Dialogue betweene the Master and the Disciple ([London secret press], 1597).

69 A Summary of Controversies wherein the Chiefest Points of the Catholike Roman Faith are Compendiously and Methodically Explicated, by Way of Catechisme, against the Sectaries of this Age, trans. P. C. ([St Omer], 1639).

70 See Private Libraries of Renaissance England, vol. 8: 216.3, 218.1–2, 220.3, 221.1, 242.7, 245.11.

71 Ane Catechisme or Schort Instruction of Christian Religion Drawen out of the Scripturs and Ancient Doctors …. With ane Kallendar Perpetuale … In the End ar Adjoined Certain Godlie Prayers and ane Schort Method Whairby Every Man may Exame his Conscience, ed. and trans. Adam King (Paris, 1588), quotation at sig. i.viiijr. The prayers are printed in separately paginated section entitled ‘Certane Devot prayers’, see esp. fos 36v–37v.

72 Brodrick, , Saint Peter Canisius, 249 Google Scholar. [Crynnodeb] o adysc Cristnogaul (Paris, 1609); Opus catechisticum D. Petri Canisii theology ex Societate Iesu Sf yu: Sum ne grynodebo adysc Gristionogaul, a dosparth Catholic, ar hol buncian’r phyd, hun a yscrifenod yr hybarchus a’r ardechaug athrau uchod yn gynta yn ladin ag a gyfiaithuyd o’r ladin i’r gymeraeg druy dyfal lafyr ag astudiaeth, ed. and trans. Rosier Smyth (Paris, 1611).

73 See Wall, Thomas, ‘The Catechism in Irish: Bonaventure O’Hussey, O.F.M.’, The Irish Ecclesiastical Record 54 (1942): 3648 Google Scholar; Green, Ian, ‘“The Necessary Knowledge of the Principles of Religion”: Catechisms and Catechizing in Ireland, c.1560–1800’, in Alan Ford, James McGuire and Kenneth Milne, eds. As by Law Established: The Church of Ireland since the Reformation (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1995), 6988 Google Scholar, at 70, 82–4; Mary O’Reilly, ‘Seventeenth-Century Irish Catechisms—European or not?’, Archivium Hibernicum (hereafter AH) 50 (1996): 102–12; Salvador Ryan, ‘Bonaventura Ó h-Eodhusa’s An Teagasg Críosdaidhe (1611/1614): A Reassessment of its Audience and Use’, AH 58 (2004): 259–67; idem, ‘Continental Catechisms and their Irish Imitators in Spanish Habsburg Lands, c. 1550–c.1650’, in Raymond Gillespie and Ruairí Ó hUiginn (eds), Irish Europe, 1600–1650: Writing and Learning (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2013), 163–82; Caball, Marc, ‘Articulating Irish Identity in Early Seventeenth-Century Europe: The Case of Giolla Brighde Ó h-Eodhusa (c. 1570–1614)’, AH 62 (2009): 271293 Google Scholar . See also Brady, John, ‘The Catechism in Ireland: A Survey’, The Irish Ecclesiastical Record 83 (1955): 167–176Google Scholar; Evie Monaghan, ‘Eucharistic Belief and Practice in Ireland, 1660–1740’ (unpubl. PhD thesis, National University of Ireland Maynooth, 2014), ch. 5, esp. 184–98. For a manuscript translation of a Spanish catechism, see Brian Ó Cuív, ‘Flaithrí Ó Maolchonaire’s Catechism of Christian Doctrine’, Celtica 1 (1950): 161–206.

74 Petri Canisii Societatis Jesu theologi parvus catechismus Catholicorum Latine (London, 1687). It also included a Latin formula for admission to the sodality of the Blessed Virgin and a meditation on the Holy Name of Jesus. On the printer, see Ian Gadd, ‘Henry Hills’, in ODNB, (accessed 1 Jan 2015).

75 See esp. Scott, Geoffrey, ‘The Poor Man’s Catechism’, RH 27 (2005): 373382 Google Scholar. See also Bossy, , English Catholic Community, 272277 Google Scholar; Pickering, Brian, ‘Bishop Challoner and Teaching the Faith’, The Clergy Review 65 (1980): 614 Google Scholar; Crichton, , ‘Religious Education in England in Penal Days’, 8590 Google Scholar and ‘Challoner and the “Penny Catechism”’, RH 15 (1981): 425–32.

76 See Bossy, John, ‘The Counter-Reformation and the People of Catholic Europe’, P&P 47 (1970): 5170 Google Scholar, at 66–7; Delumeau, Jean, Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire, trans. Jeremy Moiser (London and Philadelphia: Burns and Oates, 1977), 199201 Google Scholar; Forster, Marc, Catholic Revival in the Age of the Baroque: Religious Identity in Southwest Germany, 1550–1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 126127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Louthan, , Converting Bohemia, 188198 Google Scholar; and Carter, Karen E., Creating Catholics: Catechism and Primary Education in Early Modern France (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2011)Google Scholar, esp. chs 1–3.

77 Delumeau, Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire, esp. 161, 171, 173, 199.