Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-2xdlg Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-25T03:41:13.536Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Assessment of Alcohol-related Memory Deficits: A Comparison between the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test and the California Verbal Learning Test

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 April 2014

Arie J. Wester
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Renée L. Roelofs
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Jos I.M. Egger
Affiliation:
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Roy P.C. Kessels*
Affiliation:
Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Address for correspondence: Roy P.C. Kessels, PhD, Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute of Psychiatry, D’n Herk 90, 5803 DN Venray, The Netherlands. E-mail: r.kessels@donders.ru.nl
Get access

Abstract

Objectives: Neuropsychological assessment of memory disorders is an important prerequisite in the treatment of patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Although many memory tests are available in clinical practice, a question remains regarding which test is most appropriate for this purpose. Our study's goal was to evaluate the discriminative power of indices of a standard memory test (the California Verbal Learning Test; CVLT) versus the subtests of an ecologically valid everyday memory test (the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test; RBMT) in patients with alcohol-use disorder.

Method: The patients included 136 with Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), 73 alcoholics with cognitive impairment (CI) not fulfilling the criteria for KS, and 24 cognitively unimpaired alcoholics (ALC).

Results: KS patients performed significantly lower on all RBMT and CVLT variables than CI patients. ALC patients performed significantly better than CI patients on only one RBMT subtest, and had a significantly lower rate of forgetting and higher scores on free recall on CVLT. A combination of RBMT subtests and CVLT indices was able to discriminate KS patients from CI and ALC patients. The RBMT subtests could not significantly distinguish ALC from CI patients. Both rate of forgetting and a comparison between free and cued recall testing on the CVLT showed the largest between-group differences.

Conclusion: Although the RBMT provides information about everyday memory performance, the CVLT indices are better able to distinguish between uncomplicated alcoholics and those with cognitive impairment or KS.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Australasian Society for the Study of Brain Impairment 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
Bodani, M., Reed, L.J., & Kopelman, M.D. (2009). Addictive and toxic disorders. In David, A.S., Fleminger, S., Kopelman, M.D., Lovestone, S. & Mellers, J.D.C. (Eds.), Lishman's organic psychiatry: A textbook of neuropsychiatry (4th ed., pp. 689743). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Bowden, S.C. (1990). Separating cognitive impairment in neurologically asymptomatic alcoholism from Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome: Is the neuropsychological distinction justified? Psychological Bulletin, 107, 355366.Google Scholar
Davidoff, D.A., Butters, N., Gerstman, L.J., Zurif, E., Paul, I.H., & Mattis, S. (1984). Affective/motivational factors in the recall of prose passages by alcoholic Korsakoff patients. Alcohol, 1, 6369.Google Scholar
Delis, D.C., Kramer, J.H., Kaplan, E., & Ober, B.A. (1987). The California Verbal Learning Test. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Ganzevles, P.G.J., de Geus, B.W.J., & Wester, A.J. (1994). Cognitieve en Gedragsaspecten bij het syndroom van Korsakow. Een onderzoek naar het effect van speciale afdelingen voor Korsakow-patienten binnen het APZ [Cognitive and behavioural aspects of Korsakoff's Syndrome: Effects of special Korsakoff wards in psychiatric hospitals]. Tijdschrift voor Alcohol en Drugs, 20, 2031.Google Scholar
Glass, J.N. (1998). Differential subtest scores on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) in an elderly population with diagnosis of vascular or nonvascular dementia. Applied Neuropsychology, 5, 5764.Google Scholar
Huppert, F.A., & Kopelman, M.D. (1989). Rates of forgetting in normal ageing: A comparison with dementia. Neuropsychologia, 27, 849860.Google Scholar
Kessels, R.P.C., & Kopelman, M.D. (2012). Context memory in Korsakoff's syndrome. Neuropsychology Review, 22, 117131.Google Scholar
Koltai, D.C., Bowler, R.M., & Shore, M.D. (1996). The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised: Relationship to everyday memory impairment. Assessment, 3, 443448.Google Scholar
Kopelman, M.D. (2002). Disorders of memory. Brain, 125, 21522190.Google Scholar
Lezak, M.D., Howieson, D.B., Bigler, E.D., & Tranel, D. (2012) Neuropsychological assessment (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Martone, M., Butters, N., & Trauner, D. (1986). Some analyses of forgetting of pictorial material in amnesic and demented patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 8, 161178.Google Scholar
Mulder, J.L., Dekker, R., & Dekker, P.H. (1996). Verbale Leer en Geheugen Test [Verbal Learning and Memory Test]. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
Oslin, D., Atkinson, R.M., Smith, D.M., & Hendrie, H. (1998). Alcohol related dementia: Proposed clinical criteria. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 203212.3.0.CO;2-B>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pérez, M., & Godoy, J. (1998). Comparison between a ‘traditional’ memory test and a ‘behavioral’ memory battery in Spanish patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 496502.Google Scholar
Pitel, A.L., Chételat, G., Le Berre, A.P., Desgranges, B., Eustache, F., & Beaunieux, H. (2012). Macrostructural abnormalities in Korsakoff syndrome compared with uncomplicated alcoholism. Neurology, 78, 13301333.Google Scholar
Quemada, J.I., Munoz Cespedes, J.M., Ezkerra, J., Ballesteros, J., Ibarra, N., & Urruticoechea, I. (2003). Outcome of memory rehabilitation in traumatic brain injury assessed by neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 532540.Google Scholar
Rourke, S.B., & Grant, I. (2009). The neurobehavioral correlates of alcoholism. In Grant, I. & Adams, K.M. (Eds.), Neuropsychological assessment of neuropsychiatric and neuromedical disorders (3rd ed., pp. 398454). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ryan, C., & Butters, N. (1980). Further evidence for a continuum-of-impairment encompassing male alcoholic Korsakoff patients and chronic alcoholic men. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 4, 190198.Google Scholar
Ryback, R.S. (1971). The continuity and specificity of the effects of alcohol on memory. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 32, 9951016.Google Scholar
Strauss, E., Sherman, E.M.S., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sullivan, E.V., & Pfefferbaum, A. (2009). Neuroimaging of the Wernicke–Korsakoff Syndrome. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 44, 155165.Google Scholar
Uekermann, J., Daum, I., Schlebusch, P., Wiebel, B., & Trenckmann, U. (2003). Depression and cognitive functioning in alcoholism. Addiction, 98, 15211529.Google Scholar
Van Balen, H.G.G., Westzaan, P.S.H., & Mulder, T. (1996). Stratified norms for the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 6, 203218.Google Scholar
Victor, M., Adams, R.D., & Collins, G.H. (1989). The Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and related neurologic disorders due to alcoholism and malnutrition (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Davis.Google Scholar
Wester, A.J., Leenders, P.L., Egger, J.I.M., & Kessels, R.P.C. (2013). Ceiling and floor effects on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test in patients with alcohol-related memory disorders and healthy participants. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 17, 286291.Google Scholar
Wester, A.J., Van Herten, J.C., Egger, J.I.M., & Kessels, R.P.C. (2013). Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) in Korsakoff's syndrome and chronic alcoholics. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 9, 875881.Google Scholar
Wilson, B.A. (1993). Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment: Do neuropsychological indexes predict performance in everyday activities? Applied and Preventive Psychology, 2, 209215.Google Scholar
Wilson, B., Cockburn, J., Baddeley, A., & Hiorns, R. (1989). The development and validation of a test battery for detecting and monitoring everyday memory problems. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 855870.Google Scholar
Wilson, B.A., Greenfield, E., Clare, L., Baddeley, A., Cockburn, J., Watson, P., . . . Nannery, R. (2008). The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3). London, UK: Pearson Assessment.Google Scholar
Wilson, K. (2011). Alcohol-related brain damage: A 21st-century management conundrum. British Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 176177.Google Scholar