Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-vq995 Total loading time: 0.468 Render date: 2021-10-22T17:37:14.889Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire in Patients with Persecutory Delusions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 August 2015

Emma Černis*
Affiliation:
University of Oxford, UK
Graham Dunn
Affiliation:
Manchester University, UK
Helen Startup
Affiliation:
University of Oxford, and Sussex Partnership, NHS Foundation Trust, Hove, UK
David Kingdon
Affiliation:
University of Southampton, UK
Gail Wingham
Affiliation:
University of Southampton, UK
Nicole Evans
Affiliation:
University of Oxford, UK
Rachel Lister
Affiliation:
University of Oxford, UK
Katherine Pugh
Affiliation:
University of Oxford, and Sussex Partnership, NHS Foundation Trust, Hove, UK
Jacinta Cordwell
Affiliation:
University of Southampton, UK
Helen Mander
Affiliation:
University of Southampton, UK
Daniel Freeman
Affiliation:
University of Oxford, UK
*
Reprint requests to Emma Černis, Oxford Institute of Clinical Psychology Training, The Isis Education Centre, Roosevelt Drive, Warneford Hospital, Warneford Lane, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK. E-mail: emma.cernis@hmc.ox.ac.uk

Abstract

Background: Ruminative negative thinking has typically been considered as a factor maintaining common emotional disorders and has recently been shown to maintain persecutory delusions in psychosis. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ) (Ehring et al., 2011) is a transdiagnostic measure of ruminative negative thinking that shows promise as a “content-free” measure of ruminative negative thinking. Aims: The PTQ has not previously been studied in a psychosis patient group. In this study we report for the first time on the psychometric properties of Ehring et al.'s PTQ in such a group. Method: The PTQ was completed by 142 patients with current persecutory delusions and 273 non-clinical participants. Participants also completed measures of worry and paranoia. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the clinical group's PTQ responses to assess the factor structure of the measure. Differences between groups were used to assess criterion reliability. Results: A three lower-order factor structure of the PTQ (core characteristics of ruminative negative thinking, perceived unproductiveness, and capturing mental capacity) was replicated in the clinical sample. Patients with persecutory delusions were shown to experience significantly higher levels of ruminative negative thinking on the PTQ than the general population sample. The PTQ demonstrated high internal reliability. Conclusions: This study did not include test-retest data, and did not compare the PTQ against a measure of depressive rumination but, nevertheless, lends support for the validity of the PTQ as a measure of negative ruminative thinking in patients with psychosis.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Burg, J.M. and Michalak, J. (2011). The healthy quality of mindful breathing: associations with rumination and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 179185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehring, T. and Watkins, E.R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 1, 192205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehring, T., Zetsche, U., Weidacker, K., Wahl, K., Schönfeld, S. and Ehlers, A. (2011). The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 225232.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Murray, R.M., Evans, N., Lister, R., Antley, A., et al. (2014). How cannabis causes paranoia: using the intravenous administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia. Schizophrenia Bulletin. Published online before print 15 July 2014, doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbu098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Startup, H. and Kingdon, D. (2012). The effects of reducing worry in patients with persecutory delusions: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 13, 223.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, D., Dunn, G., Startup, H., Pugh, K., Cordwell, J., Mander, H., et al. (2015) Effect of cognitive behaviour therapy for worry on persecutory delusions in patients with psychosis (WIT): a parallel, single-blind, randomised controlled trial with a mediation analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2, 305313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Freeman, D. and Garety, P.A. (2000). Comments on the content of persecutory delusions: does the definition need clarification? British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 407414.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, D., Garety, P.A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D. and Bebbington, P.E. (2002). A cognitive model of persecutory delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 331347.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Antley, A., Slater, M., Bebbington, P., Gittins, M., et al. (2008). Virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 258263.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freeman, D., Pugh, K., Vorontsova, N., Antley, A. and Slater, M. (2010). Testing the continuum of delusional beliefs: an experimental study using virtual reality. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 8392.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, C., Freeman, D., Kuipers, E., Bebbington, P., Fowler, D., Dunn, G., et al. (2008). Measuring ideas of persecution and reference: the Green et al. Paranoid Thought Scales (G-PTS). Psychological Medicine, 38, 101111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haddock, G., McCarron, J., Tarrier, N. and Faragher, F. B. (1999). Scales to measure dimensions of hallucinations and delusions: the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS). Psychological Medicine, 29, 879889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hepworth, C., Startup, H. and Freeman, D. (2011). Developing treatments of persistent persecutory delusions: the impact of an emotional processing and metacognitive awareness intervention. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199, 653658.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
IBM (2011). SPSS Statistics Version 20. Release 20.0.0. IBM Corporation.Google Scholar
Martinelli, C., Cavanagh, K. and Dudley, R.E.J. (2013). The impact of rumination on state paranoid ideation in a nonclinical sample. Behavior Therapy, 44, 385394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, T.J., Miller, M.L., Metzger, R.L. and Borkovec, T.D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28, 487495.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Müller, D., Teismann, T., Havemann, B., Michalak, J. and Seehagen, S. (2013). Ruminative thinking as a predictor of perceived postpartum mother-infant bonding. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37, 8996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muthén, L.K. and Muthén, B.O. (1998–2012). MPlus User's Guide (7th edn.) Los Angeles, CA: Muthén and Muthén.Google Scholar
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. and Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115121.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raes, F. (2012). Repetitive negative thinking predicts depressed mood at 3-year follow-up in students. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34, 497501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simpson, J., MacGregor, B., Cavanagh, K. and Dudley, R.E.J. (2012). Safety behaviours, rumination and trait paranoia in a non-clinical sample. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 612623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spasojević, J. and Alloy, L.B. (2001). Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion, 1, 2537.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Startup, H.M. and Erickson, T.M. (2006). The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ). In Davey, G.C.L. and Wells, A. (Eds), Worry and its Psychological Disorders (pp 101120). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
Teismann, T., Het, S., Grillenberger, M., Willutzki, U. and Wolf, O.T. (2013). Writing about life goals: effects on rumination, mood and the cortisol awakening response. Journal of Health Psychology. Published online before print July 1 2013, doi:10.1177/1359105313490774 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teismann, T., von Brachel, R., Hanning, S., Grillenberger, M., Hebermehl, L., Hornstein, I., et al. (2014). A randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a rumination-focused group treatment for residual depression. Psychotherapy Research, 24, 8090.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Topper, M., Molenaar, D., Emmelkamp, P. and Ehring, T. (2014). Are rumination and worry two sides of the same coin? A structural equation modelling approach. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 5, 363381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vossbeck-Elsebusch, A.N., Freisfeld, C. and Ehring, T. (2014). Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms following childbirth. BMC Psychiatry, 14, 200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.
15
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire in Patients with Persecutory Delusions
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire in Patients with Persecutory Delusions
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire in Patients with Persecutory Delusions
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *