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Emotion regulation is a known predictor for psychopathology and a target for treatment. A growing body of literature has examined the role of beliefs about emotions (BEs) in the emotion regulation process, yet the relationship between the two has yet to be systematically evaluated. A systematic review was conducted across five databases and 22 studies that assessed the relationship between BEs and emotion regulation were identified. The findings generally revealed a positive relationship between beliefs about the controllability and goodness of emotions and emotion regulation. There was strong evidence that beliefs about controllability were consistently associated with ‘active’ emotion regulatory strategies. This outcome has important implications for targeting change in therapy. However, further investigation is needed to establish consistent patterns regarding beliefs about the goodness of emotion and emotion regulation using longitudinal designs.
There is increasing support for the efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural interventions for anxiety and depression. However, little is known about the applicability of transdiagnostic behavioural interventions for children younger than 12 years old. This study was conducted to examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of Streamlined Transdiagnostic Intervention for Anxiety and Depression (STREAM) for children with anxiety and/or depressive disorders using a randomised controlled design with a wait-list control (WLC) condition and blind-assessments. Of the 22 potential participants, 16 Japanese children (M = 9.81; SD = 0.75; range 9–12 years) with principal anxiety or depressive disorder were eligible and enrolled. Then, the participants were randomly assigned to the STREAM or WLC condition. The dropout rates were 0% for both the conditions at post-assessment. Mixed model analyses showed that, although there were no significant interactions at post-assessment between both the conditions, both anxiety and depressive disorders significantly improved at 3 months compared with pre-assessment for the combined condition (the STREAM and WLC conditions). Therefore, this study demonstrated the feasibility of the STREAM in the Japanese clinical setting and potentially supported its efficacy for children with anxiety and depressive disorders at the follow-up assessment.
Background: Post-event processing (PEP) is an important maintenance factor of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study examined psychometric properties of the Positive Beliefs about Post-Event Processing Questionnaire (PB-PEPQ; Fisak & Hammond, 2013), which measures metacognitive beliefs about PEP. Method: Participants receiving treatment for SAD (n = 71) and other anxiety and related disorders (n = 266) completed self-report questionnaires at several timepoints. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis did not support the PB-PEPQ's proposed unidimensional model. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure consisting of engaging in PEP to (1) review negative events (Negative scale), (2) review positive events (Positive scale), and (3) better understand one's social anxiety (Understand scale). Within the SAD subsample, PB-PEPQ scales demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.83–0.85) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.65–0.78). Convergent and criterion validity of the PB-PEPQ Negative scale were supported. PB-PEPQ scale scores were significantly higher within the SAD group, as compared with the other groups (generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder), supporting the scales’ discriminative validity. Conclusion: Findings support the reliability and validity of the PB-PEPQ in a clinical sample and reveal the measure's multifactorial structure.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in adverse psychological outcomes for many around the globe. Less is known however regarding dispositional traits that may protect against negative psychological outcomes. This study examined the prospective association between COVID-19 stressors and psychological symptoms, and whether self-compassion (referring to a dispositional tendency of relating to oneself kindly) would moderate this association. A convenience sample of 212 university students and working adults (60.4% female; Mage = 20.92 years) based in Singapore completed measures assessing COVID-19 stressors (perceived COVID-19 health risk, economic impact, and impact on daily life), psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms), and self-compassion 2 months apart. Results indicated that perceived COVID-19 health risk at baseline predicted anxiety symptoms 2 months later, above and beyond baseline anxiety symptoms. Self-compassion moderated the association between perceived COVID-19 health risk and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between perceived impact on daily life and anxiety symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of self-compassion in alleviating psychological symptoms in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.