Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-4hhp2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-30T06:26:48.852Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Multiple paths in the control of drinking

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2011

Edward F. Adolph
Department of Physiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y. 14642


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1979

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Adolph, E. F.Thirst and its inhibition in the stomach. American Journal of Physiology. 161: 374386, 1950. [EA]Google Scholar
Regulation of water intake in relation to body water content. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section 6: Volume 1, American Physiological Society, Washington D.C., p. 163, 1967. [DR]Google Scholar
Barker, J. P., & Hoy, P. A.Multiple factors in thirst. American Journal of Physiology. 178:538562, 1954. [EA]Google Scholar
Alcock, J.Animal Behaviour – An Evolutionary Approach. Sinauer, Sunder-land, Mass. 1975. [FT]Google Scholar
Allison, J.Contrast, induction, facilitation, suppression, and conservation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 25: 185198, 1976.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, M., & Wozny, M.Conservation in behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. In press, 1978. [SL, JS]Google Scholar
Bare, J. K. & Cicala, G.Deprivation and time of testing as determinants of food intake. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 53: 151154, 1960. [CS]Google Scholar
Bartoshuk, L. M., Harned, M. A., & Parks, L. H.Taste of water in the cat: effects on sucrose preference. Science. 171: 699701, 1971. [WW]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beck, R. C.The rat's adaptation to a 23.5-hour water deprivation schedule. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 55: 646648, 1962. [RBe]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Some effects of restricted water intake on consummatory behavior in the rat. In: Wayner, M. J. (ed.), Thirst. Pergamon, Elmsford, N.Y., 1964. [RW]Google Scholar
Motivation Theories and Principles. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1978. [RBe, RW]Google Scholar
Nash, R., Viernstein, L., & Gordon, L.Sucrose preferences of hungry and thirsty rats as a function of duration of presentation of test solutions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 78:4050, 1972. [RBe]Google Scholar
Bentley, P. J.Endocrines and Osmoregulation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York, 1971. [TH]Google Scholar
Bernard, C.Leçons de Physiologie Experimentale Appliquée à la Medicine Faites au Collège de France, Vol. II. Bailliere, Paris, 1856. [DV]Google Scholar
Leçon sur les Phénomènes de la Vie Communs aux Animaux et aux Vegetaux. Bailliére et Fils, Paris, 1878. [TS]Google Scholar
Bichat, M. F. X.Recherches Physiologiques sur la Vie et la Mort. Brosson, Paris, 1800. [TS]Google Scholar
Boice, R.Excessive water intake in captive Norway rats with scar-markings. Physiology and Behaviour. 7:723–25, 1971. [FT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bolles, R. C.Theory of motivation (2nd Ed.) Harper & Row, New York, 1975. [RBe, RBo]Google Scholar
Booth, D. A. Approaches to feeding control. In: Silverstone, T. (ed.), Appetite and Food Intake. Dahlem Konferenzen, Berlin, pp. 417478, 1976. [DB, JPa, FT]Google Scholar
Appetite and satiety as metabolic expectancies. In: Katsuki, Y., Sato, M., Takagi, S. F., & Oomura, Y. (eds.), Food Intake and Chemical Senses. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 317330, 1977. [FT]Google Scholar
Hunger Models: Computable Theory of Feeding Control. Academic Press, London, 1978. [JPa]Google Scholar
Acquired behavior controlling energy intake and output. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 1, 1978b. [DB, FT]Google Scholar
Metabolism and the control of feeding in man and animals. In: Brown, K. & Cooper, S. J. (eds.) Chemical Influences on Behaviour. Academic Press, London, 1979. [DB]Google Scholar
Lovett, D., & McSherry, G. M.Postingestive modulation of the sweetness preference gradient in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 78:485512, 1972. [DB]Google Scholar
Stoloff, R., & Nicholls, J.Dietary acceptance in infant rats established by association with effects of nutrient composition. Physiological Psychology. 2:313319, 1974. [DB]Google Scholar
Toates, F. M., & Platt, S. V. Control system for hunger and its implications in animals and man. In: Novin, D., Wyrwicka, W., & Bray, G. (eds.), Hunger: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Raven Press, New York, pp. 127143, 1976. [FT]Google Scholar
Borer, K. T., Rowland, N., Mirow, A., Borer, R. C. Jr., & Kelch, R. P.Physiological and behavioral responses to starvation in the golden hamster. American Journal of Physiology (in press). 1979. [NR]Google ScholarPubMed
Bridge, J. G. Unit activity in the septal nuclei during water deprivation, drinking, and rehydration. In: DeFrance, J. F. (ed.), The Septal Nuclei. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 229239, 1976. [GH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brobeck, J. R. Exchange, control, and regulation. In: Yamamoto, W. S. & Brobeck, J. R. (eds.) Physiological Controls and Regulations. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp. 113, 1965. [AJ]Google Scholar
Bruce, H. M. & Kennedy, G. C.The central nervous control of food and water intake. Proc. Royal Soc. London (Ser. B). 138: 528544, 1951.Google Scholar
Calhoun, J. B.The Ecology and Sociology of the Norway Rat. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bethesda, Md., 1962. [NR]Google Scholar
Cannon, W. B. & Lieb, C. W.The receptive relaxation of the stomach. American Journal of Physiology. 27: 267273, 1911. [JAD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheng, M., Rozin, P., & Teitelbaum, P.Starvation retards development of food and water regulation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 76: 206218, 1971. [NM]Google Scholar
Chiang, H. M. & Wilson, W. A.Some tests of the diluted-water hyphothesis of saline consumption in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 56: 660665, 1963. [FT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, P. S. & Tokeida, F.Sucrose-water preference reversal in the water-deprived rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 79: 254258, 1972. [RBe]Google Scholar
Corbit, J. D.Osmotic thirst: theoretical and experimental analysis. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 67: 314, 1969. [RBo]Google Scholar
Corey, D. T., Walton, A., & Wiener, N. I.Development of carbohydrate preference during water rationing: A specific hunger? Physiology and Behaviour. 20: 547552, 1978. [FT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cytawa, J., Luszawska, D., Schoenborn, R., & Zajac, M.Lack of instrumental conditioning with intragastric reinforcement in normal experimental procedure. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimental. 32: 767772, 1972. [WW]Google Scholar
Dare, P. J.Seasonal changes in the body weight of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimental. 119: 494506, 1977. [RM]Google Scholar
Davis, J. D. & Wirtshafter, D.Set-points or settling points for body weight? A reply to Mrosovsky and Powley. Behavioural Biology. 24: 405411, 1978. [FT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dawkins, M. & Dawkins, R. Some descriptive and explanatory stochastic models of decision-making. In: McFarland, D. J. (ed.), Motivational Control Systems Analysis. Academic Press, London, 1974. [IH]Google Scholar
Dawkins, R.Replicator selection and the extended phenotype. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie. 47: 6176, 1978. [AH]Google Scholar
de Jong, A., Strubbe, J. H., & Steffens, A. B.Hypothalamic influence on insulin and glucagon release in the rat. American Journal of Physiology. 233: E380–E388, 1977. [AS]Google Scholar
Deutsch, J. A.A new type of behavior theory. British Journal of Psychology. 44: 304317, 1953. [JAD]Google Scholar
The Structural Basis of Behavior. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960. [JAD]Google Scholar
Molina, F. & Puerto, A.Conditioned taste aversion caused by palatable non-toxic nutrients. Behavioral Biology. 16:161174, 1976. [JAD]Google Scholar
Puerto, A., & Wang, Ming-Li. The pyloric sphincter and differential food preference. Behavioral Biology. 19: 543547, 1977. [JAD]Google Scholar
Devenport, L. D.Aversion to a palatable saline solution in rats: Interactions of physiology and experience. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 83: 98105, 1973. [FT]Google Scholar
Epstein, A. N. Epilogue: Retrospect and Prognosis. In: Epstein, A. N., Kis-sileff, H. R., and Stellar, E. (eds.), The Neuropsychology of Thirst: New Findings and Advances in Concepts. V. H. Winston & Sons, Washington, D.C., pp. 315321, 1973. [DV]Google Scholar
Ernitz, T. & Corbit, J. D.Taste as a dipsogenic stimulus. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 83: 2731, 1973. [WW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evans, P. R. & Smith, P. C.Fat and pectoral muscle as indicators of body condition in the Bar-tailed Godwit. Wildfowl 26: 6476, 1975, [RM]Google Scholar
Falk, J. L.Conditions producing psychogenic polydipsia in animals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 157: 569593, 1969. [JW]Google Scholar
The nature and determinants of adjunctive behavior. Psychology and Behavior. 6:577588, 1971. [JW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fibiger, H. C., Zis, A. P. & McGeer, E. G.Feeding and drinking deficits after 6-hydroxydopamine administration in the rat: similarities to the lateral hypothalamic syndrome. Brain Besearch. 55:135148, 1973. [NR]Google Scholar
Fitzsimons, J. T. Some Historical Perspectives in the Physiology of Thirst. In: Epstein, A. N., Kissileff, H. R. and Stellar, E. (eds.), The Neuropsychology of Thirst: New Findings and Advances in Concepts. V. H. Winston & Sons, Washington, D.C., pp. 2529, 1973. [DV]Google Scholar
The physiological basis of thirst. Kidney International. 10:311, 1976. [FT]Google Scholar
Forgus, R. H. & Hutchings, D. E.Effects of early experience on flavour preference. Psychological Reports. 6:410, 1960, [FT]Google Scholar
Fumoux, F., Arnauld, E., Czernichow, P., & Vincent, J. D.Inhibition of periodically firing supraoptic neurons in relation with inhibition of vasopres-sin secretion induced by drinking. XXVIIe International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Paris, pp. 248249, 1977. [JV]Google Scholar
Garcia, J., Ervin, F. R., & Koelling, R. A.Learning with prolonged delay of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science. 5: 121122, 1966. [SW]Google Scholar
Garcia, J., McGowan, B. K., Ervin, F. R., & Koelling, R. A.Cues: Their relative effectiveness as a function of the reinforcer. Science. 160: 794795, 1968. [SW]Google Scholar
Gibbs, J., Falasco, J. D., & McHugh, P. R.Cholecystokinin-decreased food intake in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Physiology. 230: 1518, 1976. [SW]Google Scholar
Gibbs, J., Young, R. C., & Smith, G. P.Cholecystokinin decreases food intake of rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 84: 488495, 1973. [SW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gold, R. M., Kapatos, G., Prowse, J., Quackerbusch, P. M., & Oxford, T. W.Role of water temperature in the regulation of water intake. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 85: 5263, 1973. [WW]Google Scholar
Gould, S. J.Sociobiology: the art of story-telling. New Scientist 80: 530533, 1978. [RM]Google Scholar
Gutman, Y. & Krausz, M.Regulation of food and water intake in rats as related to plasma osmolality and volume. Physiology and Behavior. 4: 311313, 1969. [JW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guyton, A.A Textbook of Medical Physiology. Saunders, Phila., Pa., 1976. [FT]Google Scholar
Hamilton, C. L.Problems of refeeding after starvation in the rat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 157: 10041017, 1969. [JW]Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. D.The genetical theory of social behaviour. I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 7: 152, 1964. [AH]Google Scholar
Hansen, B. W., DeSomery, C. H., Hagedorn, P. K., & Kalnasy, L. W.Effects of enleral and parenteral nutrition on appetite in monkeys. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 1: 8388, 1977. [SW]Google Scholar
Harrison, M. F.Effect of starvation on the composition of the liver cell. Journal of Biochemistry. 55: 204211, 1953. [JW]Google Scholar
Hatton, G. I.Nucleus circularis: is it an osmoreceptor in the brain? Brain Research Bulletin. 1: 123131, 1976. [GH]Google Scholar
Hatton, G. I. & Walters, J. K.Induced multiple nucleoli, nucleolar margination, and cell size changes in supraaoptic neurons during dehydration and rehy-dration in the rat. Brain Research. 59: 137154, 1973. [GH]Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A.Animal Behaviour: A Synthesis of Ethology and Comparative Psychology. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970. [FT]Google Scholar
Hirano, T.Some factors regulating water intake by the eel, Anguilla japonica. Journal of Experimental Biology. 61: 737747, 1974. [TH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Satou, M., & Utida, S.Central nervous system control of osmoregulation in the eel (Anguilla japonica). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 43A:537547, 1972. [TH]Google Scholar
Takei, Y., & Kobayashi, H. Angiotensin and drinking in the eel and the frog. In: Jørgensen, C. B. & Skadhauge, E. (eds.), Osmotic and Volume Regulation. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp. 123134, 1978. [TH]Google Scholar
Hoebel, B. G. Feeding: Neural control of intake. In: Hall, V. E., Giese, A. C., & Sonnenschein, R. (eds.), Annual Review of Physiology (Vol. 33), Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, Calif, 1971. [RBe]Google Scholar
Holmes, J. H. & Montgomery, V.Relation of route of administration and types of fluid to satisfaction of thirst in the dog. American Journal of Physiology 199: 907911, 1960. [EA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houston, A. I., Halliday, T. R., & McFarland, D. J.Towards a model of courtship of the smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris, with special emphasis on problems of observability in the simulation of behaviour. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. 15: 4961, 1977. [RM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hsiao, S. & Rasmussen, C.Why does a variety of measures of thirst yield different results? An explanation developed by studying the effect of an aversive factor on liquid intake in rats. Psychonomic Science. 10: 9798, 1968. [TS]Google Scholar
Hull, C. L.Principles of Behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1943. [JWP]Google Scholar
Huth, E. J. & Elkinton, J. R.Effect of acute fasting in the rat on water and electrolyte content of serum and muscle and on total body composition. American Journal of Physiology. 196: 299302, 1959. [JW]Google Scholar
Jones, P. J. & Ward, P.The level of reserve protein as the proximate factor controlling the timing of breeding and clutch-size in the Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea. American Journal of Physiology. 118: 547575, 1976. [AH]Google Scholar
Kakolewski, J. W. & Valenstein, E. S. Antidiuresis associated with the ingestion of food substances. In: Pfaffman, C. (ed), Olfaction and Taste. Rockefeller University Press, New York, pp. 593600, 1969. [FT]Google Scholar
Kennedy, J. M. & Baldwin, B. A.Taste preferences in pigs for nutritive and non-nutritive sweet solutions. Animal Behaviour. 20: 706718, 1972. [WW]Google Scholar
Kenney, N. J. & Mook, D. G.Effects of ovariectomy on meal pattern in the albino rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 87: 302309, 1974. [SW]Google Scholar
Kenny, J. T., Wright, J. W., & Reynolds, T. J.Schedule-induced polydipsia: the role of oral and plasma factors. Physiology and Behavior. 17: 939945, 1976. [JW]Google Scholar
Kissileff, H. R.Free feeding in normal and “recovered lateral” rats monitored by a pellet-detecting eatometer. Physiology and Behavior 5: 163173, 1970. [NR]Google Scholar
Krasnegor, N. A. (ed.), Behavioral Tolerance: Besearch and Treatment Implications. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1978. [DO]Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R., Ashcroft, R., & Webber, M.Song repertoires and territory defence in the great tit. Nature. 271: 539542, 1978. [AH]Google Scholar
Kulkosky, P. J., Breckenridge, C., Krinsky, R., & Woods, S. C.Satiety elicited by the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin-pancreozymin in normal and VMH-lesioned rats. Behavioral Biology. 18: 227234, 1976. [SW]Google Scholar
Kutscher, C. L.Species differences in the interaction of feeding and drinking. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 157: 539552, 1969. [FT]Google Scholar
Food-deprivation polydipsia in gerbils: Lack of adaptive value and termination with carbohydrate feeding. Physiological Psychology. 1.125128, 1973. [JW]Google Scholar
Kutscher, C. L. & Miller, D. G.Age-dependent polydipsia in the SWR/J Mouse. Physiology and Behavior. 13:7179, 1974. [CK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kutscher, C. L. & Schmalbach, N. L.Effects of water deprivation, NaCl injection, and seven aversive taste stimuli on drinking in two normal mouse strains and one with diabetes insipidus. Physiology and Behavior. 15: 659667, 1975. [CK]Google Scholar
Kutscher, C. L. & Wright, W. A.Drinking characteristics of normal rats and rats heterozygous or homozygous for diabetes insipidus. Physiology and Behavior. 18: 833839, 1977. [CK]Google Scholar
Lancaster, K.Change and innovation in the technology of consumption. American Economic Review. 56:(2) 1423, 1966. [SL]Google Scholar
Larkin, S. & McFarland, D. J.The cost of changing from one activity to another. Animal Behaviour. 26: 12371246, 1978. [AH, FT]Google Scholar
LeMagnen, J. & Tallon, S.Enregistrement et analyse preliminaire de la “periodicite alimentaire spontanée” chez le rat blanc. Journal of Physiologie (Paris). 55: 286287, 1963. [DV]Google Scholar
La periodicite spontanee de la prise d'ailments ad libitum du rat blanc. Journal de Physiologie. 58:323349, 1966. [SW]Google Scholar
L'Effet due jeûne préable sur les caracteristiques temporelles de la prise d'aliments chez le rat. Journal de Physiologie. 60:143154, 1968. [DB]Google Scholar
Levitsky, D. A.Feeding conditions and intermeal relationships. Physiology and Behavior. 12:779787, 1974. [SW]Google Scholar
Lewontin, R. C.Adaptation. Scientific American 239:156169, 1978. [RM]Google Scholar
Ludlow, A. R.The behaviour of a model animal. Behaviour. 58: 131172, 1976. [AL, FT]Google Scholar
Mach, E.The Science of Mechanics. Open Court, LaSalle, 111. 1960. [FT]Google Scholar
Manning, A.An Introduction to Animal Behaviour. Edward Arnold, London, 1979. [FT]Google Scholar
Marshall, A.Principles of Economics. (Eighth Edition) London: Macmillan, 1974. [JS]Google Scholar
Marwine, A. and Collier, G.The rat at the water hole. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, (in press) 1979. [NR]Google Scholar
McCleery, R. H. Optimal behaviour sequences and decision making. In: Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B. (eds.) Behavioural Ecology, Blackwells, Oxford, 1978. [AH, RM]Google Scholar
McFarland, D. J.Interaction of hunger and thirst in the Barbary dove. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 58: 174179, 1964. [FT]Google Scholar
Decision-making in animals. Nature (London) 269:1521, 1977. [RM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMurray, T. M. & Snowdon, C. T.Sodium preferences and responses to sodium deficiency in rhesus monkeys. Physiological Psychology. 5:477482, 1977. [CS]Google Scholar
Mendelson, J. & Chillag, D.Tongue cooling: a new reward for thirsty rodents. Science. 170: 14181421, 1970. [WW]Google Scholar
Milinski, M. & Heller, R.Influence of a predator on the optimal foraging behaviour of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Nature. 275: 642644, 1978. [AH]Google Scholar
Miller, D. G. & Kutscher, C. L.Effects of nutritive and bulk intake on the suppression of food-deprivation polydipsia in the gerbil. Physiology and Behavior. 14: 791794, 1975. [CK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moll, R. P.Drive and maturation effects in the development of consummatory behavior. Psychological Reports. 15: 295302, 1964. [RW]Google Scholar
Mowrer, O. H.Learning Theory and Behavior. Wiley, New York, 1960. [RBe]Google Scholar
Mueller, K. & Hsiao, S. Consistency of cholecystokinin satiety effect across deprivation levels and motivational states. Physiology and Behavior. In press, 1979. [TS]Google Scholar
Murton, R. K. & Westwood, N. J.Avian Breeding Cycles. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1977. [RM]Google Scholar
Nicolaïdis, S.Responses des unites osmosensibles hypothalamiques aux stimulations salienes et aqueuses de la langue. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences. Series C. 267:23522355, 1968. [DV]Google Scholar
Early systemic responses to orogastric stimulation in the regulation of food and water balance: functional and electrophysiological data. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 157:11761203, 1969. [GH, FT, JV]Google Scholar
Rôle des récepteurs internes et externes dans la prise d'eau régulatrice et non régulatrice. Rein, Foie, Maladies de la Nutrition. 16B: 159174, 1974. [SN]Google Scholar
Nicolaïdis, S. & Rowland, N.Regulatory Drinking in Rats with permanent access to a bitter fluid source. Physiology and Behavior. 14:819824, 1975. [SN, JWP, FT]Google Scholar
Oatley, K.Brain mechanisms and motivation. Nature. 225:797801, 1970. [FT]Google Scholar
Brain Mechanisms and Mind. Thames and Hudson, London, 1972a. [FT]Google Scholar
Book review. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 24:553554, 1972b. [FT]Google Scholar
Oatley, K. & Toates, F. M.Osmotic inhibition of eating as a subtractive process. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 82:268277, 1973. [FT]Google Scholar
Overstreet, D. H., Schiller, G. D., Biggins, J. G., & Crane, G.Dipsogenic effects of intra- and extra-cellular thirst stimuli before and after chronic DFP treatment. Psychopharmacology Communications. 1:157164, 1975. [DO]Google Scholar
Panksepp, J.Reanalysis of feeding patterns in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 82: 7894, 1973. [SW]Google Scholar
On the nature of feeding patterns – primarily in rats. In: Novin, D., Wyrwicka, W., & Bray, G. A. (eds.), Hunger: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Raven Press, New York, pp. 369382, 1976. [JPa]Google Scholar
Panksepp, J. & Ritter, M.Mathematical analysis of energy regulatory patterns of normal and diabetic rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 89: 10191028, 1975. [SW]Google Scholar
Toates, F. M., & Oatley, K.Extinction induced drinking in hungry rats. Animal Behavior. 20: 493498, 1972. [JPa]Google Scholar
Peck, J. W.Rats defend different body weights depending on palatability and accessibility of their food. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 92: 555570, 1978a. [JWP, TS]Google Scholar
Rats drinking quinine- or caffeine-adultera ted water defend lean body weights against caloric and osmotic stress. Physiology & Behavior. 21:599607, 1978b. [JWP]Google Scholar
Peck, J. W. & Blass, E. M.Localization of thirst and antidiuretic osmoreceptors by intra-cranial injections in rats. American Journal of Physiology. 228:15011509, 1975. [JV]Google Scholar
Peters, R. S.The Concept of Motivation. Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1958. [RM]Google Scholar
Pieron, H. L'évolution du comportement dans ses rapports avec l'instinct. In: L'Instinct dans le Comportement des Animaux et de l'Homme. pp. 677704, 1956. [SN]Google Scholar
Porter, J. H. & Bryant, W. E.Acquisition of schedule-induced polydipsia in the Mongolian Gerbil. Physiology and Behaviour. 21:825827, 1978. [FT]Google Scholar
Powers, W. T.Quantitative analysis of purposive systems: Some spadework at the foundations of scientific psychology. Psychological Review. 85: 417435, 1978. [FT]Google Scholar
Quartermain, D., Kissileff, M., Shapiro, R., & Miller, N. E.Suppression of food intake with intragastric loading: relation to natural feeding cycle. Science. 173: 941943, 1971. [JAD, CS]Google Scholar
Rabe, E. F.Relationship between absolute body-fluid deficits and fluid intake in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 89: 468477, 1975. [FT]Google Scholar
Ramsay, D. J., Rolls, B. J., & Wood, R. J.Thirst following water deprivation in dogs. American Journal of Physiology. 232: R93–R100, 1977a. [BR, DR]Google ScholarPubMed
Body fluid changes which influence drinking in the water-deprived rat. Journal of Physiology (London). 266:453469, 1977b. [BR]Google Scholar
Revusky, S.Retention of a learned increase in the preference for a flavoured solution. Behavioural Biology. 11:121125, 1974. [FT]Google Scholar
Richter, C. P.Animal behaviour and internal drives. Quarterly Review of Biology. 2: 307343, 1927. [RM, JPa]Google Scholar
Riley, A. L. & Baril, L. L.Conditioned taste aversions: A bibliography. Animal Learning and Behavior. 4: 15135, 1976. [SW]Google Scholar
Rolls, B. J. & Wood, R. J.Excretion following drinking in the dog. Journal of Physiology (London). 272: 7374P, 1977. [BR]Google ScholarPubMed
Rolls, B. J., Wood, R. J., & Rolls, E. T. Thirst: the initiation, maintenance, and termination of drinking. Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology. New York: Academic Press, In press. [BR]Google Scholar
Sanderson, J. D. & VanderWeele, D. A.Analysis of feeding patterns in normal and vagotomized rabbits. Physiology and Behavior. 15: 357364, 1975. [DV]Google Scholar
Satinoff, E.Neural organization and evolution of thermal regulation in mammals. Science. 201: 1622, 1978. [TS]Google Scholar
Schallert, T.Reactivity to food odors during hypothalamic stimulation in rats not experienced with stimulation-induced eating. Physiology and Behavior. 18: 10611066, 1977. [TS]Google Scholar
Whishaw, I. Q., DeRyck, M., & Teitelbaum, P.The postures of catecholamine-depletion catalepsy: their possible adaptive value in thermoregulation. Physiology and Behavior. 21: 817820, 1978. [TS]Google Scholar
Schnorr, J. A. & Brookshire, K. H.Distilled water and tap water as factors in taste preference experimentation. Psychological Reports. 17: 191194, 1965. [FT]Google Scholar
Sclafani, A. & Springer, D.Dietary obesity in adult rats: similarities to hypothalamic and human obesity syndromes. Physiology and Behavior. 17: 461471, 1976. [TS]Google Scholar
Seguin, A. & Lavoisier, A. L.Premier memoire sur la transpiration des animaux. Memoires de l'Académie des Sciences de Paris. 7782, 1970. [TS]Google Scholar
Sibly, R. M. & McFarland, D. J. A state-space approach to motivation. In: McFarland, D. J. (ed.) Motivational Control Systems Analysis. Academic Press, London, 1974. [AH, RM]Google Scholar
On the fitness of behaviour sequences. American Naturalist. 110:601617, 1976. [AH]Google Scholar
Silverman, H. J. & Zucker, I.Absence of post-fast food compensation in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Physiology and Behavior. 17:271285, 1976. [NR]Google Scholar
Simonnet, G., Rodriguez, F., Fumoux, F.Czernichow, P., & Vincent, J. D.Vasopressin release and drinking induced by intracranial injection of angio-tensin II in the monkey. American Journal of Physiology, (in press) 1979. [JV]Google Scholar
Sinclair, J. D. & Bender, D. O.Compensatory behaviors: suggestion for a common basis from deficits in hamsters. Life Sciences. 22: 14071412, 1978. [NR]Google Scholar
Slater, P. J. B.A simple model for competition between behaviour patterns. Behaviour. In press, 1979. [AL]Google Scholar
Snowdon, C. T.Motivation, regulation, and the control of meal parameters with oral and intragastric feeding. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 69: 91100, 1969. [CS]Google Scholar
A nutritional basis for lead pica. Physiology and Behavior. 18:885893, 1977. [CS]Google Scholar
Snowdon, C. T. & Wampler, R. S.Effects of lateral hypothalamic lesions and vagotomy on meal patterns in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 87:399409, 1974. [CS]Google Scholar
Spence, K. W.Behavior Theory and Conditioning. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1956. [JWP]Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. Regulation and time allocation: a commentary on “conservation in behavior.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. In press, 1978a. [JS]Google Scholar
Adaptive behavior and learning. Unpublished MS, 1978b. [JS]Google Scholar
Steffens, A. B.Influence of reversible obesity on eating behavior, blood glucose and insulin release in the rat. American Journal of Physiology. 228:17381744, 1975. [AS]Google Scholar
The influence of the oral cavity on the release of insulin in the rat. American Journal of Physiology. 230:14111415, 1976. [AS]Google Scholar
Steinbaum, E. A. & Miller, N. E.Obesity from eating elicited by daily stimulation of hypothalamus. American Journal of Physiology. 228:15, 1965. [AS]Google Scholar
Stevenson, J. A. F.The control of water intake. An invited lecture. Proceedings of the International Union of Physiological Sciences. 6: 4345, 1968. [PW]Google Scholar
Strieker, E. M.Extracellular fluid volume and thirst. American Journal of Physiology. 211: 232238, 1966. [RBo]Google Scholar
Some physiological and motivational properties of the hypovolemic stimulus for thirst. Physiology and Behavior. 3:379385, 1968. [JW]Google Scholar
Osmoregulation and volume regulation in rats: Inhibition of hypovolemic thirst by water. American Journal of Physiology. 217:98105, 1969. [DV, JW]Google Scholar
Strieker, E. M. & Adair, E. R.Body fluid balance, taste and postprandial factors in schedule-induced polydipsia. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 62:449454, 1966. [JW]Google Scholar
Strotz, R. H.The empirical implications of a utility tree. Econometrica. 25:269280, 1957. [SL]Google Scholar
Strubbe, J. H. & Steffens, A. B.Rapid insulin release after ingestion of a meal in the unanaesthetized rat. American Journal of Physiology. 229: 10191022, 1975. [AS]Google Scholar
Blood glucose levels in the portal and peripheral circulation and their relation to food intake. Physiological Behavior. 19:303307, 1977. [AS]Google Scholar
Strubbe, J. H., Steffens, A. B., & de Ruiter, L.Plasma insulin and the time pattern of feeding. Physiological Behavior. 18:8186, 1977. [AS]Google Scholar
Tang, M. & Collier, G.Effect of successive deprivations and recoveries on the level of instrumental performance in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 74: 108114, 1971. [RBe]Google Scholar
Taylor, N. B.Basic Physiology and Anatomy. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1965. [TS]Google Scholar
Teitelbaum, P. & Epstein, A. N.The lateral hypothalamic syndrome: recovery of feeding and drinking after lateral hypothalamic lesions. Psychological Review. 69: 7490, 1962. [TS]Google Scholar
Theios, J., Derivera, J., & Aronson, E.Modification of the rat's specific intake gradient by experience with specific concentrations. Psychological Reports. 10: 487490, 1962. [FT]Google Scholar
Tinbergen, L.The natural control of insects in pinewoods. 1. Factors influencing the intensity of predation by songbirds. Archives Neerlandischen Zoologie. 13: 265343, 1960. [CS]Google Scholar
Toates, F. M. Thirst and body fluid regulation in the rat. D Phil thesis, University of Sussex, 1971. [FT]Google Scholar
Toates, F. M. & Ewart, B.Gerbil drinking patterns. Animal Behaviour 25: 782, 1977. [FT]Google Scholar
Toates, F. M. & Booth, D. A.Control of food intake by energy supply. Nature. 251: 710711, 1974. [DB]Google Scholar
Tracy, R. C.A model of the dynamic exchanges of water and energy between a terrestrial amphibian and its environment. Ecological Monographs. 46: 293326, 1976. [AH]Google Scholar
VanderWeele, D. A.The effects of taste adulteration, hypertonic, and hyperoncotic solutions on water ingestion in the gerbil. Animal Learning and Behavior. 2: 309312, 1974. [DV]Google Scholar
Schiffer, K., & Esparza, D. L.Food deprivation-induced polydipsia in two species of kangaroo rats. Psychological Reports. 36: 645646, 1975. [DV]Google Scholar
Vasquez, B. J., Overstreet, D. H., & Russell, R. W.Psychopharmacological evidence for increase in receptor sensitivity following chronic morphine treatment. Psychopharmacologia. 36: 287302, 1974. [DO]Google Scholar
Vincent, J. D., Arnauld, E., & Bioulac, B.Activity of osmosensitive single cells in the hypothalamus of the behaving monkey during drinking. Brain Research. 44: 371384, 1972. [GH]Google Scholar
Walsh, L. L. and Grossman, S. P.Zona incerta lesions: disruption of regulatory water intake. Physiology and Behavior. 11: 885887, 1973. [NR]Google Scholar
Wayner, M. J.Motor control functions of the lateral hypthalamus and adjunc-tive behavior. Physiology and Behavior. 5: 13191325, 1970. [JW]Google Scholar
Specificity of behavior regulation. Physiology and Behavior. 12:851869, 1974. [JW]Google Scholar
Wells, G. P.The lugworm (Arenicola) - a study in adaptation. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 3:294313, 1966. [RM]Google Scholar
Wenger, J. R., Porte, J., Eakin, L., Boyce, J. and Woods, S. C. Meal-feeding patterns are eliminated in a semi-natural environment. In preparation. [SW]Google Scholar
Whishaw, I. Q. & Schallert, T.Hippocampal RSA (theta), apnea, bradycardia and effects of atropine during underwater swimming in the rat. EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology. 42:389396, 1977. [TS]Google Scholar
Wike, E. L. & Casey, A.The secondary reinforcing value of food for thirsty rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 47: 240243, 1954. [FT]Google Scholar
Williams, R. A.Effects of repeated food deprivations and repeated feeding tests on feeding behavior. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 65: 222226, 1968. [RBe]Google Scholar
Wolf, A. V.Thirst. Thomas, Springfield, Mass., 1958. [EA]Google Scholar
Wolf, K.Properties of multiple conditioned reflex type II activity. Acta Biologiae Experimentalis. 23.133150, 1963. [WW]Google Scholar
Wong, R.Motivation: A Biobehavioral Analysis of Consummatory Activities. Macmillan, New York, 1976. [RW]Google Scholar
Adaptation to long-term saline consumption and later saline preference. Behavioural Biology. 19:389393, 1977. [FT]Google Scholar
Wright, J. W. & O'Kelly, L. I.Deviations in body fluids during fasting in rats: failure of ADH treatment and nonnutritive bulk in preventing the occurrence of plasma hypovolemia. Physiology and Behavior. 11:791800, 1973. [FT, JW, VW]Google Scholar
Wright, J. W., Reynolds, T. J., & Kenny, J. T.Plasma hyperosmolality at the onset of drinking during starvation induced hypovolemia. Physiology and Behaviour. 17: 651657, 1976. [FT]Google Scholar
Wright, J. W., Gubernick, D. J., & Reynolds, T. J.Intravascular, carcass and gut fluid changes induced by food deprivation in xeric and mesic adapted rodents. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 58A:137142, 1977. [JW]Google Scholar
Wright, J. W., Reynolds, T. J., Kenny, J. T., & Donlon, K.Inhibition of food deprivation induced hypovolemia by saline consumption in rats. Physiology and Behavior. 21: 215221, 1978. [FT, JW]Google Scholar
Wyrwicka, W.The sensory nature of reward in instrumental behavior. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science. 10: 2351, 1975. [WW]Google Scholar
Wyrwicka, W. & Clemente, C. D.Acceptance of high concentration saccharin solutions by cats after hypothalamic lesions. Experimental Neurology. 40: 367376, 1973. [WW]Google Scholar
Yehuda, S. & Wurtman, R. J.Paradoxical effects of d-amphetamine on behavioral thermoregulation - possible mediation by brain dopamine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 190: 118122, 1974. [DO]Google Scholar
Young, P. T.The role of affective processes in learning and motivation. Psychological Review. 66: 104125, 1959. [TS]Google Scholar