Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-dkqnh Total loading time: 0.451 Render date: 2021-10-23T12:17:57.150Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Maximization theory: The “package” will not serve as an atom

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

Peter R. Killeen
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, Arizona State University, Tempo, Ariz. 85281
Craig M. Allen
Affiliation:
Psychology Department, Arizona State University, Tempo, Ariz. 85281

Abstract

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1981

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allison, J. (1976) Contrast, induction, facilitation, suppression, and conservation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 25:185–98. [SEGL. HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allison, J. (1979) Demand economics and experimental psychology. Behavioral Science 24:403–15. [SEGL, HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allison, J. (1980) Paired baseline performance as a behavioral ideal. Manuscript submitted for publication. [JA]Google Scholar
Allison, J. (in press) Economics and operant conditioning. In: Advances in analysis of behaviour, vol. 2: Predictability. correlation a contiguity, ed. Harzem, P. & Zeiler, M.. Chichester, England: Wiley. [JA]Google Scholar
Allison, J. & Boulter, P. (1980) Wage rate, nonlabor income, and labor supply in rats. Manuscript submitted for publication. [JA]Google Scholar
Allison, J., Miller, M. & Wozny, M. (1979) Conservation in behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108:434. [JA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alitor, S. M. (1969) The strength of conditioned reinforcers as a function of frequency and probability of reinforcement. In: Conditioned reinforcement, ed. Hendry, D., pp. 127–62. Homewood. Ill.: Dorsey. [WMB]Google Scholar
Bacotti, A. V. (1977) Matching under concurrent fixed-ratio variable-interval schedules of food presentation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 27:171–82. [WMB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Battalio, R. C., Green, L. & Kagel, J. H. (in press) "Income-leisure tradeoffs of animal workers." American Economic Review. [HR]Google Scholar
Battalio, R. C., Kagel, J. H. & Green, L. (1979) "Labor supply behavior of animal workers: Towards an experimental analysis." In: Research in experimental economics, ed. Smith, V. L.. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press. [HR]Google Scholar
Battalio, R. C., Kagel, J. H., Rachlin, H. & Green, L. (1981) "Commodity choice behavior with pigeons as subjects. Journal of Political Economy 89:6791. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baum, W. M. (1973) The correlation based law of effect. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 20:137–53. [HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baum, W. M. (1974) On two types of deviation from the matching law: Bias and undermatching. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 22:231–42. [RJH, HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baum, W. M. (1979) Matching, undermatching, and overmatching in studies of choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 32:269–81. [WMB, RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baum, W. M. & Rachlin, H. C. (1969) Choice as time allocation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 12:861–74. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
*Becker, G. S. (1962) Irrational behavior and economic theory. Journal of Political Economy 70:113. [MCK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Becker, G. S. (1973) A theory of marriage, part I. Journal of Political Economy 81:813–46. [MCK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, G. S. (1976) The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. [MCK]Google Scholar
Bentham, J. (1789) An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. Reprinted in The Utilitarians New York: Doubleday & Co. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernstein, D. J. & Ebbesen, E. B. (1974) The effects of substitution patterns on the necessary conditions for reinforcement in humans. Paper presented to Midwestern Psychological Association. [HR]Google Scholar
Blau, Peter (1964) Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley. [HKS]Google Scholar
Buck, S. L., Rothstein, B. & Williams, B. A. (1975) A reexamination of local contrast in multiple schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 24:291301. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, R. & Herrnstein, R. J. (1975) Psychology. Boston: Little, Brown. [RJH]Google Scholar
Brownstein, A. J. & Pliskoff, S. S. (1968) Some effects of relative reinforcement rate and changeover delay in response-independent concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11:683–88. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Catania, A. C. (1973) Self-inhibiting effects of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 19:517–26. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Catania, A. C. (1979) Learning. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall. [RJH]Google Scholar
Catania, A. C. & Reynolds, G. S. (1968) A quantitative analysis of the responding maintained by interval schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11:327–83. [RJH. HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chomsky, N. (1968) Language and mind. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc. [HKS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, G. (1977) Optimal feeding strategies in animals: Laboratory simulation. Paper presented at the meetings of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston. [EJF]Google Scholar
Collier, G., Hirsch, E. & Hamlin, P. (1972) The ecological determinants of reinforcement in the rat. Physiology and Behavior 9:705–16. [JA, EJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collier, G., Hirsch, E. & Kanarek, R. (1977) The operant revisited. In: Handbook of operant behavior, ed. Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R., pp. 2852. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [NR]Google Scholar
Curry, R. L. Jr & Wade, L. L. (1968) A theory of political exchange. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [HKS]Google Scholar
de Villiers, P. A. (1977) Choice in concurrent schedules and a quantitative formulation of the law of effect. In: Handbook of operant behavior, ed. Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R., pp. 233–87. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [RJH, JCL, HR]Google Scholar
de Villiers, P. A. & Herrnstein, R. J. (1976) Toward a law of response strength. Psychological Bulletin 83:1131–53. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Diewert, W. E. (1974) "Applications of duality theory." In: Frontiers of quantitative economics, vol. 2, ed. Intriligator, M. D. & Kendrick, D. A.. Amsterdam: North Holland. [HR]Google Scholar
Falk, J. L. (1967) Control of schedule-induced polydipsia: Type, size, and spacing of meals. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 10:199206. [HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fantino, E. (1969) Conditional reinforcement, choice, and the psychological distance to reward. In: Conditioned reinforcement, ed. Hendry, D. P.. Homewood, Ill: Dorsey Press. [HR]Google Scholar
Falk, J. L. (1977) Conditioned reinforcement: Choice and information. In: Handbook of Operant Behavior, ed. Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R.. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [HR]Google Scholar
Fantino, E. & Logan, C. A. (1979) The experimental analysis of behavior: A biological perspective. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. [EJF, RJH]Google Scholar
Ferster, C. B. (1978) Is operant conditioning getting bored with behavior? A review of Honig & Staddon's Handbook of operant behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 29:347–49. [JCL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ferster, C. B. & Skinner, B. F. (1957) Schedules of reinforcement. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. [JCL, HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, M. (1953) The methodology of positive economics. In: Essays in positive economics, ed. Friedman, M., pp. 343. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [HKS]Google Scholar
Friedman, M. (1957) A theory of the consumption function. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. [MCK]Google Scholar
Chez, G. R. & Becker, G. S. (1975) The allocation of time and goods over the life-cycle. Human Behavior and Social Institutions, No. 6. New York: Columbia University Press. [MCK]Google Scholar
Gibbon, J. (1977) Scalar expectancy theory and Weber's law in animal timing. Psychological Review 84:279325. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, L. & Green, J. K. (1979) The effect of deprivation level on labor supply in pigeons. Paper delivered at Association for Behavior Analysis meeting, Dearborn, Mich. [HR]Google Scholar
Green, L., Kagel, J. H. & Battalio, R. C. (in press) Ratio schedules of reinforcement and their relationship to economic theories of labor supply. In: Quantitative analysis of behavior, vol. 2, ed. Herrnstein, R. J. & Rachlin, H.. Cambridge. Mass.: Ballinger. [EJF. MCK, HR]Google Scholar
Green, L. & Snyderman, M. (1980) Choice between rewards differing in amount and delay: Toward a choice model of self-control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 34:135–48. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, D. R. (1978) Prospects for a cognitive ethology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1:527–38. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griliches, Z. (1967) Distributed lags: A survey. Econometrica 35:1649. [MCK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hader, J. (1971) Mathematical theory of economic behavior. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. [HR]Google Scholar
Halliday, M. S. & Boakes, R. A. (1972) Discrimination involving response-independent reinforcement: Implications for behavioural contrast. In: Inhibition and learning, ed. Boakes, R. A. & Halliday, M. S., pp. 7395. New York: Academic Press. [WMB]Google Scholar
Harlow, H. F. (1950) Analysis of discrimination learning by monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology 40:2639. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heckman, J. J. (1976) A life-cycle model of earnings, learning, and consumption. Journal of Political Economy 84:511–68. [MCK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henderson, J. & Quandt, R. E. (1980) Microeconomic theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. [HSR]Google Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1961) Relative and absolute strength of response as a function of frequency of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 4:267–72. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1964) Secondary reinforcement and the rate of primary reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 7:2736. [WMB, HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrnstein, R. J. (1969) Method and theory in the study of avoidance. Psychological Review 76:4969. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1970) On the law of effect. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 13:243–66. (WMB, RJH, HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrnstein, R. J. (1971) Quantitative hedonism. Journal of Psychiatric Research 8:399412. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrnstein, R. J. (1974) Formal properties of the matching law. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21:159–64. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrnstein, R. J. (1977) The evolution of behaviorism. American Psychologist 32:593603. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. (1979) Derivatives of matching. Psychological Review 86:486–95. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herrnstein, R. J. & Heyman, G. M. (1979) Is matching compatible with reinforcement maximization on concurrent variable interval, variable ratio? Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 31:209–23. [WMB, RJH. HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrnstein, R. J. & Loveland, D. H. (1975) Maximizing and matching on concurrent ratio schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 24:107–16. [JA, RJH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herrnstein, R. J. & Vaughan, W. (1980) Melioration and behavioral allocation. In: Limits to action: The allocation of individual behavior, ed. Staddon, J. E. R.. pp. 143–76. New York: Academic Press. [WMB, RJH, HR, WV]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heymun, G. M. & Luce, R. D. (1979) Operant matching is not a logical consequence of maximizing reinforcement rate. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:133–40. [AIH, RJH, HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hillner, K. P. (1979) Conditioning in contemporary perspective. New York: Springer. [RJH]Google Scholar
Hineline, P. N. (1970) Negative reinforcement without shock reduction. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 14:259–68. [PRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hineline, P. N. (1977) Negative reinforcement and avoidance. In: Handbook of operant behavior, ed. Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R.. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [HR]Google Scholar
Hollard, V., & Davison, M. C. (1971) Preference for qualitatively different reinforcers. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 16:375–80. [HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Honiara, G. (1958) "Social behavior as exchange." American Journal of Sociology 63:597606. [HKS]Google Scholar
Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R. (1977) Handbook of operant behavior. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. [HR]Google Scholar
Houston, A. I. (1980) Godzilla v. the creature from the black lagoon - ethology v. psychology. In: The analysis of motivational processes, ed. Toates, F. M. & Halliday, T. R., pp. 297318. London: Academic Press. [AIH]Google Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McFarland, D. J. (1980) Behavioral resilience and its relation to demand functions. In: Limits to action, ed. Staddon, J. E. R., pp. 177200. New York: Academic Press. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. (in press) How to maximize reward rate on two VI paradigms. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. [AIH]Google Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1943) Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton-Century. [HR]Google Scholar
Hursh, S. R. (1978) The economics of daily consumption controlling food- and water-reinforced responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 29:475–91. [EJF. RJH, HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hursh, S. R. (1980) Economic concepts for the analysis of behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 34:219–38. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hursh, S. R. (1980) Economics and behavior analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 2:219–38. [EJF. HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hursh, S. R. & Natelson, B. J. (in press) Electrical brain stimulation and food reinforcement dissociated by demand elasticity. Physiology and Behavior. [RJH]Google Scholar
Jamison, E. & Premack, D. (1970) Choice and habituation as measures of response similarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 85:3035. [HR]Google Scholar
Johnston, T.D. (1981) Contrasting approaches to a theory of learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:125173. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kagel, J. H., Battalio, R. C., Green, L. & Rachlin, H. (1980) Consumer demand theory applied to choice behavior of rats. In: Limits to action: The allocation of individual behavior, ed. Staddon, J. E. R.. New York: Academic Press. [HR]Google Scholar
Kagel, J. H., Battalio, R. C., Green, L. & Rachlin, H. (1981) Demand curves for animal consumers. Quarterly Journal of Economics 46:116. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keeley, M. C. (1981, in press) Labor supply and public policy: A critical review. New York: Academic Press. [MCK]Google Scholar
Keeley, M. C. & Wai, H. S. (1980) Labor supply response to a permanent negative income tax program. Unpublished SRI research memo. [MCK]Google Scholar
Keeley, M. C., Robins, P. K., Spiegelman, R. G. & West, R. W. (1978) The estimation of labor supply models using experimental data. The American Economic Review 68:873–87. [MCK]Google Scholar
Kershaw, D. & Fair, J. (1976) The New Jersey income-maintenance experiment. New York: Academic Press. [HR]Google Scholar
Killeen, P. (1972) A yoked-chamber comparison of concurrent and multiple schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 18:1322. [HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B. (eds.) (1978) Behavioral ecology: An evolutionary approach. Oxford: Blackwell. [HR]Google Scholar
Krupp, S. R. (1966) "Types of controversies in economics." In: The structure of economic science. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [HKS]Google Scholar
Kuhn, T. S. (1962) The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [SJH]Google Scholar
Lancaster, K. (1966) A new approach to consumer theory. Journal of Political Economy 74:132–57. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lave, C. A. & March, J. G. (1975) An introduction to models in the social sciences. New York: Harper and Row. [HKS]Google Scholar
Lea, S. E. G. (1978) The psychology and economics of demand. Psychological Bulletin 85:441–66. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lea, S. E. G. (1979) Foraging and reinforcement schedules in the pigeon: Optimal and non-optimal aspects of choice. Animal Behavior 27:875–86. [EJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lea, S. E. G. (1981) Concurrent fixed-ratio schedules for different reinforcers: A general theory. In: Quantification of steady-sate operant behavior, ed., Bradshaw, C. M., Szabadi, E. & Lowe, C. F., pp. 101–14. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [AIH]Google Scholar
Lea, S. E. G. & Roper, T. J. (1977) Demand for food in fixed-ratio schedules as a function of the quality of concurrently available reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 27:371–80. [JA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Le Magnen, J. (1971) Advances in studies on the physiological control and regulation of food intake. In: Progress in physiological psychology, vol. 4, ed. Stellar, E. & Sprague, J. M. pp. 203261. New York: Academic Press. [NR]Google Scholar
Leslie, J. C. (1981) Effects of variations in local reinforcement rate on local response rate in variable interval schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 35:4353. [JCL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewin, K. (1938) The conceptual representation and measurement of psychological forces. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lipsey, R. G. & Steiner, P. O. (1975) Economics. New York: Harper and Row. [HSR]Google Scholar
Lobb, B. & Davison, M. C. (1977) Performance in concurrent interval schedules: A systematic replication. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 27:371–80. [HR]Google Scholar
Loeb, J. (1918) Forced movements, tropisms and animal conduct. Philadelphia: Lippincott. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Logan, F. A. (1960) Incentive. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. [HR]Google Scholar
McFarland, D. J. (1974) Experimental investigation of motivational state. In: Motivational control systems analysis, ed. McFarland, D. J., pp. 251–82. London: Academic Press. [NR]Google Scholar
McFarland, D. J. (1977) Decision-making in animals. Nature 269:1521. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marwine, A. & Collier, G. (1979) The rat at the waterhole. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 93:391402. [JA, NR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. (1978) Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:3156. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, J. (1979) The value-averaging model: An alternative to "conservation in behavior." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108:4347. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, J. E. & Logue, A. W. (1978) Choice in a "self-control" paradigm: Effects of a fading procedure. Journal of the Experimental Anaysis of Behavior. 30:1118. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meehl, P. E. (1950) On the circularity of the law of effect. Psychological Bulletin 47:5275. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
*Metcalf, C. E. (1973) Making inferences from controlled income maintenance experiments. American Economic Review 153:478–83. [MCK]Google Scholar
Miller, H. L. Jr. (1976) Matching-based hedonic scaling in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 26:335–47. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, N. E. (1959) Liberalization of basic S-R concepts: Extensions to conflict behavior, motivation and social learning. In: Psychology: A study of a science, vol. 2, ed. Koch, S.. New York: McGraw-Hill. [HR]Google Scholar
Miller, N. E. (1967) Behavioral and physiological techniques: Rationale and experimental designs for combining their use. In: Handbook of physiology, section 6, vol. 1, ed. Code, C. F., pp. 5161. Washington. D.C.: American Physiological Society. [NR]Google Scholar
Mischel, W. (1958) Preference for delayed reinforcement: An experimental study of a cultural observation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 56:5761. [HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, R. & Kehrer, K. (1981 in press) The effect of tax and transfer programs on labor supply: The evidence from the income maintenance experiments. In: Research in labor economics, ed. Ehrenberg, R.. Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press. [RAM]Google Scholar
Mogenson, G. J. & Phillips, A. G. (1976) Motivation: A psychological construct in search of a physiological substrate. In: Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology, vol. 6, ed. Sprague, J. M. & Epstein, A. N., pp. 189243. New York: Academic Press. [NR]Google Scholar
Morse, W. H. & Kelleher, R. T. (1970) Schedules as fundamental determinants of behavior. In: The theory of reinforcement schedules, ed. Schoenfeld, W. N., pp. 139–85. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [JCL]Google Scholar
Motheral, M. S. & Staddon, J. E. R. (1980) Optimal allocation of behavior: Ratio and interval schedules. Paper presented at the meetings of the Association for Behavior Analysis. [MSM]Google Scholar
Myers, D. L. & Myers, L. E. (1977) Undermatching: A reappraisal of performance on concurrent variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 25:203–14. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neuringer, A. J. (1969) Delayed reinforcement versus reinforcement after a fixed interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 12:375–83. [WMB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nevin, J. A. (1979) Overall matching versus momentary matching: Nevin (1969) revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 5:300–06. [JCL]Google Scholar
Nevin, J. A. & Baum, W. M. (1980) Feedback functions for variable-interval reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 2:207–18. [AIH, SJH, HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newman, P. (1965) The theory of exchange. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. [HR]Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. E. & Wilson, T. D. (1977) Telling more than we can know: verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84:231–59. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olds, J. (1962) Hypothalamic substrates of reward. Psychological Review 51:675–79. [HR]Google Scholar
Oster, G. F. & Wilson, E. O. (1978) Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. [AIH]Google ScholarPubMed
Pechman, J. A. & Timpane, P. M. (1975) Work incentives and income guarantees: The New Jersey negative income-tax experiment. Washington, DC.: Brooking Institute, 1975. [HR]Google Scholar
Platt, J. R. (1964) Strong inference. Science 146:347–53. [WV]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pollak, R. A. (1970) Habit formation and dynamic demand functions. Journal of Political Economy 78:745–63. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollak, R. A. (1971) Additive utility functions and linear Engel curves. Review of Economic Studies 38:401–13. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prelec, D. & Herrnstein, R. J. (1978) Feedback functions for reinforcement: A paradigmatic experiment. Animal Learning and Behavior 6:181–86. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Premack, D. (1965) Reinforcement theory. In: Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1965, ed. Levine, D., pp. 123–80. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. [MSM, HR, WT]Google Scholar
Prelec, D. & Herrnstein, R. J. (1971) Catching up with common sense or two sides of generalization: Reinforcement and punishment. In: The nature of reinforcement, ed. Glaser, R., pp. 121–50. New York: Academic Press. [MSM, HR]Google Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1971) On the tautology of the matching law. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 15:249–51. [RJH, HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachlin, H. (1973) Contrast and matching. Psychological Review 80:217–34. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1974) Self-control. Behaviorism 1:94108. [HR]Google Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1976) Introduction to modern behaviorism, 2nd. ed.San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. [RJH]Google Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1978) A molar theory of reinforcement schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 30:345–60. [AIH, MSM, HR, WV]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachlin, H. (1979) Comment on Heyman and Luce. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:267–68. [RJH, HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1980) Economics and behavioral psychology. In: limits to action, ed. Staddon, J. E. R., pp. 205–36. New York: Academic Pres. [RJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. (1981) Learning theory in its niche. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:155–6. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. & Burkhard, B. (1978) The temporal triangle: Response substitution in instrumental conditioning. Psychological Review 85:2248. [SEGL, MSM, HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. & Frankel, M. (1969) Choice, rate of response, and rate of gambling. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80:444–49. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachlin, H. & Green, L. (1972) Commitment, choice and self-control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 17:1522. [PRK, HR, RHT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachlin, H., Green, L., Kagel, J. H. & Battalio, R. C. (1976) Economic demand theory and psychological studies of choice. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 10, ed. Bower, G., pp. 129–54. New York: Academic Press. [RJH, HR, NR]Google Scholar
Rachlin, H., Kagel, J. H. & Battalio, R. C. (1980) Substitutability in time allocation. Psychological Review 87:355–74. [AIH, SEGL, HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rowland, N. (1977) Regulatory drinking: Do the physiological substrates have an ecological niche? Biobehavioral Reviews 1:261–72. [NR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rowland, N. (1981) (in press) Drinking behaviour: Physiological, neurological, and environmental factors. In: Motivational processes, ed. Toates, F. M. and Halliday, T.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [NR]Google Scholar
Rowland, N. & Marques, D. M. (1980) Stress-induced eating: Misrepresentation? Appetite 1:225–28. [NR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schrader, S. (1979) The economics of leisure in psychological studies of choice. Thesis. State University of New York at Stony Brook. [HR]Google Scholar
Schuster, R. & Rachlin, H. (1968) Indifference between punishment and free shock: Evidence for the negative law of effect. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11:777–86. [PRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, N., & Allison, J. (1978) Conservation, choice, and the concurrent fixed-ratio schedule. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 29:211–23. [JA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shefrin, H. M. & Thaler, R. (1980) Rules and discretion in a two-self model of intertemporal choice. Cornell University mimeo. [RHT]Google Scholar
Shimp, C. P. (1969) Optimum behavior in free-operant experiments. Psychological Review 76:97112. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shimp, C. P. (1973) Synthetic variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 19:311–30. [JCL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shimp, C. P. (1979) The local organisation of behavior: Method and theory. In: Reinforcement and the organization of behavior, ed. Zeiler, M. D. & Harzem, P., pp. 261–98. Chichester, England: J. Wiley. [JCL]Google Scholar
Shull, R. L. (1979) The postreinforcement pause: Some implications for the correlational law of effect. In: Reinforcement and the organizationof behavior, ed. Zeiler, M. D. & Harzem, P., pp. 193221. Chichester, England. Wiley. [JCL]Google Scholar
Sibly, R. M. & McFarland, D. J. (1976) On the fitness of behavior sequences. American Naturalist 110:601–17. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, H. A. (1956) Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychological Review 63:129–38. [HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skinner, B. F. (1938) The behavior of organisms. New York: Appleton-Century. [HR]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1948) "Superstition" in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology 38:168172. [HR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skinner, B. F. (1976) Farewell, my LOVELY! Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 25:218. [JCL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Staddon, J. E. R. (1973) On the notion of cause, with applications to behaviorism. Behaviorism 1:2563. [PRK]Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (1977) On Herrnstein's equation and related forms. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 28:163–70. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Staddon, J. E. R. (1979) Operant behavior as adaptation to constraint. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 108:4867. [JA, AIH, SEGL, HR, WT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (ed.) (1980) Limits to action: The allocation of individual behavior. New York: Academic Press. [RJH, HR]Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (1980) Optimality analyses of operant behavior and their relation to optimal foraging. In: Limits to action, ed. Staddon, J. E. R., pp. 101–41. New York: Academic Press. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. (in press) Behavioral competition, contrast and matching. In: Quantitative analysis of behavior, vol. 2, ed. Commons, M., Herrnstein, R. J. & Rachlin, H.. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. [HR]Google Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. & Motheral, S. (1978) On matching and maximizing in operant choice experiments. Psychological Review 85:436–44. [AIH, HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Staddon, J. E. R. & Simmelhag, V. L. (1971) The "superstition" experiment: A reexamination of its implications for the principles of adaptive behavior. Psychological Review 78:1643. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stigler, G. J. & Becker, G. S. (1977) De gustibus non est disputandum. The American Economic Review 67:7690. [MCK, HR, RHT]Google Scholar
Thaler, R. (1980) Toward a positive theory of consumer choice. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 1:3960. [RHT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thaler, R. & Shefrin, H. (in press) "An economic theory of self-control." Journal of Political Economy. [HR, RHT]Google Scholar
Thorndike, E. L. (1911) Animal intelligence: Experimental studies. New York: Macmillan. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timberlake, W. (1979) Licking one saccarin solution for access to another in rats: Contingent and noncontingent effects in instrumental performance. Animal Learning and Behavior 7:277–88. [WT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Timberlake, W. (1980) A molar equilibrium theory of learned performance. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 14, ed. Bower, G. H., pp. 158. New York: Academic Press. [WT]Google Scholar
Timberlake, W. & Allison, J. (1974) Response deprivation: An empirical approach to instrumental performance. Psychological Review 81:146–64. [MSM, HR, WT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toates, F. M. (1979) Homeostasis and drinking. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:95139. [NR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toates, F. M. (1979) Water and energy in the interaction of thirst and hunger. In: Chemical influences on behaviour, ed. Brown, K. & Cooper, S., pp. 135200. London: Academic Press. [AIH]Google Scholar
Tolman, E. C. (1932) Purposive behavior in animals and men. New York: Century. [HR]Google Scholar
Tversky, A. (1969) Intrasitivity of preference. Psychological Review 76:3148. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vaughan, W Jr. (1976) Optimization and reinforcement. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Harvard University. [WV]Google Scholar
Vaughan, W Jr. (in press) Choice and the Rescorla-Wagner model. In: Quantitative analysis of behavior, vol. 2, ed. Commons, M., Hermstein, R. J. & Rachlin, H.. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. [WV]Google Scholar
Wegge, L. L. (1968) The demand curves from a quadratic utility indicator. Review of Economic Studies 35:209–24. [HR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeiler, M. (1977) Schedules of reinforcement: The controlling variables. In: Handbook of operant behavior, ed. Honig, W. K. & Staddon, J. E. R.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. [EJF]Google Scholar
8
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Maximization theory: The “package” will not serve as an atom
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Maximization theory: The “package” will not serve as an atom
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Maximization theory: The “package” will not serve as an atom
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *