Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-dksz7 Total loading time: 0.833 Render date: 2021-08-02T20:19:49.035Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Implementational constraints on human learning and memory systems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

Chad J. Marsolek
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721marsolek@convxl.ccit.arizona.edu
Corresponding

Abstract

Image of the first page of this article. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.
Type
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aaronson, D. & Scarborough, H. S. (1977) Performance theories for sentence coding: Some quantitative models. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 16: 277303. [ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abrams, M. & Reber, A. S. (1988) Implicit learning: Robustness in the face of psychiatric disorders. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 17: 425–39. [ASR, CAS]Google ScholarPubMed
Adams, J. K. (1957) Laboratory studies of behavior without awareness. Psychological Bulletin 54: 383405. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aha, D. W., Kibler, D. & Albert, M. K. (1991) Instance-based learning algorithms. Machine Learning 6: 3766. [RLC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, S. W. & Brooks, L. R. (1991) Specializing the operation of an explicit rule. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 319. [aDRS, RLC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altmann, C. T. M., Dienes, Z. & Goode, A. (in press) On the modality-independence of implicitly learned grammatical knowledge: Implications for the onset of language acquisition. Cognition. [aDRS, DCB, ASR]Google Scholar
Andrade, J. (in press) Learning during anaesthesia. British Journal of Psychology. [aDRS] Andrade, J., Munglani, R., Jones, J. G. & Baddeley, A. D. (in press) Cognitive performance during anaesthesia. Consciousness and Cognition. [JA]Google Scholar
Baer, P. E. & Fuhrer, M. J. (1982) Cognitive factors in the concurrent differential conditioning of eyelid and skin conductance responses. Memory and Cognition 10: 135–40. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baeyens, F., Eelen, P., Crombez, G. & Van den Bergh, O. (1992) Human evaluative conditioning: Acquisition trials, presentation schedule, evaluative style and contingency awareness. Behavioitr Research and Therapy 30: 133–42. [aDRS, FB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baeyens, F., Eelen, P. & Van den Bergh, O. (1990a) Contingency awareness in evaluative conditioning: A case for unaware affective-evaluative learning. Cognition and Emotion 4: 318. [aDRS, FB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baeyens, F., Eelen, P., Van den Bergh, O. & Crombez, G. (1989) The influence of CS-US perceptual similarity/dissimilarity on human evaluative learning and signal learning. Learning and Motivation 20: 322–33. [FB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baeyens, F., Eelen, P., Van den Bergh, O. & Crombez, G. (1990b) Flavor-flavor and color-flavor conditioning in humans. Learning and Motivation 21: 434–55. [FB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baeyens, F., Heremans, R., Eelen, P. & Crombez, G. (1994) Hiddencovariation detection and imagery ability. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 5: 435–56. [FB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barsalou, L. W. (1990) On the indistinguishability of exemplar memory and abstraction in category representation. In: Advances in social cognition (vol. 3): Content and process specificity in the effects of prior experiences, ed. Srull, T. K. & Wyer, R. S.. [RLG, RAP]Google Scholar
Barton, L. E., Brulle, A. R. & Repp, A. C. (1986) Maintenance of therapeutic change by momentary DRO. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 19: 277–82. [GO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beeman, M. (1993) Semantic processing in the right hemisphere may contribute to drawing inferences from discourse. Brain and Language 44: 80120. [CJM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentall, R. P., Lowe, C. F. & Beasty, A. (1985) The role of verbal behavior in human learning: II. Developmental differences. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 43: 165–81. [GO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berry, D. C. (1994) Implicit learning: Twenty-five years on. A tutorial. In: Attention and performance XV, ed. Umilta, C. & Moscovitch, M.. MITress. [DCB]Google Scholar
Berry, D. C. & Broadbent, D. E. (1984) On the relationship between task performance and associated verbalizable knowledge. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 36A: 209–31. [aDRS, DCB, AR, CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, D. C. & Broadbent, D. E. (1987) Explanation and verbalization in a computer-assisted search task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 39A: 585609. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, D. C. & Broadbent, D. E. (1988) Interactive tasks and the implicit-explicit distinction. British Journal of Psychology 79: 251–72. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, D. C. & Broadbent, D. E. (1990) The role of instruction and verbalization in improving performance on complex search tasks. Behavior and Information Technology 9: 175–90. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, D. C. & Dienes, Z. (1991) The relationship between implicit memory and implicit learning. British Journal of Psychology 82: 359–73. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
(1993) Implicit learning: Theoretical and empirical issues. Erlbaum. [DCB, ZD]Google Scholar
Biederman, I. & Shiffrar, M. M. (1987) Sexing day-old chicks: A case study and expert systems analysis of a difficult perceptual-learning task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13: 640–45. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Birdwhistell, R. L. (1970) Kinesics and context. University of Pennsylvania Press. [ASR]Google Scholar
Boakes, R. A. (1989) How one might find evidence for conditioning in adult humans. In: Aversion, avoidance and anxiety: Perspectives on learning and memory, ed. Archer, T. & Nilsson, L.-G.. Erlbaum. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Bornstein, R. F. (1989a) Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of research, 1968–1987. Psychological Bulletin 106: 265–89. [RFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bornstein, R. F. (1989b) Subliminal techniques as propaganda tools: Review and critique. Journal of Mind and Behavior 10: 231–62. [RFB]Google Scholar
Bornstein, R. F. (1992) Subliminal mere exposure effects. In: Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical and social perspectives, ed. Bornstein, R. F. & Pittman, T. S.. Guilford Press. [aDRS, RFB]Google Scholar
Bornstein, R. F., Leone, D. R. & Galley, D. J. (1987) The generalizability of subliminal mere exposure effects: Influence of stimuli perceived without awareness on social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53: 1070–79. [RFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowers, J. S. & Schacter, D. L. (1990) Implicit memory and test awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 404–16. [CJM]Google ScholarPubMed
Bowers, K. S. (1984) On being unconsciously influenced and informed. In: The unconscious reconsidered, ed. Bowers, K. S. & Meichenbaum, D.. Wiley. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Brewer, W. F. (1974) There is no convincing evidence for operant or classical conditioning in adult humans. In: Cognition and the symbolic processes, ed. Weimer, W. B. & Palermo, D. S.. Erlbaum. [aDRS, SSR, FS]Google Scholar
British Psychological Society (1992) Subliminal messages. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Broadbent, D. E. (1971) Decision and stress. Academic Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Broadbent, D. E., Fitzgerald, P. & Broadbent, M. H. P. (1986) Implicit and explicit knowledge in the control of complex systems. British Journal of Psychology 77: 3350. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brody, N. (1989) Unconscious learning of rules: Comment on Reber's analysis of implicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 18: 236–38. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, L. (1978) Nonanalytic concept formation and memory for instances. In: Cognition and categorization, ed. Rosch, E. & Lloyd, B. B.. Erlbaum. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Brooks, L. R. & Vokey, J. R. (1991) Abstract analogies and abstracted grammars: Comments on Reber (1989) and Mathews et al. (1989). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 316–23. [aDRS, HN, ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J. & Austin, G. A. (1956) A study of thinking. Wiley. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Burgess, C. & Simpson, G. (1988) Hemispheric processing of ambiguous words. Brain and Language 33: 86104. [CJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cambiganu, C., Rizzo, A., Parlangeli, O., Farfaneti, G. & Bagnara, S. (1993) Implicit and explicit learning in controlling dynamic systems. A situated knowledge view. In: Proceedings of the fourth European conference on cognitive science approaches to process control, Copenhagen. CRI. [AR]Google Scholar
Carew, T. J., Hawkins, R. D. & Kandel, E. R. (1983) Differential classical conditioning of a defense withdrawal reflex in Aplysia californica. Science 219: 397400. [ASR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carlson, R. A. (1992) Starting with consciousness. American Journal of Psychology 105: 598604. [RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlson, R. A. & Dulany, D. E. (1985) Conscious attention and abstraction in concept learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 11: 4558. [RAC]Google Scholar
Catania, A. C. (1992) Learning (3rd ed.). Prentice-Hall International. [GO]Google Scholar
Catania, A. C., Matthews, B. A. & Shimoff, E. (1982) Instructed versus shaped human verbal behavior: Interactions with nonverbal responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 38: 233–48. [ACC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Catania, A. C., Shimoff, E. & Matthews, B. A. (1989) An experimental analysis of rule-governed behavior. In: Rule-governed behavior: Cognition, contingencies, and instructional control, ed. Hayes, S. C.. Plenum. [aDRS, FS]Google Scholar
Chan, C. (1992) Implicit cognitive processes: Theoretical issues and applications in computer systems design. Ph.D. thesis, University of Oxford. [ZD]Google Scholar
Channon, S., Daum, I. & Gray, J. A. (1993) Operant conditioning after temporal lobe lesions in man: Conditional and simple discrimination learning. Cortex 29: 315–24. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Charness, N., Milberg, W. & Alexander, M. P. (1988) Teaching an amnesic a complex cognitive skill. Brain and Cognition 8: 253–72. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cheesman, J. & Merikle, P. M. (1984) Priming with and without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 36: 387–95. [ZD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheesman, J. & Merikle, P. M. (1986) Distinguishing conscious from unconscious perceptual processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology 40: 343–67. [MAS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiarello, C. (1988) Semantic priming in the intact brain: Separate roles for the right and left hemispheres? In: Right hemisphere contributions to lexical semantics, ed. Chiarello, C.. Springer-Verlag. [CJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, N. (1981) Lectures on government and binding. Holland: Foris Publications. [HN]Google Scholar
Cleeremans, A. (1993a) Attention and awareness in sequence learning. In: Proceedings of the fifteenth annual, conference of the cognitive science society. Erlbaum. [AC]Google Scholar
Cleeremans, A. (1993b) Mechanisms of implicit learning: Connectionist models of sequence processing. MIT Press. [aDRS, AC, ZD, GO, RAP]Google Scholar
Cleeremans, A. & McClelland, J. L. (1991) Learning the structure of event sequences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 235–53. [aDRS, AC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, A., Ivry, R. I. & Keele, S. W. (1990) Attention and structure in sequence learning, journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 1730. [aDRS; JR]Google Scholar
Cohen, N. J. & Eichenbaum, H. (1993) Memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal system. MIT Press. [RAP]Google Scholar
Cohen, N. J. & Squire, L. R. (1980) Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: Dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science 21: 207–10. [aDRS, EE, ZK, RAP, LRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cork, R. C., Kihlstrom, J. F. & Schacter, D. L. (1992) Absence of explicit or implicit memory in patients anesthetized with sufentanil/nitrous oxide. Anesthesiology 76: 892–98. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curran, T. & Keele, S. W. (1993) Attentional and non-attentional forms of sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19: 189202. [AC]Google Scholar
Daum, I., Channon, S., Polkey, C. E. & Gray, J. A. (1991) Classical conditioning after temporal lobe lesions in man: Impairment in conditional discrimination. Behavioral Neurosdence 105: 396408. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davey, G. C. L. (1984) Is evaluative conditioning a qualitatively distinct form of classical conditioning? Behavior Research and Therapy 32: 291–99. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davey, G. C. L. (1992) An expectancy model of laboratory preparedness effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121: 2440. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, M. E. & Schell, A. M. (1985) Information processing and human autonomic classical conditioning. In: Advances in psychophysiology, ed. Ackles, P. K., Jennings, J. R. & Coles, M. C. H.. JAI Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
De Houwer, J., Baeyens, F. & Eelen, P. (in press) Verbal evaluative conditioning with undetected US presentations. Behaviour Research and Therapy. [FB]Google Scholar
De Houwer, J., Hendricx, H., Baeyens, F. & van Avermaet, E. (1994) Hidden covariation detection might be very hidden indeed. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.[aDRS]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1991) Consciousness explained. Little, Brown. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Dickinson, A. (1988) Intentionality in animal conditioning. In: Thought without language, ed. Weiskrantz, L.. Clarendon Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Dienes, Z. (1992) Connectionist and memory-array models of artificial grammar learning. Cognitive Science 16: 4180. [aDRS, RAP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dienes, Z., Altmann, G. & Kwan, L. (submitted) Unconscious knowledge of artificial grammars is applied strategically. [ZD]Google Scholar
Dienes, Z., Broadbent, D. E. & Berry, D. (1991) Implicit and explicit knowledge bases in artificial grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17: 875–87. [aDRS, HN]Google ScholarPubMed
Dienes, Z. & Pemer, J. (forthcoming) Implicit knowledge in people and connectionist networks. In: Implicit cognition, ed. Underwood, G.. Oxford University Press. [ZD]Google Scholar
Dreyfus, H. L. & Dreyfus, S. E. (1986) Why skills cannot be represented by rules. In: Advances in cognitive science, ed. Sharkey, N. E.. Ellis Horwood. [GO]Google Scholar
Dulany, D. E. (1961) Hypotheses and habits in verbal “operant conditioning.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 63: 251–63. [arDRS, RAC, FS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dulany, D. E.(1968) Awareness, rules, and propositional control: A confrontation with S-R behavior theory. In: Verbal behavior and general behavior theory, ed. Dixon, T. & Horton, D.. Prentice-Hall. [RAC, SSR]Google Scholar
Dulany, D. E., Carlson, R. A. & Dewey, G. I. (1984) A case of syntactical learning and judgment: How conscious and how abstract? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113: 541–55. [aDRS, RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dulany, D. E., (1985) On consciousness in syntactic learning and judgment: A reply to Reber, Allen, and Regan. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 2532. [aDRS, RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dulany, D. E. & Poldrack, R. A. (1991) Learned covariation: Conscious or unconscious representation? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, San Francisco. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Eich, E. (1984) Memory for unattended events: Remembering with and without awareness. Memory and Cognition 12: 105–11. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eichenbaum, H., Fagan, A., Mathews, P. & Cohen, N. (1988) Hippocampal system dysfunction and odor discrimination learning in rats: Impairment or facilitation depending on representational demands. Behavioral Neurosdence 102: 331–39. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eichenbaum, H., Otto, T. & Cohen, N. J. (1992) The hippocampus – what does it do? Behavior, Neurology, Biology 57: 236. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elman, J. L. (1990) Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science 14: 179212. [rDRS, AC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elman, J. L. (1993) Learning and development in neural networks; The importance of starting small. Cognition 48: 7199. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Erdelyi, M. H. (1985) Psychoanalysis: Freud's cognitive psychology. Freeman. [RFB]Google Scholar
Ericsson, K. A. & Simon, H. A. (1980) Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review 87: 215–51. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ericsson, K. A. (1984) Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. MIT Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Eriksen, C. W. (1960) Discrimination and learning without awareness: A methodological survey and evaluation. Psychological Review 67: 279300. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Estes, W. K. (1986) Array models for category learning. Cognitive Psychology 18: 500549. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Farah, M. J., O'Reilly, R. C. & Vecera, S. P. (1993) Dissociated overt and covert recognition as an emergent property of a lesioned neural network. Psychological Review 100: 571–88. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fleishman, E. A. & Quaintance, M. K. (1984) Taxonomies of human performance. Academic Press. [DBW]Google Scholar
Flexser, A. J. & Tulving, E. (1978) Retrieval independence in recognition and recall. Psychological Review 85: 153–71. [SSR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frensch, P. A., Buchner, A. & Lin, J. (1994) Implicit learning of unique and ambiguous serial transitions in the presence and absence of a distractor task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 20: 567–84. [CAS]Google Scholar
Gabrieli, J. D. E., Keane, M. M. & Corkin, S. (1987) Acquisition of problem solving skills in global amnesia. Society for Neurosdence Abstracts 13: 1455. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Ghoneim, M. M. & Block, R. I. (1992) Learning and consciousness during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 76: 279305. [aDRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Ghoneim, M. M., Block, R. I. & Fowles, D. C. (1992) No evidence of classical conditioning of electrodermal responses during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 76: 682–88. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibson, J. J. (1971) The information available in pictures. Leonardo 4: 2735. [RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gluck, M. A. & Bower, G. H. (1988) From conditioning to category learning: An adaptive network model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117: 227–47. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gluck, M. A. & Myers, C. E. (1993) Hippocampal mediation of stimulus representation: A computational theory. Hippocampus 3: 491516. [ZK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goodale, M. A. (1993) Visual pathways supporting perception and action in the primate cerebral cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 3: 578–85. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gordon, P. C. & Holyoak, K. J. (1983) Implicit learning and generalization of the mere exposure effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45: 492500. [RFB, CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graf, P. & Komatsu, S. (in press) Process dissociation procedure: Handle with caution! European Journal of Cognitive Psychology. [MAS]Google Scholar
Graf, P., Squire, L. R. & Mandler, G. (1984) The information that amnesic patients do not forget. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 10: 164–78. [aDRS, ZK]Google Scholar
Granda, A. M. & Hammack, J. T. (1961) Operant behavior during sleep. Science 133: 1485–86. [GO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, R. E. A. & Shanks, D. R. (1993) On the existence of independent explicit and implicit learning systems: An examination of some evidence. Memory and Cognition 21: 304–17. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenspoon, J. (1955) The reinforcing effect of two spoken sounds on the frequency of two responses. American Journal of Psychology 68: 409–16. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenwald, A. G. (1992) Unconscious cognition reclaimed. American Psychologist 47: 766–79. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Greenwald, A. G., Spangenberg, E. R., Pratkanis, A. R. & Eskenazi, J. (1991) Double blind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Psychological Science 2: 119–22. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Griffin, D. R. (1992) Animal minds. University of Chicago Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Grings, W. W. (1965) Verbal-perceptual factors in the conditioning of autonomic responses. In: Classical conditioning: A symposium, ed. Prokasy, W. F.. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [rDRS, HDK]Google Scholar
Grings, W. W., Schell, A. M. & Carey, C. A. (1973) Verbal control of an autonomic response in a cue reversal situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99: 215–21. [aDRS, ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haith, M. M. & McCarty, M. E. (1990) Stability of visual expectation at 3.0 months of age. Developmental Psychology 26: 6874. [ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartman, M., Knopman, D. S. & Nissen, M. J. (1989) Implicit learning of new verbal associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15: 1070–82. [aDRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Hawkins, R. D., Kandel, E. R. & Siegelbaum, S. A. (1993) Learning to modulate transmitter release: Themes and variations in synaptic plasticity. Annual Review of Neurosdence 16: 625–65. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes, N. A. & Broadbent, D. E. (1988) Two modes of learning for interactive tasks. Cognition 28: 249–76. [aDRS, FS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hefferline, R. F., Keenan, B. & Harford, R. A. (1959) Escape and avoidance conditioning in human subjects without their observation of the response. Science 130: 1338–39. [FS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hintzman, D. L. (1986) “Schema abstraction” in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review 93: 411–28. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirst, W., Johnson, M. K., Phelps, E. A. & Volpe, B. T. (1988) More on recognition and recall in amnesics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14: 758–62. [CAS]Google ScholarPubMed
Hirst, W. & Volpe, B. T. (1984) Encoding of spatial relations with amnesia. Ncuropsychologia 22: 631–34. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holender, D. (1986) Semantic activation without conscious identification in dichotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking: A survey and appraisal. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9: 166. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holyoak, K. J. & Spellman, B. A. (1993) Thinking. Annual Review of Psychology 44: 265315. [KJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Homa, D., Sterling, S. & Trepel, L. (1981) Limitations of exemplar-based generalization and the abstraction of categorical information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 7: 418– 39. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Howard, D. V. & Howard, J. H. (1989) Age differences in learning serial patterns: Direct versus indirect measures. Psychology and Aging 4: 3564. [aDRS, CAS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Howe, M. L., Rabinowitz, F. M. & Crant, M. J. (1993) On measuring (in)dependence of cognitive processes. Psychological Review 100: 737–47. [NB, MLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hugdahl, K. & Ohman, A. (1977) Effects of instruction on acquisition and extinction of electrodermal responses to fear-relevant stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3: 608–18. [aDRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Humphreys, M. S., Bain, J. D. & Pike, R. (1989) Different ways to cue a coherent memory system: A theory for episodic, semantic, and procedural tasks. Psychological Review 96: 208–33. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
L. L., Jacoby (1991) A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30: 513–41. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. & Dallas, M. (1981) On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Ceneral 110: 306–40. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacoby, L. L. & Kelley, C. (1991) Unconscious influences of memory: Dissociations and automaticity. In: The neuropsychology of consciousness, ed. Milner, D. & Rugg, M.. Academic Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Jacoby, L. L., Lindsay, D. S. & Toth, J. P. (1992) Unconscious influences revealed: Attention, awareness, and control. American Psychologist 47: 802–9. [PMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacoby, L. L., Toth, J. P. & Yonelinas, A. P. (1993) Separating conscious and unconscious influences of memory: Measuring recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122: 139–54. [rDRS, MLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
James, W. (1890) The principles of psychology. Holt. [JL]Google Scholar
Jelicic, M., Bonke, B., Wolters, C. & Phaf, R. H. (1992) Implicit memory for words presented during anaesthesia. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 4: 7180. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, J. S. & Newport, E. L. (1989) Critical period effects in second language learning: The influence of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology 21: 6099. [JL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, P. E. (1983) What kind of expert should a system be? The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8: 7797. [GO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, W. A., Hawley, K. J. & Elliott, J. M. G. (1991) Contribution of perceptual fluency to recognition judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17: 210–23. [CAS]Google Scholar
Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1983) Mental models. Cambridge University Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Kemler Nelson, D. G. (1984) The effect of intention on what concepts are acquired. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 734–59. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kihlstrom, J. F., Schacter, D. L., Cork, R. C., Hurt, C. A. & Behr, S. E. (1990) Implicit and explicit memory following surgical anesthesia. Psychological Science 1: 303–6. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimmel, E. (1967) Judgments of UCS intensity and diminution of the UCR in classical CSR conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73: 532–43. [HDK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimmcl, H. D. (1974) Instrumental conditioning of autonomically mediated behavior in human beings. American Psychologist 29: 325–35. [HDK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimmel, H. D. & Bevill, M. (1985) Habitation and dishabituation of the human orienting reflex under instruction-induced stress. Physiological Psychology 13: 9294. [HDK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kimmel, H. D., Birbaumer, N., Elbert, T., Lutzenberger, W. & Rockstroh, B. (1983) Conditioned tonic stimulus control of nonspecific arousal. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science 18: 136–43. [rDRS, HDK]Google ScholarPubMed
Klahr, D., Dunbar, K. & Fay, A. L. (1990) Designing good experiments to test bad hypotheses. In: Computational models of scientific discovery and theory formation, ed. Shrager, J. & Langley, P.. Morgan Kaufmann. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Klayman, J. & Ha, Y. (1989) Hypothesis testing in rule discovery: Strategy, structure, and content. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15: 596604. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Knopman, D. (1991) Unaware learning versus preserved learning in pharmacologic amnesia: Similarities and differences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17: 1017–29. [aDRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Knowlton, B. J., Cluck, M. A. & Squire, L. R. (1993) Probabilistic category learning in amnesia. Proceedings of the Society for Neuroscience, Washington, D.C. [ZK]Google Scholar
Knowlton, B. J., Ramus, S. J. & Squire, L. R. (1992) Intact artificial grammar learning in amnesia: Dissociation of classification learning and explicit memory for instances. Psychological Science 3: 172–79. [aDRS, KJH, ASR, CAS, DBW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knowlton, B. J. & Squire, L. R. (1992) Intact prototype learning by amnesic patients: Evidence for parallel learning of item-specific and general information. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 18: 168. [CAS]Google Scholar
Knowlton, B. J. & Squire, L. R. (1993) The learning of categories: Parallel brain systems for item memory and category knowledge. Science 262: 1747–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolodny, J. (1994) Memory processes in classification learning. Psychological Science. []Google Scholar
Kotovsky, K. & Simon, H. A. (1979) Empirical tests of a theory of human acquisition of concepts for sequential patterns. In: Models of thought, ed. Simon, H. A.. Yale University Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Krasner, L. (1958) Studies of the conditioning of verbal behavior. Psychological Bulletin 55: 148–70. [aDRS, SSR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krosnick, J. A., Betz, A. I., Jussim, L. J. & Lynn, A. R. (1992) Subliminal conditioning of attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18: 152–62. [FB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kruschke, J. K. (1992) ALCOVE: An exemplar-based connectionist model of category learning. Psychological Review 99: 2244. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kuhl, P. K. & Metzoff, A. N. (in press) Evolution: Nativism and learning in the development of language and speech. In: The genetic basis of language, ed. Gopnik, M.. Oxford University Press. [LRS]Google Scholar
Kunst-Wilson, W. R. & Zajonc, R. B. (1980) Affective discriminations of stimuli that cannot be recognized. Science 207: 557–58. [arDRS, RFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kushner, M., Cleeremans, A. & Reber, A. (1991) Implicit detection of event interdependencies and a PDP model of the process. In: Proceedings of the thirteenth annual meeting of the cognitive science society. Erlbaum. [CAS]Google Scholar
Lachnit, H. & Kimmel, H. D. (1993) Positive and negative patterning in human classical skin conductance response conditioning. Animal Learning and Behavior 21: 314–26. [rDRS, HDK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lachter, J. & Bever, T. G. (1988) The relation between linguistic structure and associative theories of language learning: A constructive critique of some connectionist learning models. Cognition 28: 195247. [rDRS, JL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lea, & Simon, (1979) Problem solving and rule induction. In: Models of thought, ed. Simon, H. A.. Yale University Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Lewicki, P. (1986) Processing information about covariations that cannot be articulated. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 12: 135–46. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Lewicki, P., Czyzewska, M. & Hoffman, H. (1987) Unconscious acquisition of complex procedural knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 13: 523–30. [aDRS, SSR, CAS, FS]Google Scholar
Lewicki, P., Hill, T. & Bizot, E. (1988) Acquisition of procedural knowledge about a pattern of stimuli that cannot be articulated. Cognitive Psychology 20: 2437. [aDRS, CAS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewicki, P., Hill, T. & Czyzewska, M. (1992) Nonconscious acquisition of information. American Psychologist 47: 796801. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewicki, P., Hill, T. & Sasaki, I. (1989) Self-perpetuating development of encoding biases. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Ceneral 118: 323–37. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Libet, B. (1985) Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8: 529–66. [rDRS, GO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Light, P. & Butterworth, G. (1992) Context and cognition. Harvester Wheatsheaf. [AR]Google Scholar
Loftus, E. F. & Klinger, M. R. (1992) Is the unconscious smart or dumb? American Psychologist 47: 761–65. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Logan, G. D. (1988) Toward an instance theory of automatization. Psychological Review 95: 492528. [MAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lovibond, P. F. (1992) Tonic and phasic electrodermal measures of human aversive conditioning with long duration stimuli. Psychophysiology 29: 621–32. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lovibond, P. F. (1993) Conditioning and cognitive-behaviour therapy. Behaviour Change 10: 119–30. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowe, C. F. (1979) Determinants of human operant behavior. In: Advances in analysis of behavior, vol. 1: Reinforcement and the organization of behavior, ed. Zeiler, M. D. & Harzem, P.. Wiley. [FS]Google Scholar
Lowe, C. F., Beasty, A. & Bentall, R. P. (1983) The role of verbal behavior in human learning: Infant performance on fixed-interval schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 39: 157–64. [GO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mace, F. C. & Knight, D. (1986) Functional analysis and treatment of severe pica. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 19: 411–16. [GO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacKay, D. M. (1974) The mechanics of tacit knowing. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. [ROL]Google Scholar
Mahut, H. & Moss, M. (1984) Consolidation of memory: The hippocampus revisited. In: Neuropsychology of memory, ed. Squire, L. R. & Butters, N.. Cuilford Press. [ASR]Google Scholar
Malt, B. (1989) An on-line investigation of prototype and exemplar strategies in classification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15: 539–55. [aDRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Mandler, C., Nakamura, Y. & Van Zandt, B. J. S. (1987) Nonspecific effects of exposure to stimuli that cannot be recognized. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13: 646–48. [RFB]Google Scholar
Mangun, B. (1993) Taking phenomenology seriously: The “fringe” and its implications for cognitive research. Consciousness and Cognition 2: 89108. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manza, L. & Reber, A. S. (1992a) Implicit learning: Transfer across form and sensory modality. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis, MO. [CAS]Google Scholar
Manza, L. & Reber, A. S. (1992b) Inter- and intra-modal transfer of an implicitly acquired rule system. Unpublished manuscript. [ASR]Google Scholar
Marcel, A. (1983) Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology 15: 197237. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marcel, A. (1993) Slippage in the unity of consciousness. In: Experimental and theoretical studies of consciousness, ed. Bock, G. R. & Marsh, J.. Wiley. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Marinkovic, K., Schell, A. M. & Dawson, M. E. (1989) Awareness of the CSUCS contingency and classical conditioning of skin conductance responses with olfactory CSs. Biological Psychology 29: 3960. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marsolek, C. J. (submitted) ?Abstract-visual-form representations in the left cerebral hemisphere. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. [CJM]Google Scholar
Marsolek, C. J., Kosslyn, S. M. & Squire, L. R. (1992) Form-specific visual priming in the right cerebral hemisphere. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 18: 492508. [CJM]Google ScholarPubMed
Marsolek, C. J. & Schacter, D. L. (submitted) Form-specific visual priming for new associations in the right cerebral hemisphere. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. [CJM]Google Scholar
Marsolek, C. J., Squire, L. R., Kosslyn, S. M. & Lulenski, M. E. (submitted) Form-specific explicit and implicit memory in the right cerebral hemisphere. Neuropsychology. [CJM]Google Scholar
Martin, I. & Levey, A. B. (1978) Evaluative conditioning. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy 1: 57102. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, I. (1987) Learning what will happen next: Conditioning, evaluation and cognitive processes. In: Cognitive processes and Pavlovian conditioning in humans, ed. Davey, G.. Wiley. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Masters, R. S. W. (1992) Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure. British Journal of Psychology 83: 343–58. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathews, R. (1990) Abstractiveness of implicit grammar knowledge. Comments on Perruchet and Pacteau's analysis of synthetic grammar learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119: 412–16. [DCB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathews, R. C., Buss, R. R., Stanley, W. B., Blanchard-Fields, F., Cho, J. R. & Druhan, B. (1989) Role of implicit and explicit processes in learning from examples: A synergistic effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15: 10831100. [aDRS, DCB, ASR]Google Scholar
Matthews, B. A., Shimoff, E., Catania, A. C. & Sagvolden, T. (1977) Uninstructed human responding: Sensitivity to ratio and interval contingencies. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 27: 453–67. [FS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mauk, M. D. & Thompson, R. F. (1987) Retention of classically conditioned eyelid responses following acute decerebration. Brain Research 403: 8995. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mayes, A. R. (1988) Human organic memory disorders. Cambridge University Press. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayes, A. R. (1992) What are the functional deficits that underlie amnesia? In: Neuropsychology of memory, ed. Squire, L. R. & Butters, N.. Guilford Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
McClelland, J. L. & Rumelhart, D. E. (1981) An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review 88: 375407. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClelland, J. L. & Rumelhart, D. E. (1985) Distributed memory and the representation of general and specific information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 159–88. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McLaren, I. P. L., Green, R. E. A. & Mackintosh, N. J. (in press) Animal learning and the explicit/implicit distinction. In: Implicit and explicit learning of languages, ed. Ellis, N.. Academic Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Medin, D. L. (1986) Comment on “Memory storage and retrieval processes in category learning.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115: 373–81. [RLG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medin, D. L. & Florian, J. E. (1992) Abstraction and selective coding in exemplar-based models of categorization. In: From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K. Estes, vol. 2, ed. Healy, A. F., Kosslyn, S. M. & Shiffrin, R. M.. Erlbaum. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Medin, D. L. & Schaffer, M. M. (1978) Context theory of classification learning. Psychological Review 85: 207–38. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merikle, P. M. (1992) Perception without awareness: Critical issues. American Psychologist 47: 792–95. [ZD, PMM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merikle, P. M. & Cheesman, J. (1986) Consciousness is a “subjective” state. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9: 42. [FB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merikle, P. M. & Reingold, E. M. (1990) Recognition and lexical decision without detection: Unconscious perception? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16: 574–83. [aDRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Merikle, P. M. & Reingold, E. M. (1991) Comparing direct (explicit) and indirect (implicit) measures to study unconscious memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17: 224–33. [arDRS, AC]Google Scholar
Merikle, P. M. & Reingold, E. M. (1992) Measuring unconscious perceptual processes. In: Perception without awareness: Cognitive, clinical, and social perspectives, ed. Bomstein, R. F. & Pittman, T. S.. Cuilford Press. [aDRS, FB]Google Scholar
Merikle, P. M. & Rondi, G. (1993) Memory for events during anesthesia has not been demonstrated: A psychologist's viewpoint. In: Memory and awareness in anesthesia, ed. Sebel, P. S., Bonke, B. & Winograd, E.. Prentice-Hall. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Mishkin, M. (1982) A memory system in the monkey. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 298: 8592. [ASR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mishkin, M., Malamut, B. & Bachevalier, J. (1984) Memories and habits: Twobneural systems. In: Neurobiology of learning and memory, ed. McCaugh, J. L., Lynch, G. & Weinberger, H. M.. Cuilford Press. [aDRS, LRS]Google Scholar
Moerman, N., Bonke, B. & Oosting, J. (1993) Awareness and recall during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 79: 454–64. [JA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, R. G. M. (1984) Is the distinction between procedural and declarative memory useful with respect to animal models of amnesia? In: Neurobiology of learning and memory, ed. McGaugh, J. L., Lynch, G. & Weinberger, H. M.. Guilford Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Munglani, R., Andrade, J., Sapsford, D. J., Baddeley, A. D. & Jones, J. G. (1993) A measure of consciousness and memory during isoflurane administration: The coherent frequency. British Journal of Anaesthesia 71(5): 633–41. [JA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Musen, G., Shimamura, A. P. & Squire, L. R. (1990) Intact text-specific reading skill in amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 1068–76. [aDRS, LRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Musen, G. & Squire, L. R. (1993) Implicit learning of color-word associations using a Stroop paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19: 789–98. [CAS]Google ScholarPubMed
Nagata, H. (1988) The relativity of linguistic intuition: The effect of repetition on grammaticality judgments. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 17: 117. [HN]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagata, H. (1989a) Effect of repetition on grammaticality judgments under objective and subjective self-awareness conditions. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 18: 255–69. [HN]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagata, H. (1989b) Judgments of sentence grammaticality with differentiation and enrichment strategies. Perceptual and Motor Skills 68: 463–69. [HN]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagata, H. (1989c) Judgments of sentence grammaticality and field-dependency of subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills 69: 739–47. [HN]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagata, H. (1992) Anchoring effects in judging grammaticality of sentences. Perceptual and Motor Skills 75: 159–64. [HN]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nagata, H. (submitted) On-line and off-line reflexive resolution in Japanese logophoric sentences. [HN]Google Scholar
Nagel, T. (1974) “What is it like to be a bat?Philosophical Review 83: 435–45. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Natsoulas, T. (1992) Is consciousness what psychologists actually examine? American Journal of Psychology 105: 363–84. [RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neely, J. H. (1989) Experimental dissociations and the episodic/semantic memory distinction. In: Varieties of memory and consciousness, ed. Roediger, H. L. & Craik, F. I. M.. Erlbaum. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Neisscr, U. (1991) Two perceptually given aspects of the self and their development. Developmental Review 11: 197209. [RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, T. O. (1978) Detecting small amounts of information in memory: Savings for nonrecognized items. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4: 453–68. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Newell, A. (1973) You can't play twenty questions with nature and win: Projective comments on the papers of this symposium. In: Visual information processing, ed. Chase, W.. Academic Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Newport, E. L. (1990) Maturational constraints on language learning. Cognitive Science 14: 1128. [JL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niedenthal, P. M. (1990) Implicit perception of affective information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 26: 505–27. [FB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nishett, H. E. & Wilson, T. D. (1977) Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84: 231–59. [HST]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nissen, M. J. & Bullemer, P. (1987) Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology 19: 132. [aDRS, KJH, DBVV]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nissen, M. J., Knopman, D. S. & Schacter, D. L.. (1987) Neurochemical dissociation of memory systems. Neurology 37: 789–94. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nissen, M. J., Willingham, D. & Hartman, M. (1989) Explicit and implicit remembering: When is learning preserved in amnesia? Neuropsychologia 27: 341–52. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Norman, R. J., Buchwald, J. S. & Villablanca, J. R. (1977) Classical conditioning with auditory discrimination of the eyeblink reflex in decerebrate cats. Science 196: 551–53. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nosofsky, R. M. (1986) Attention, similarity, and the identification categorization relationship. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115: 3957. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nosofsky, R. M., Clark, S. E. & Shin, H. J. (1989) Kules and exemplars in categorization, identification, and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15: 282304. [aDRS, RLG]Google Scholar
Nosofsky, R. M., Palmeri, T. J. & McKinley, S. C. (1994) Rule-plus-exception model of classification learning. Psychological Review 101: 5379. [RLG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
O'Keefe, J. & Nadel, L. (1978) The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford University Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Ostcrgaard, A. L. (1994) Dissociations between word priming effects in normal subjects and patients with memory disorders: Multiple memory systems or retrieval? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 47A: 331–64. [arDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Overskeid, C. (1992) Kontingensforming og kunnskapsformidling: Et grinmlegKcnde problem ved konstruksjon av ekspertsystemer [Contingency shaping and transfer of knowledge: A basic problem in the construction of expert systems]. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening 29: 210–21. [CO]Google Scholar
Overskeid, C. (submitted) Behaviorist or cognitivist - who can tell the difference? The case of implicit and explicit knowledge. [GO]Google Scholar
Packard, M. C., Hirsh, R. & White, N. M. (1989) Differential effects of fornix and caudate nucleus lesions on two radial maze tasks: Evidence for multiple memory systems. Journal of Neuroscience 9: 1465–72. [MGP, LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Packard, M. G. & McGaugh, J. L. (1992) Double dissociation of fornix and caudate nucleus lesions on acquisition of two water maze tasks: Further evidence for multiple memory systems. Behavioral Neuroscience 106: 17. [MCP]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Packard, M. G. & White, N. M. (1991) Dissociation of hippocampus and caudate nucleus memory systems by post-training intracerebral injection of dopamine agonists. Behavioral Neuroscience 105: 295306. [MCP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parkhouse, J. (1960) Awareness during surgery. Postgraduate Medical Journal 36: 674–77. [JA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perruchet, P. (1993) Defining the knowledge units of a synthetic language: Comment on Vokey and Brooks (1992). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 20: 223–28. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Perruchet, P. (in press) Learning from complex rule-governed environments: On the proper functions of nonconscious and conscious processes. In: Attention and Performance XV: Conscious and nonconscious information processing, ed. Umilta, C. & Moscovitch, M.. MIT Press. [aDRS, PP]Google Scholar
Perruchet, P. & Amorim, M.-A. (1992) Conscious knowledge and changes in performance in sequence learning: Evidence against dissociation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 18: 785800. [aDRS, DCB, AC]Google ScholarPubMed
Perruchet, P. & Gallego, J. (1994) Association between conscious knowledge and performance in normal subjects: A reply to Cohen and Curran (1993) and to Willingham, Greeley, and Bardone (1993). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19: 1438–44. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Perruchet, P., Gallego, J. & Pacteau, C. (1992) A reinterpretation of some earlier evidence for abstractiveness of implicitly acquired knowledge. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 44A: 193210. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perruchet, P., Gallego, J. & Savy, I. (1990) A critical reappraisal of the evidence for unconscious abstraction of deterministic rules in complex experimental situations. Cognitive Psychology 22: 493516. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perruchet, P. & Pacteau, C. (1990) Synthetic grammar learning: Implicit rule abstraction or explicit fragmentary knowledge? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119: 264–75. [aDRS, DCB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perruchet, P. & Pacteau, C. (1991) The implicit acquisition of abstract knowledge about artificial grammar: Some methodological and conceptual issues. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120: 112–16. [PP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pinker, S. (1991) Rules of language. Science 253: 530–35. [RLC, rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Plunkett, K. & Marchman, V. (1991) U-shaped learning and frequency effects in a multi-layer perceptron: Implications for child language acquisition. Cognition 38: 43102. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polanyi, M. (1966) The tacit dimension. Doubleday. [ASR]Google Scholar
Posner, M. I.fie Keele, S. W. (1970) Retention of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology 83: 304–8. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabinowitz, F. M. (1993) Unpublished data. [MLH]Google Scholar
Rabinowitz, F. M. & Howe, M. L. (1994) Development of the middle concept. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 57. [MLH]Google ScholarPubMed
Rakover, S. (1993) Empirical criteria for task susceptibility to introspective awareness and awareness effects. Philosophical Psychology 6: 451–67. [SSR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rathus, J., Reber, A. S., Manza, L. & Kushner, M. (in press) Implicit and explicit learning: Differential effects of affective states. Perceptual and Motor Skills. [ASR]Google Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1967) Implicit learning of artificial grammars. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 5: 855–63. [aDRS, ACC, AC, HN]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1969) Transfer of syntactic structure in synthetic languages, Journal of Experimental Psychology 81: 115–19. [aDRS, RFB, ACC, ASR, CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1976) Implicit learning of synthetic languages: The role of instructional set. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 2: 8894. [ACC]Google Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1989a) Implicit learning and tacit knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118: 219–35. [aDRS, RFB, HN, MAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1989b) More thoughts on the unconscious: Reply to Brody and to Lewicki and Hill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118: 24244. [HN]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reber, A. S. (1990) On the primacy of the implicit: Comment on Perruchet and Pacteau. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 119: 340–42. [DCB][CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1992a) The cognitive unconscious: An evolutionary perspective. Consciousness and Cognition 1: 93133. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1992b) An evolutionary context for the cognitive unconscious. Philosophical Psychology 5: 3351. [KJH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S. (1993) Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. Oxford University Press. [ASR]Google Scholar
Reber, A. S. & Allen, R. (1978) Analogic and abstraction strategies in synthetic grammar learning: A functionalist interpretation. Cognition 6: 189221. [aDRS, HN, ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S., Allen, R. & Regan, S. (1985) Syntactical learning and judgment, still unconscious and still abstract: Comment on Dulany, Carlson, and Dewey. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 1724. [aDRS, RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S., Kassin, S. M., Lewis, S. & Cantor, G. (1980) On the relationship between implicit and explicit modes in the learning of a complex rule structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6: 492 [aDRS, CAS]Google Scholar
Reber, A. S. & Lewis, S. (1977) Implicit learning: An analysis of the form and structure of a body of tacit knowledge. Cognition 5: 333–61. [aDRS, ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reber, A. S., Walkenfeld, F. F. & Hernstadt, R. (1991) Implicit and explicit learning: Individual differences and IQ. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17: 888–96. [HN, ASR, CAS]Google ScholarPubMed
Reed, J. & Johnson, P. (1994) Assessing implicit learning with indirect tests: Determining what is learned about sequence structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 20: 585–94. [JR, CAS]Google Scholar
Regehr, G. & Brooks, L. R. (1993) Perceptual manifestations of an analytic structure: The priority of holistic individuation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122: 92114. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reingold, E. M. & Merikle, P. M. (1988) Using direct and indirect measures to study perception without awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 44: 563–75. [aDRS, RFB, PMM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richardson-Klavehn, A. & Bjork, R. A. (1988) Measures of memory. Annual Review of Psychology 39: 475543. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ridley, M. (1986) Evolution and classification. Longman. [DBW]Google Scholar
Ristau, C. A., ed. (1991) Cognitive ethology: The minds of other animals. Erlbaum. [ASR]Google Scholar
Rizzo, A., Parlangeli, O., Cambiganu, C. & Bagnara, S. (1993) Control of complex systems by situated knowledge: The role of implicit learning. In: Human-computer interaction, 19b: Software and hardware interfaces, ed. Smith, M. J. & Salvendy, G.. Elsevier. [AR]Google Scholar
Roediger, H. L. (1990) Implicit memory: Retention without remembering. American Psychologist 45: 1043–56. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roediger, H. L. (1993) Learning and memory: Progress and challenge. In: Attention performance XIV: Synergies in experimental psychology, artificial intelligence, and cognitive neuroscience, ed. Meyer, D. E. & Kornblum, S.. MIT Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Rosch, E. H. (1975) Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology 104: 192233. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenfarb, I. S., Newland, M. C., Brannon, S. E. & Howey, D. S. (1992) Effects of self-generated rules on the development of schedule-controlled behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 58: 107–21. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ross, B. H. (1987) This is like that: The use of earlier problems and the separation of similarity effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13: 629–39. [RLC]Google Scholar
Rovee-Collier, C. (1990) The “memory system” of prelinguistic infants. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 608: 517–42. [ASR, HST]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rovee-Collier, C., Griesler, P. C. & Earley, L. A. (1985) Contextual determinants of retrieval in three-month-old infants. Learning and Motivation 16: 139–57. [HST]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rudy, J. W. & Sutherland, R. J. (1992) Configural and elemental associations and the memory coherence problem. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 4: 208–16. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rumelhart, D. E. & McClelland, J. L. (1986) On learning the past tense of English verbs. In: Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstntcture of cognition, vol. 2: Psychological and biological models, ed. McClelland, J. L. & Rumelhart, D. E.. MIT Press. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Russell, I. F. (1986) Comparison of wakefulness with two anaesthetic regimens. British Journal of Anaesthesia 58: 965–68. [JA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Russell, I. F. (1989) Conscious awareness during general anaesthesia: Relevance of autonomic signs and isolated arm movements to depth of anaesthesia. In: Balliere's Clinical Anaesthesiology: Depth of Anaesthesia, ed. Jones, J. G.. Balliere. [JA]Google Scholar
Ryle, G. (1949) The concept of mind. Viking Penguin. [EE]Google Scholar
. St. John, M. F. (1994) Learning language in the service of a task. Technical report, Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego. La Jolla, CA. [rDRS]Google Scholar
St. John, M. F. & McClelland, J. L. (1990) Learning and applying contextual constraints in sentence comprehension. Artificial Intelligence 46: 217–57. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanderson, P. M. (1989) Verbalizable knowledge and skilled task performance: Association, dissociation, and mental models. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15: 729–47. [aDRS, DCB, AR]Google Scholar
Saunders, R. C. & Weiskrantz, L. (1989) The effects of fornix transection and combined fornix transection, mammillary body lesions and hippocampal ablations on object-pair association memory in the rhesus monkey. Behavioral Brain Research 35: 8594. [LRS1]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L. (1987) Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 13: 501–18. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Schacter, D. L. (1989) On the relation between memory and consciousness: Dissociable interactions and conscious experience. In: Varieties of memory and consciousness, ed. Roediger, H. L. & Craik, F. I. M.. Erlbaum. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Schacter, D. L. (1990) Perceptual representation systems and implicit memory: Toward a resolution of the multiple memory systems debate. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 608: 543–71. [CJM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schacter, D. L. (1992) Priming and multiple memory systems: Perceptual mechanisms of implicit memory. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 4: 244–56. [CJM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L., Chiu, C. Y. & Ochsner, K. N. (1993) Implicit memory: A selective review. Annual Review of Neuroscience 16: 159–82. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L., Harbluk, J. L. & McLachlan, D. R. (1984) Retrieval without recollection: An experimental analysis of source amnesia. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 23: 593611. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schank, R. C. (1982) Dynamic memory: A theory of reminding and learning in computers and people. Cambridge University Press. [RLG]Google Scholar
Schmidt, H. (1969) Precognition of a quantum process. Journal of Parapsychology 33: 99108. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Schneider, W. & Shiffrin, R. M. (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. Detection, search, and attention. Psychological Review 84: 166. [JL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwender, D., Kaiser, A., Klasing, S. & Peter, K. (1992) Explicit and implicit memory and mid-latency auditory evoked potentials during cardiac surgery. Anesthesia and Analgesia 74: S269. [JA]Google Scholar
Seamon, J. G., Brody, N. & Kauff, D. (1983a) Affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized: Effects of shadowing, masking, and cerebral laterality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 9: 544–55. [NB]Google Scholar
Seamon, J. G., Brody, N. & Kauff, D. (1983b) Affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized: II. Effects of delay between study and test. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21: 187–89. [NB, RFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seger, C. A. (1994) Implicit learning. Psychological Bulletin 115: 163–96. [CAS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seidenberg, M. S. & McClelland, J. L. (1989) A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review 96: 523–68. [rDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sejnowski, T. J. & Rosenberg, C. R. (1987) Parallel networks that learn to pronounce English text. Complex Systems 1: 145–68. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Sells, P. (1985) Lectures on contemporary syntactic theories: An introduction to government-binding theory, generalized phrase stntcturc grammar, and lexical function grammar. Center for the Study of Language and Information. [JL]Google Scholar
Servan-Schreiber, D., Cleeremans, A. & McClelland, J. L. (1991) Graded state machines: The representation of temporal contingencies in simple recurrent networks. Machine Learning 7: 161–93. [AC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Servan-Schreiber, E. & Anderson, J. R. (1990) Learning artificial grammars with competitive chunking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 592608. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Shanks, D. R. (1993) Human instrumental learning: A critical review of data and theory. British Journal of Psychology 84: 319–54. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shanks, D. R. & Dickinson, A. (1990) Contingency awareness in evaluative conditioning: A comment on Baeyens, Eelen & van den Bergh. Cognition and Emotion 4: 1930. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shanks, D. R. & Dickinson, A. (1991) Instrumental judgment and performance under variations in actionoutcome contingency and contiguity. Memory and Cognition 19: 353–60. [aDRS, FS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shanks, D. R. & Cluck, M. A. (1994) Tests of an adaptive network model for the identification and categorization of continuous-dimension stimuli. Connection Science 6: 6999. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shanks, D. R., Green, R. E. A. & Kolodny, J. (1994) A critical examination of the evidence for nonconscious (implicit) learning. In: Attention and performance XV: Conscious and nonconscious information processing, ed. Umilta, C. & Moscovitch, M.. MIT Press. [aDRS, JR, CAS]Google Scholar
Sherry, D. F. & Schacter, D. L. (1987) The evolution of multiple memory systems. Psychological Review 94:439–54. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shettleworth, S. J. (1993) Varieties of learning and memory in animals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 19:514. [MLH]Google ScholarPubMed
Shiffrin, R. M. & Schneider, W. (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84:127–90. [JL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shimamura, A. P. (1986) Priming effects in amnesia: Evidence for a dissociable memory function. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 38A:619–44. [DBW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shimamura, A. P. & Squire, L. R. (1989) Impaired priming of new associations in amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:721–28. [aDRS]Google ScholarPubMed
Shimp, C. P., Sabulsky, S. L. & Childers, L. J. (1989) Preference for starting and finishing behavior patterns. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 52:341–52. [ACC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shin, H. & Nosofsky, R. M. (1992) Similarity scaling studies of “dot pattern” classification and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121:278304. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simon, J. R. & Craft, J. L. (1989) The effect of prediction accuracy on choice reaction time. Memory and Cognition 17:503–8. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Skinner, B. F. (1945) The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review 52:270–77. [ACC, HST]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1957) Verbal behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [ACC]Google Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1984a) Behaviorism at fifty. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7:615–67. [ACC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1984b) An operant analysis of problem solving. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7:583613. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skinner, B. F. (1984c) The operational analysis of psychological terms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7:547–81. [ACC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skorstad, J., Gentner, D. & Medin, D. (1988) Abstraction processes during concept learning: A structural view. In: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Montreal, Canada. [RLG]Google Scholar
Slobin, D. (1978) A case study of early language awareness. In: The child's conception of language, ed. Sinclair, A., Jarvella, R. & Levelt, W.Springer-Verlag. [JL]Google Scholar
Smith, E. E. (1989) Concepts and induction. In: Foundations of cognitive science, ed. Posner, M. I.. MIT Press. [PP]Google Scholar
Smith, E. E., Langston, C. & Nisbett, R. (1992) The case for rules in reasoning. Cognitive Science 16:140. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J. D. & Kemler Nelson, D. G. (1984) Overall similarity in adults' classification: The child in all of us. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113:137–59. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, J. D. & Shapiro, J. H. (1989) The occurrence of holistic categorization. Journal of Memory and Language 28:386–99. [aDRS, RLG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sokal, R. R. & Sneath, P. H. A. (1963) The principles of numerical taxonomy. Freeman. [DBW]Google Scholar
Spielberger, C. D. & DeNike, L. D. (1966) Descriptive behaviorism versus cognitive hypothesis in verbal operant conditioning. Psychological Review 73:306–26. [SSR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Squire, L. R. (1992) Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychological Review 99:195231. [aDRS, ASR, CAS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Squire, L. R. & Frambach, M. (1990) Cognitive skill learning in amnesia. Psychobiology 18:109–17. [rDRS, CAS, DBW]Google Scholar
Squire, L. R. & McKee, R. (1992) Influence of prior events on cognitive judgments in amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, anil Cognition 18:106–15. [aDRS, ZK]Google ScholarPubMed
Stadler, M. A. (1989) On learning complex procedural knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:1061–69. [aDRS, DCB, SSR, MAS]Google ScholarPubMed
Stanley, W. B., Mathews, R. C., Buss, R. R. & Kotler-Cope, S. (1989) Insight without nwareness: On the interaction of verbalization, instruction and practice in a simulated process control task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 41A:553–77. [arDRS, DCB, AR, ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sutherland, R. W. & Rudy, J. W. (1989) Configural association theory: The role of the hippocampal formation in learning, memory and amnesia. Psyclwbiology 17:129–44. [LRS]Google Scholar
Svartdal, F. (1989) Shaping of rule-governed behaviour. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 30:304–14. [aDRS, FS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Svartdal, F. (1991) Operant modulation of low-level attributes of rule-governed behavior by nonverbal contingencies. Learning and Motivation 22:406–20. [aDRS, FS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svartdal, F. (1992) Sensitivity to nonverbal operant contingencies: Do limited processing resources affect operant conditioning in humans? Learning and Motivation 23:383405. [rDRS, ACC, FS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svartdal, F. & Mortenscn, T. (1993) Effect of reinforcer value on sensitivity to nonverbal operant contingencies in humans. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 46A:347–64. [FS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terrace, H. S. (1985) Animal cognition: Thinking without language. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society (London) B 308:11328. [HST]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, R. F. (1990) Neural mechanisms of classical conditioning in mammals. In: Behavioral and neural aspects of learning and memory, ed. Krebs, J. R. & Horn, G.. Clarendon Press. [LRS]Google Scholar
Thorndike, E. L. & Rock, R. T. (1934) Learning without awareness of what is being learned or intent to learn it. Journal of Experimental Psychology 17:119. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (1983) Elements of episodic memory. Oxford University Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1985) Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychology 25:112. [MAS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. & Schacter, D. L. (1990) Priming and human memory systems. Science 247:301–5. [CJM, LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tunstall, M. E. (1977) Detecting wakefulness during general anaesthesia for caesarean section. British Medical Journal 1:1321. [JA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ungerleider, W. & Mishkin, M. (1982) Two cortical visual systems. In: The analysis of visual behavior, ed. Ingle, D. J., Goodale, M. A. & Mansfield, R. J. W.. MIT Press. [LRS]Google Scholar
Vallacher, R. R. & Wegner, D. M. (1987) What do people think they're doing: Action identification and human behavior. Psychological Review 94:315. [RAC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vaughan, W. Jr. (1988) Formation of equivalence sets in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 14:3642. [ACC]Google Scholar
Velmans, M. (1991) Is human information processing conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:651726. [aDRS, JL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verplanck, W. S. (1992) Verbal concept “mediators” as simple operants. Analysis of Verbal Behavior 10:4568. [ACC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vokey, J. R. & Brooks, L. R. (1992) Salience of item knowledge in learning artificial grammars. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 18:328–44. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Vokey, J. R. & Read, J. D. (1985) Subliminal messages: Between the Devil and the media. American Psijchologist 40:1231–39. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ward, T. B. & Scott, J. (1987) Analytic and holistic modes of learning familyresemblance concepts. Memory and Cognition 15:4254. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wason, P. C. (1968) Reasoning about a rule. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 20:273–81. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiskrantz, L., ed. (1985) Animai intelligence. Oxford University Press. [ASR]Google Scholar
Weiskrantz, L. & Warrington, E. K. (1979) Conditioning in amnesic patients. Ncuropsychologia 17:187–94. [aDRS, DBW]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Whittlesea, B. W. A. (1993) Illusions of familiarity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19:1235–53. [rDRS]Google Scholar
Whittlesea, B. W. A. & Dorken, M. D. (1993) Incidentally, things in general are particularly determined: An episodic-processing account of implicit learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122:227–48. [aDRS, AC, HN, ASR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widrow, B. & Hoff, M. E. (1960) Adaptive switching circuits. Institute of Radio Engineers, Western Electronics Shoto and Convention Record, Part 4: 96104. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Willingham, D. B., Greeley, T. & Bardone, A. (1993) Dissociation in a serial response time task using a recognition measure: Reply to Perruchet and Amorim. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19:1424–30. [aDRS, DBW]Google Scholar
Willingham, D. B., Nissen, M. J. & Bullemer, P. (1989) On the development of procedural knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:1047–60. [aDRS, DCB, KJH]Google ScholarPubMed
Winograd, T. (1975) Frame representations and the declarative-procedural controversy. In: Representation and understanding: Studies in cognitive science, ed. Bobrow, D. & Collins, A.. Academic Press. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Wolpaw, J. R. & Carp, J. S. (1990) Memory traces in spinal cord. Trends in Neurosciences 13:137–42. [GO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wood, F., Ebert, V. & Kinsbourne, M. (1982) The episodic-semantic distinction in memory and amnesia: Clinical and experimental observations. In: Human memory and amnesia, ed. Cermak, L. S.. Erlbaum. [aDRS]Google Scholar
Wood, J. M., Bootzin, R. R., Kihlstrom, J. F. & Schaeter, D. L. (1992) Implicit and explicit memory for verbal information presented during sleep. Psychological Science 3:236–39. [aDRS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zajonc, R. B. (1968) Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph 9:127. [RFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zola-Morgan, S. & Squire, L. R. (1984) Preserved learning in monkeys with medial temporal lesions: Sparing of motor and cognitive skills. Journal of Neuroscience 4:1072–85. [LRS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zola-Morgan, S. & Squire, L. R. (1986) Memory impairment in monkeys following lesions of the hippocampus. Behavioral Neuroscience 100:155–60. [ASR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed