Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-pjpqr Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-17T13:37:50.745Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Human reproductive strategies: An emerging synthesis?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 February 2009

Marco Del Giudice
Affiliation:
Center for Cognitive Science, Department of Psychology, University of Turin, 10123 Torino, Italy. marco.delgiudice@unito.ithttp://www.psych.unito.it/csc/pers/delgiudice/delgiudice.html

Abstract

In the first part of this response, commentators' critiques to the target article are reviewed and addressed. The main discussion topics are the role of attachment in developmental plasticity; the relationship between attachment, mating, and reproductive strategies; the existence, magnitude, and developmental timing of sex differences in attachment; the adaptiveness of insecure styles; and the neurobiology of attachment and reproduction. The model's assumptions are clarified, and a number of methodological issues that can confound the interpretation of research findings are examined. In the second part, various proposals made by commentators are synthesized, and directions for future research and theoretical improvement are outlined. In addition, the issue of disorganized and fearful attachment is tentatively addressed. It is argued that different theoretical perspectives are converging toward a consistent and comprehensive theory of human reproductive strategies.

Type
Author's Response
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E. & Wall, S. (1978) Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Allen, E. S. & Baucom, D. H. (2004) Adult attachment and patterns of extradyadic involvement. Family Process 43:467–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition [Text revision]. American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Ammaniti, M., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Speranza, A. M. & Tambelli, R. (2000) Internal working models of attachment during late childhood and early adolescence: An exploration of stability and change. Attachment and Human Development 2:328–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arck, P. C., Rose, M., Hertwig, K., Hagen, E., Hildebrandt, M. & Klapp, B.F. (2001) Stress and immune mediators in miscarriage. Human Reproduction 16:1505–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baldwin, M. W. & Fehr, B. (1995) On the instability of attachment style ratings. Personal Relationships 2:247–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartholomew, K. & Horowitz, L. M. (1991) Attachment styles in young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61:226–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bartholomew, K. & Shaver, P. R. (1998) Methods of assessing adult attachment: Do they converge? In: Attachment theory and close relationships, ed. Simpson, J.A. & Rholes, W. S., pp. 2545. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007a) For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science 16:300304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belsky, J., Steinberg, L. & Draper, P. (1991) Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development 62:647–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bernier, A. & Dozier, M. (2002) Assessing adult attachment: Empirical sophistication and conceptual bases. Attachment and Human Development 4:171–79.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Birnbaum, G. E. (2007) Beyond the borders of reality: Attachment orientations and sexual fantasies. Personal Relationships 14:321–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bogaert, A. F. & Sadava, S. (2002) Adult attachment and sexual behavior. Personal Relationships 9:191204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bogin, B. (1999) Evolutionary perspective on human growth. Annual Review of Anthropology 28:109–53.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brassard, A., Shaver, P. R. & Lussier, Y. (2007) Attachment, sexual experience, and sexual pleasure in romantic relationships: A dyadic approach. Personal Relationships 14:475–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breaugh, J. A. (2003) Effect size estimation: Factors to consider and mistakes to avoid. Journal of Management 29:7997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L. & Shaver, P. R. (1998) Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In: Attachment theory and close relationships, ed. Simpson, J.A. & Rholes, W. S., pp. 4676. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Brody, S. & Breitenstein, C. (2000) The trade-off between frequency of intercourse and sexual partner accumulation may reflect evolutionary adaptations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23:594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bureau, J. F., Beliveau, M. J., Moss, E. & Lepine, S. (2006) Association between the mother-child bond and the stories of attachment in the school age. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science (Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement) 38:5062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Butzer, B. & Campbell, L. (2008) Adult attachment, sexual satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction: A study of married couples. Personal Relationships 15:141–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, A. (2008a) Attachment, aggression and affiliation: The role of oxytocin in female social behavior. Biological Psychology 77:110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Campbell, L., Simpson, J. A., Boldry, J. & Kashy, D. A. (2005) Perceptions of conflict and support in romantic relationships: The role of attachment anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88:510–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carnelly, K. B. & Brennan, K. A. (2002) Building bridges. Attachment and Human Development 4:189–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassidy, J. & Berlin, L. (1994) The insecure/ambivalent pattern of attachment: Theory and research. Child Development 65:971–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chang, F., Kidd, J. R., Livak, K. J., Pakstis, A. J. & Kidd, K. K. (1996) The world-wide distribution of allele frequencies at the human dopamine D4 receptor locus. Human Genetics 98:91101.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chisholm, J. S. (1999) Death, hope and sex: Steps to an evolutionary ecology of mind and morality. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coale, A. J. & Banister, J. (1996) Five decades of missing females in China. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 140:421–50.Google Scholar
Cohen, D. L. & Belsky, J. (2008) Individual differences in female mate preferences as a function of attachment and hypothetical ecological conditions. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 6:2542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Cooper, M. L., Shaver, P. R. & Collins, N. L. (1998) Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:1380–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corby, B. C. (2006) Attachment and adjustment in preadolescence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Psychology Department, Florida Atlantic University.Google Scholar
Costa, R. M. & Brody, S. (2007) Women's relationship quality is associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm and frequency. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 33:319–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crawford, T. N., Shaver, P. R., Cohen, P., Pilkonis, P. A., Gillath, O. & Kasen, S. (2006) Self-reported attachment, interpersonal aggression, and personality disorder in a prospective community sample of adolescents and adults. Journal of Personality Disorders 20:331–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1996) Violence against stepchildren. Current Directions in Psychological Science 5:7781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Del Giudice, M., Angeleri, R. & Manera, V. (in press) The juvenile transition: A developmental switch point in human life history. Developmental Review. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2008.09.001Google Scholar
Ding, Q. J. & Hesketh, T. (2006) Family size, fertility preferences, and sex ratio in China in the era of the one child family policy: Results from national family planning and reproductive health survey. British Medical Journal 333:371–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ding, Y. C., Chi, H. C., Grady, D. L., Morishima, A., Kidd, J. R., Kidd, K. K., Foldman, P., Spence, M. A., Schuck, S., Swanson, J. M., Zhang, Y. P. & Moyzis, R. K. (2002) Evidence of positive selection at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:309–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Domes, G., Heinrichs, M., Michel, A., Berger, C. & Herpetz, S. C. (2007) Oxytocin improves “mind-reading” in humans. Biological Psychiatry 61:731–33.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
D'Onofrio, B. M., Turkheimer, E., Emery, R. E., Slutske, W. S., Heath, A. C., Madden, P. A. & Martin, N. G. (2006) A genetically informed study of the processes underlying the association between parental marital instability and offspring adjustment. Developmental Psychology 42:486–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellis, B. J. (1998) The Partner-Specific Investment Inventory: An evolutionary approach to individual differences in investment. Journal of Personality 66:383441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, B. J. (2004) Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychological Bulletin 130:920–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellis, B. J. & Essex, M. J. (2007) Family environments, adrenarche, and sexual maturation: A longitudinal test of a life history model. Child Development 78:1799–817.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ellison, P. T. (2001) On fertile ground: A natural history of human reproduction. Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Feeney, J. A. (2002) Attachment-related dynamics: What can we learn from self-reports of avoidance and anxiety? Attachment and Human Development 4:193200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H. & Schneider, S. M. R. (2004) The heritability of life history strategy: The K-factor, covitality, and personality. Social Biology 51:121–43.Google ScholarPubMed
Finnegan, R. A., Hodges, E. & Perry, D. (1996) Preoccupied and avoidant coping during middle childhood. Child Development 67:1318–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flinn, M. V. (2006) Evolution and ontogeny of stress response to social challenges in the human child. Developmental Review 26:138–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortuna, K. & Roisman, G. I. (2008) Insecurity, stress, and symptoms of psychopathology: Contrasting results from self-reports versus interviews of adult attachment. Attachment and Human Development 10:1128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G. & Brennan, K. A. (2000) An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78:350–65.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gentzler, A. L. & Kerns, K. A. (2004) Associations between insecure attachment and sexual experiences. Personal relationships 11:249–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilissen, R., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Van IJzendoorn, M. H. & Linting, M. (2008) Electrodermal reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children: Interaction between the serotonin transporter polymorphism and children's attachment representation. Developmental Psychobiology 50(6):615–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gimpl, G. & Fahrenholz, F. (2001) The oxytocin receptor system: Structure, function and regulation. Physiological Reviews 81:629–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gloger-Tippelt, G. & Konig, L. (2007) Attachment representations in 6-year-old children from one and two parent families in Germany. School Psychology International 28:313–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godbout, N., Lussier, Y. & Sabourin, S. (2006) Early abuse experiences and subsequent gender differences in couple adjustment. Violence and Victims 21:744–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldenson, J., Geffner, R., Foster, S. L. & Clipson, C. R. (2007) Female domestic violence offenders: Their attachment security, trauma symptoms, and personality organization. Violence and Victims 22:532–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Granot, D. & Mayseless, O. (2001) Attachment security and adjustment to school in middle childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development 25:530–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guastella, A. J., Mitchell, P. B. & Dadds, M. R. (2008) Oxytocin increases gaze to the eye region of human faces. Biological Psychiatry 63:35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Handcock, M. S. & Morris, M. (1999) Relative distribution methods in the social sciences. Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Harpending, H. & Cochran, G. (2002) In our genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 99:1012.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. (1999) Models of adaptive behaviour. An approach based on state. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hrdy, S. B. (1999) Mother nature. Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
Jackson, J. J. & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2007) The structure and measurement of human mating strategies: Towards a multidimensional model of sociosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior 28:382–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kardia, S. R., Chu, J. & Sowers, M. R. (2006) Characterizing variation in sex steroid hormone pathway genes in women of 4 races/ethnicities: The study of women's health across the nation (SWAN). American Journal of Medicine 119:s3s15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kerns, K. A. & Richardson, R. A., eds. (2005) Attachment in middle childhood. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Kokko, H. & Jennions, M. (2003) It takes two to tango. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:103104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kokko, H. & Jennions, M. (2008) Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 21:919–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kosfeld, M., Heinrichs, M., Zak, P. J., Fischbacher, U. & Fehr, E. (2005) Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435:673–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kruger, D. J. (2008) Women's life history attributes are associated with preferences in mating relationships. Evolutionary Psychology 6:245–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Locke, J. L., & Bogin, B. (2006) Language and life history: A new perspective on the development and evolution of human language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29:259–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Main, M., Hesse, E. & Kaplan, N. (2005) Predictability of attachment behavior and representational processes at 1, 6, and 19 years of age. In: Attachment from infancy to adulthood. The major longitudinal studies, ed. Grossmann, K. E., Grossmann, K. & Waters, E., pp. 245304. Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Marazziti, D., Dell'Osso, B., Baroni, S., Mungai, F., Catena, M. & Rucci, P. (2006) A relationship between oxytocin and anxiety of romantic attachment. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 2:28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marlowe, F. (2000) Paternal investment and the human mating system. Behavioural Processes 51:4561.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marlowe, F. (2003) The mating system of foragers in the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Cross-Cultural Research 37:282306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, A. & Booth, A. (1998) Testosterone and dominance in men. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21:353–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mellen, S. L. W. (1981) The evolution of love. Freeman.Google Scholar
Miller, G. (2000) The mating mind. How sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature. Heinemann.Google Scholar
Moss, E., St-Laurent, D., Dubois-Comtois, K. & Cyr, C. (2005) Quality of attachment at school age. In: Attachment in middle childhood, ed. Kerns, K. A. & Richardson, R. A., pp. 189211. Guilford.Google Scholar
Noftle, E. E. & Shaver, P. R. (2006) Attachment dimensions and the big five personality traits: Associations and comparative ability to predict relationship quality. Journal of Research in Personality 40:179208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orcutt, H., Garcia, M. & Pickett, S. (2005) Female-perpetrated intimate partner violence and romantic attachment style in a college student sample. Violence and Victims 20:287302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Overall, N. C. & Sibley, C. G. (2008) Attachment and attraction toward romantic partners versus relevant alternatives in daily interactions. Personality and Individual Differences 44:1126–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pannebakker, F. (2007) Morality from infancy to middle childhood. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Leiden University, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
Parent, A. S., Teilmann, G., Juul, A., Skakkebaek, N. E., Toppari, J. & Bourgignon, J. P. (2003) The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: Variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration. Endocrine Reviews 24:668–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Penke, L. & Asendorpf, J. B. (in press) Beyond global sociosexual orientations: A more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects on courtship and romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.Google Scholar
Picardi, A., Caroppo, E., Toni, A., Binetti, D. & Di Maria, G. (2005) Stability of attachment-related anxiety and avoidance and their relationships with the five-factor model and the psychobiological model of personality. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice 78:327–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Quinlan, R. J. (2007) Human parental effort and environmental risk. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 274:121–25.Google ScholarPubMed
Quirin, M., Pruessner, J. C. & Kuhl, J. (2008) HPA system regulation and adult attachment anxiety: individual differences in reactive and awakening cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 33:581–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roisman, G. I., Holland, A., Fortuna, K., Fraley, C., Clausell, E. & Clarke, A. (2007) The Adult Attachment Interview and self-reports of attachment style: An empirical reapprochement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 92:678–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rutter, M., Moffitt, T. E. & Caspi, A. (2006) Gene-environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 47:226–61.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rutter, M., Pickles, A., Murray, R. & Eaves, L. (2001) Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychological Bulletin 127:291324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sanders, K. A. & Bruce, N. W. (1997) A prospective study of psychosocial stress and fertility in women. Human Reproduction 12:2324–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santner, S. J., Albertson, B., Zhang, G., Zhang, G., Santulli, M., Wang, C., Demers, L. M., Shackleton, C. & Santen, R. J. (1998) Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83:2104–109.Google ScholarPubMed
Scarr, S. (1992) Developmental theories for the 1990s: Development and individual differences. Child Development 63:119.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmitt, D. P. (2005b) Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbabwe: A 48-nation study of sex, culture, and strategies of human mating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28:247–75; discussion 275–311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schmitt, D. P. (2008) Evolutionary perspectives on romantic attachment and culture: How ecological stressors influence dismissing orientations across genders and geographies. Cross-Cultural Research 42:220–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, D. P., Alcalay, L., Allensworth, M., Allik, J., Ault, L., Austers, I., Bennett, K. L., Bianchi, G., Boholst, F., Borg Cunen, M. A., Braeckman, J., Brainerd, E. G. Jr., Caral, L. G. A., Caron, G., Casullo, M. M., Cunningham, M., Daibo, I., De Backer, C., De Souza, E., Diaz-Loving, R., Diniz, G., Durkin, K., Echegaray, M., Eremsoy, E., Euler, H. A., Falzon, R., Fisher, M. L., Fowler, R., Fry, D. P., Fry, S., Ghayur, M. A., Giri, V. N., Golden, D. L., Grammer, K., Grimaldi, L., Halberstadt, J., Haque, S., Hefer, E., Herrera, D., Hertel, J., Hitchell, A., Hoffman, H., Hradilekova, Z., Hudek-Kene-evi, J., Huffcutt, A., Jaafar, J., Jankauskaite, M., Kabangu-Stahel, H., Kardum, I., Khoury, B., Kwon, H., Laidra, K., Laireiter, A., Lakerveld, D., Lampart, A., Lauri, M., Lavallée, M., Lee, S., Leung, L.C., Locke, K. D., Locke, V., Luksik, I., Magaisa, I., Marcinkeviciene, J., Mata, A., Mata, R., McCarthy, B., Mills, M. E., Mkhize, N. J., Moreira, J., Moreira, S., Moya, M., Munyea, M., Noller, P., Olimat, H., Opre, A., Panayiotou, A., Petrovic, N., Poels, K., Popper, M., Poulimenou, M., P'yatokha, V., Raymond, M., Reips, U., Reneau, S. E., Rivera-Aragon, S., Rowatt, W. C., Ruch, W., Rus, V. S., Safir, M. P., Salas, S., Sambataro, F., Sandnabba, K. N., Schleeter, R., Schulmeyer, M. K., Schütz, A., Scrimali, T., Shackelford, T. K., Sharan, M. B., Shaver, P. R., Sichona, F., Simonetti, F., Sineshaw, T., Sookdew, R., Speelman, T., Sümer, H. C., Sümer, N., Supekova, M., Szlendak, T., Taylor, R., Timmermans, B., Tooke, W., Tsaousis, I., Tungaraza, F. S. K., Turner, A., Vandermassen, G., Vanhoomissen, T., Van Overwalle, F., Van Wesenbeek, I., Vasey, P. L., Verissimo, J., Voracek, M., Wan, W. W. N., Wang, T., Weiss, P., Wijaya, A., Woertment, L., Youn, G. & Zupanèiè, A. (2003a) Are men universally more dismissing than women? Gender differences in romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions. Personal Relationships 10:307–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schmitt, D. P., Alcalay, L., Allensworth, M., Allik, J., Ault, L., Austers, I., et al. Bennett, K. L., Bianchi, G., Boholst, F., Borg Cunen, M. A., Braeckman, J., Brainerd, E. G. Jr., Caral, L. G. A., Caron, G., Casullo, M. M., Cunningham, M., Daibo, I., De Backer, C., De Souza, E., Diaz-Loving, R., Diniz, G., Durkin, K., Echegaray, M., Eremsoy, E., Euler, H. A., Falzon, R., Fisher, M. L., Foley, D., Fowler, R., Fry, D. P., Fry, S., Ghayur, M. A., Giri, V. N., Golden, D. L., Grammer, K., Grimaldi, L., Halbertandt, J., Haque, S., Herrera, D., Hertel, J., Hitchell, A., Hoffmann, H., Hooper, D., Hradilekova, Z., Hudek-Kene-Evi, J., Huffcutt, A., Jaafar, J., Jankauskaite, M., Kabangu-Stahel, H., Kardum, I., Khoury, B., Kwon, H., Laidra, K., Laireiter, A., Lakerveld, D., Lampert, A., Lauri, M., Lavallée, M., Lee, S., Leung, L. C., Locke, K. D., Locke, V., Luksik, I., Magaisa, I., Marcinkeviciene, D., Mata, A., Mata, R., McCarthy, B., Mills, M. E., Mkhize, N. J:, Moreira, J., Moreira, S., Moya, M., Munyae, M., Noller, P., Olimat, H., Opre, A., Panayiotou, A., Petrovic, N., Poels, K., Popper, M., Poulimenou, ., P'Yatokha, V., Raymond, M., Reips, U., Reneau, S., Rivera-Aragon, S., Rowatt, W. C., Ruch, W., Rus, V. S., Safir, M. P., Salas, S., Sambataro, F., Sandnabba, K. N., Schleeter, R., Schulmeyer, M. K., Schütz, A., Scrimali, T., Shackelford, T. K., Sharan, M. B., Shaver, P. R., Sichona, F., Simonetti, F., Sineshaw, T., Sookdew, R., Speelman, T., Spyrou, S., Sümer, H. C., Sümer, N., Supekova, M., Szlendak, T., Taylor, R., Timmermans, B., Tooke, W., Tsaousis, I., Tungaraza, F. S. K., Turner, A., Vandermassen, G., Vanhoomissen, T., van Overwalle, F., Vanwesenbeeck, I., vasey, P. L., Verissimo, J., Voracek, M., Wan, W. W. N., Wang, T., Weiss, P., Wijaya, A., Woertman, L., Youn, G., Zupanèiè, A. (2004) Patterns and universals of adult romantic attachment across 62 cultural regions. Are models of self and others pancultural constructs? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 35:367402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, J. P., Lindley, L.D. & Buboltz, W. C. Jr. (2007) Adult attachment orientations: Relation to affiliation motivation. Counselling Psychology Quarterly 20:253–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simpson, J. A. & Gangestad, S. W. (1991) Individual differences in sociosexuality: Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 60:870–83.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simpson, J. A. & Rholes, W. S. (2002) Fearful-avoidance, disorganization, and multiple working models: Some directions for future theory and research. Attachment and Human Development 4:223–29.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Simpson, J. A., Wilson, C. L. & Winterheld, H. A. (2004) Sociosexuality and romantic relationships. In: The handbook of sexuality in close relationships, ed. Harvey, J. H., Wenzel, A. & Sprecher, S.. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Tither, J. M. & Ellis, B. J. (2008) Impact of fathers on daughters' age at menarche: A genetically- and environmentally-controlled sibling study. Developmental Psychology 44:1409–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Toth, I., Szollosi, A., Danis, I., Green, J. & Gervai, J. (2006) Changes of attachment to the mother from infancy to childhood: Girls are less at risk? Infant Mental Health Journal 27:343.Google Scholar
Townsend, J. M. (1995) Sex without emotional involvement: An evolutionary interpretation of sex differences. Archives of Sexual Behavior 24:173–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Townsend, J. M. (2005) Sex, sex differences, and the new polygyny. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28:295–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tracy, J. L., Shaver, P. R., Albino, A. W. & Cooper, M. L. (2003) Attachment styles and adolescent sexuality. In: Adolescent romance and sexual behavior: Theory, research, and practical implications, ed. Florsheim, P.. Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Trivers, R. L. (1972) Parental investment and sexual selection. In: Sexual selection and the descent of man 1871–1971, ed. Campbell, B., pp. 136–79. Aldine.Google Scholar
True, M. M. (1994) Mother-infant attachment and communication among the Dogon of Mali. Unpublished doctoral thesis. University of California at Berkeley.Google Scholar
Turkheimer, E. (2004) Spinach and ice cream: Why social science is so difficult. In: Behavior genetics principles: Perspectives in development, personality, and psychopathology, ed. DiLalla, L. F.. American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
Van IJzendoorn, M. H. & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2006) DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism moderates the association between maternal unresolved loss or trauma and infant disorganization. Attachment and Human Development 8:291307.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vitzthum, V. J. (2008) Evolutionary models of women's reproductive functioning. Annual Review of Anthropology. 37:5373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, C., Christenson, P. & Swerdloff, R. (2007) Clinical relevance of racial and ethnic differences in sex steroids. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92:2433–35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, E., Ding, Y. C., Flodman, P., Kidd, J. R., Kidd, K. K., Grady, D. L., Ryder, O. A., Spence, M. A., Swanson, J. M. & Moyzis, R. K. (2004) The genetic architecture of selection at the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene locus. American Journal of Human Genetics 74:931–44.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wasser, S. K. & Barash, D. P. (1983) Reproductive suppression among female mammals: Implications for biomedicine and sexual selection theory. The Quarterly Review of Biology 58:513–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wasser, S. K. & Place, N. J. (2001) Reproductive filtering and the social environment. In: Reproductive ecology and human evolution, ed. Ellison, P., pp. 137–57. Aldine De Gruyter.Google Scholar
Watson, D., Klohnen, E. C., Casillas, A., Simms, E. N., Haig, J. & Berry, D. S. (2004) Match makers and deal breakers: Analyses of assortative mating in newlywed couples. Journal of Personality 72:1029–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
West-Eberhard, M. J. (2003) Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, E. O. (1998) Consilience: The unity of knowledge. Knopf.Google Scholar
Zak, P. J., Kurzban, R. & Matzner, W. T. (2005) Oxytocin is associated with human trustworthiness. Hormones and Behavior 48:522–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed